World-class Performance
Through Expanded Awareness
Harald S. Harung, Ph.D.
Maharishi University of Management,
USA and Osl...
Overview
Unified Theory of Performance:
1. Higher mind-brain development is the basis of
higher performance in any profess...
Four dimensions of
Unified Theory of Performance
1. Brain integration
2. Psychological development
3. Frequency of peak ex...
PERFORMANCE
PSYCHOLOGIAL
DEVELOPMENT
BRAIN
INTEGRATION
PEAK
EXPERIENCES
THE COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN WHICH THE PERFORME...
Performance Capacity
Mind-brain development
Unified Theory of Performance
07/06/13 5
Our Research on
World-class Performers
Four studies comparing world-class performers
to average performers:
 Top-level ma...
The Performeasure® Assessment
Assesses a person’s performance capacity:
1. Brain Integration Scale
• Holistic measure of t...
1. Brain Integration Scale
07/06/13 8
Frontal Coherence
Cortical Preparatory
Response
Alpha/Gamma
Ratio
Cortical
Preparato...
2. Moral Reasoning
1. Larger context for making sound decisions
2. Considering the impact of actions on others,
society, a...
Psychological Development I
• From follower to leader
• From resistance to innovation
• From dependence to greater autonom...
Psychological Development II
• From mistrust to trust
• From narrow craft perspective to more
holistic comprehension
• Fro...
Psychological Development III
• From extrinsic motivation (winning, money,
power, and fame)
• To intrinsic motivation (com...
Mature Psychology in Peak Performers
• Strong mind
• Focus on positive
• Reliable intuition
• Taking responsibility for ow...
3. Peak Experiences
• Most happy and fulfilling moments in life
• Often associated with optimal performance
07/06/13 14
Peak Experiences are Common
• We tested close to 200 people
• 84% reported at least one peak
experience
• Abraham Maslow f...
Strong Mind and Success
“The basis of my success is not physical
capabilities that I am born with – compared to
others I d...
Thinking During Peak Experiences
“A feeling that thoughts float, find their own
ways, and I let them float. I have experie...
Peak Experience in Business
“It seems to me that I often have luck in
business, when buying a property or
something. It of...
Peak Experiences in Sports I
• “I always am where the ball falls down. The
right place at the right time.”
• “It is a game...
Peak Experiences in Sports II
“When I have this extreme alertness, the body
reacts automatically – everything goes by itse...
Peak Experiences in Music
“...as if my inner expands to include the activity
of the whole orchestra and even the audience....
Sense of Invincibility
“I feel invincible when this community mood is
there.”
──World-class team player (handball)
“When e...
Action During Peak Experiences I
• Bliss and inner fulfillment
• Sense of invincibility
• Spontaneous right action
• Perfe...
Action During Peak Experiences II
• Undivided focus – ”the tunnel”
• Greatly expanded awareness - wholeness
• No inner and...
Action During Peak Experiences III
• No wear and tear on mind and body
• Generalized world-class performance:
• Continuous...
07/06/13 26
Composite Index Preferable
• A composite index increases likelihood of
better prediction
• For increased validity, the ind...
Other Factors Explaining
Performance at Work? I
• Education and training
– Important task knowledge
– Number of years of e...
Other Factors Explaining
Performance at Work? II
• Practice
– Needed to master specific skills
– Many don’t improve with p...
Other Factors Explaining
Performance at Work? III
• Physical exercise
–Creates well-being and good health and may
also lea...
What Explains
Performance at Work? IV
• General intelligence plus integrity
–Explains 42% of performance
• Part of psychol...
Unified Theory of
Performance Supported
• Therefore, factors other than mind-brain
development do not explain substantial
...
Unified Theory of Leadership
• Applying the Unified Theory of Performance
to leadership:
• Higher mind-brain development
i...
Effective Leadership in
Mature Psychology
• Collaboration
• Trust
• Long-term perspective
• Holistic comprehension
• Probl...
Invincible Leadership During
Lasting Peak Experiences
• Spontaneous right action
• No obstacles
• Bliss
• Sense of invinci...
Triggering Peak Experiences
• Frequent peak experiences significantly improve
mind-brain development, performance & health...
How to Achieve Excellence
Transform the performer to transform
performance and improve health:
Transcendental Meditation (...
07/06/13 38Travis et al, 2009
p < .001
American University College Students
(random assignment to groups)
Brain Integratio...
07/06/13 39
07/06/13 40
07/06/13 41
American Heart Association
• Randomized controlled trial over 5 years
• Collaboration with the American Heart
Association
...
Summing Up
• Mind-brain development is the most
important factor in improving level of
performance
• Mind-brain developmen...
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World-class Performance through Expanded Awareness

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Harold Harung, Ph.D.
Visiting Professor at Maharishi University of Management
Researcher and consultant on human performance development

PhD, University of Manchester

Dr. Harald S. Harung teaches management, ethics, and world-class performance to classes of up to 500 students at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (17,000 students) in Norway and is a visiting professor at Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, Iowa, USA. He has for more than 30 years been working as a researcher and consultant within human performance development, both on an individual and organizational level. Dr. Harung has lectured worldwide and his research on world-class performers has received support from both public institutions and private companies. Participants and collaborators in his seminars include such companies as Manpower, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Amoco, Den Norske Bank, Ericsson, Norsk Hydro, Santa Maria, Telenor, Toyota, and Xerox. He has worked with or lectured to organizations such as Academy of Management, European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, Finnish Marketing Association, Indian Institute of Management, Olympiatoppen (Norwegian National Olympic Training Centre), University of Wales at Aberystwyth, and World Productivity Congress, Stockholm, Scotland, and Turkey.
Dr. Harung holds a Ph.D. from University of Manchester. He has worked as a researcher at Oxford University, naval officer, CEO of a engineering firm, and founder and president of an international business college, and has been one of the editors of The Learning Organization—An International Journal. Dr. Harung has published papers in such journals as Journal of Managerial Psychology, Cognitive Processing, Consciousness and Cognition, Management Decision, and Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. His book Invincible Leadership was published in USA (MUM Press) and in The Check Republic (Euromedia).

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  • E23. Increased Self-Actualization Statistical meta-analysis of all available research (42 independent study results) indicated that practice of Maharishi ’s Transcendental Meditation Programme increased self-actualization by about three times as much as procedures of contemplation, concentration, or other techniques. Reference: Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6: 189–248, 1991.
  • E25. Greater Moral Maturity University students who were practising Maharishi ’s Transcendental Meditation Programme showed significantly higher levels of moral maturity in comparison to control students who were not participating in the programme. Controls who were about to learn the practice displayed the same level of moral maturity as those who were not planning to learn, indicating that the observed difference among the Transcendental Meditation participants was due to changes after learning the practice. Reference: Dissertation Abstracts International 36(7): 4361A, 1976.
  • World-class Performance through Expanded Awareness

    1. 1. World-class Performance Through Expanded Awareness Harald S. Harung, Ph.D. Maharishi University of Management, USA and Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Norway 07/06/13 1
    2. 2. Overview Unified Theory of Performance: 1. Higher mind-brain development is the basis of higher performance in any profession and field of activity 2. It is easy to achieve mind-brain development in practice 07/06/13 2
    3. 3. Four dimensions of Unified Theory of Performance 1. Brain integration 2. Psychological development 3. Frequency of peak experiences 4. Average mind-brain development of collective consciousness where the person operates 07/06/13 3
    4. 4. PERFORMANCE PSYCHOLOGIAL DEVELOPMENT BRAIN INTEGRATION PEAK EXPERIENCES THE COLLECTIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN WHICH THE PERFORMER OPERATES THE PERFORMER’S MIND-BRAIN DEVELOPMENT 07/06/13 4 Four dimensions of Unified Theory of Performance
    5. 5. Performance Capacity Mind-brain development Unified Theory of Performance 07/06/13 5
    6. 6. Our Research on World-class Performers Four studies comparing world-class performers to average performers:  Top-level managers  World-class athletes  Professional classical musicians  World-class professionals  Management, administration, sports, education etc. 07/06/13 6
    7. 7. The Performeasure® Assessment Assesses a person’s performance capacity: 1. Brain Integration Scale • Holistic measure of the level of coherence, restful alertness, and efficiency of brain functioning 2. Moral reasoning • Part of psychological development 3. Peak Experience survey The Performeasure® Assessment is a registered Trademark of Brain Integration Systems LLC, Fairfield, Iowa, USA. 07/06/13 7
    8. 8. 1. Brain Integration Scale 07/06/13 8 Frontal Coherence Cortical Preparatory Response Alpha/Gamma Ratio Cortical Preparatory Response
    9. 9. 2. Moral Reasoning 1. Larger context for making sound decisions 2. Considering the impact of actions on others, society, and environment, rather than merely on one’s own individual needs 07/06/13 9
    10. 10. Psychological Development I • From follower to leader • From resistance to innovation • From dependence to greater autonomy • From control to collaboration • From win-lose to win-win interpersonal strategies 07/06/13 10
    11. 11. Psychological Development II • From mistrust to trust • From narrow craft perspective to more holistic comprehension • From short-term to long-term perspective • From reactive to proactive and preventive 07/06/13 11
    12. 12. Psychological Development III • From extrinsic motivation (winning, money, power, and fame) • To intrinsic motivation (competing against self, searching for meaning, happiness) • World-class performance in narrow domain, e.g., running 800m or playing an instrument 07/06/13 12
    13. 13. Mature Psychology in Peak Performers • Strong mind • Focus on positive • Reliable intuition • Taking responsibility for own life • Facing reality 07/06/13 13
    14. 14. 3. Peak Experiences • Most happy and fulfilling moments in life • Often associated with optimal performance 07/06/13 14
    15. 15. Peak Experiences are Common • We tested close to 200 people • 84% reported at least one peak experience • Abraham Maslow found that almost everyone has such experiences 07/06/13 15
    16. 16. Strong Mind and Success “The basis of my success is not physical capabilities that I am born with – compared to others I don’t have a bigger heart, or bigger lungs, or more enduring muscles. In contrast, the basis of my success is the way of thinking – so that one always manages to do the right things in the right way at the right time.” – Thomas Alsgaard, Norway, 11 gold medals in Olympic Games and World Championships in cross-country skiing 07/06/13 16
    17. 17. Thinking During Peak Experiences “A feeling that thoughts float, find their own ways, and I let them float. I have experienced that in such situations formerly unthought-of solutions or alternatives pop up. Also ‘warning lamps’ have popped up in such situations, warnings that later have proven to be very correct.” – Norwegian Top-level Manager 07/06/13 17
    18. 18. Peak Experience in Business “It seems to me that I often have luck in business, when buying a property or something. It often turns out that those business [ideas] that did not come through would not have been so smart, even though I would have done it, if not something outside my control had come in the way.” – Top-level Manager 07/06/13 18
    19. 19. Peak Experiences in Sports I • “I always am where the ball falls down. The right place at the right time.” • “It is a game. Sport is play. The day it becomes serious, then you are done. This is what differentiates the very best from the next best.” ──World-class athletes 07/06/13 19
    20. 20. Peak Experiences in Sports II “When I have this extreme alertness, the body reacts automatically – everything goes by itself. It goes by intuition.” ──World-class athlete 07/06/13 20
    21. 21. Peak Experiences in Music “...as if my inner expands to include the activity of the whole orchestra and even the audience.” ──Professional musician 07/06/13 21
    22. 22. Sense of Invincibility “I feel invincible when this community mood is there.” ──World-class team player (handball) “When everything is at the very highest level, then I feel invincible. The up hills are not long enough nor steep enough; extremely good sensation” ──World-class cross-country skier 07/06/13 22
    23. 23. Action During Peak Experiences I • Bliss and inner fulfillment • Sense of invincibility • Spontaneous right action • Perfection • Inner calmness 07/06/13 23
    24. 24. Action During Peak Experiences II • Undivided focus – ”the tunnel” • Greatly expanded awareness - wholeness • No inner and outer resistance or obstacles • Effortlessness 07/06/13 24
    25. 25. Action During Peak Experiences III • No wear and tear on mind and body • Generalized world-class performance: • Continuous • Wide range of activities 07/06/13 25
    26. 26. 07/06/13 26
    27. 27. Composite Index Preferable • A composite index increases likelihood of better prediction • For increased validity, the index also includes an objective measure: brain integration 07/06/13 27
    28. 28. Other Factors Explaining Performance at Work? I • Education and training – Important task knowledge – Number of years of education explains only 1% of performance level • Age – No correlation with performance • Work experience – Explains only 3% of performance 07/06/13 28
    29. 29. Other Factors Explaining Performance at Work? II • Practice – Needed to master specific skills – Many don’t improve with practice – We learn faster and more with higher development • Inborn traits: Talent, family, and socioeconomic background – Talent provides a good start, but its importance is overrated 07/06/13 29
    30. 30. Other Factors Explaining Performance at Work? III • Physical exercise –Creates well-being and good health and may also lead to some mind-brain development • Affirmation and positive thinking –Works only for those who already have higher growth 07/06/13 30
    31. 31. What Explains Performance at Work? IV • General intelligence plus integrity –Explains 42% of performance • Part of psychological development –Included in our unified theory of performance • Mind-brain development usually “freezes” in early twenties 07/06/13 31
    32. 32. Unified Theory of Performance Supported • Therefore, factors other than mind-brain development do not explain substantial increases in performance level • Fortunately, everyone has potential for extensive mind-brain development 07/06/13 32
    33. 33. Unified Theory of Leadership • Applying the Unified Theory of Performance to leadership: • Higher mind-brain development is the basis of successful leadership in any organization 07/06/13 33
    34. 34. Effective Leadership in Mature Psychology • Collaboration • Trust • Long-term perspective • Holistic comprehension • Problem prevention • Win-Win solutions 07/06/13 34
    35. 35. Invincible Leadership During Lasting Peak Experiences • Spontaneous right action • No obstacles • Bliss • Sense of invincibility • Excellence in leadership 07/06/13 35
    36. 36. Triggering Peak Experiences • Frequent peak experiences significantly improve mind-brain development, performance & health • Peak experiences are spontaneous • Even world-class performers with many peak experiences do not know how to bring them forth 07/06/13 36
    37. 37. How to Achieve Excellence Transform the performer to transform performance and improve health: Transcendental Meditation (TM) is a systematic technique for mind-brain development and triggering peak experiences 07/06/13 37
    38. 38. 07/06/13 38Travis et al, 2009 p < .001 American University College Students (random assignment to groups) Brain Integration during tasks (3-mon TM)
    39. 39. 07/06/13 39
    40. 40. 07/06/13 40
    41. 41. 07/06/13 41
    42. 42. American Heart Association • Randomized controlled trial over 5 years • Collaboration with the American Heart Association • Those who practiced TM regularly were 66% less likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or die from all causes 07/06/13 42
    43. 43. Summing Up • Mind-brain development is the most important factor in improving level of performance • Mind-brain development normally stops during early twenties • Mind-brain development can be systematically brought about by the practice of TM 07/06/13 43

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