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  1. 1. Virtualization Assessment Matt Behrens Information Technology Enterprise Department of Administrative Services State of Iowa [email_address] (515)281-5481
  2. 2. Strategy for web hosting <ul><li>Reduce costs by consolidating services onto the fewest number of physical machines </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tactics <ul><li>Consolidate shared environments (WebSphere, PHP, HTML, ASP) onto fewer boxes configured with one OS each. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Still a large number of physical servers to support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigate options for virtualization to consolidate Windows and Linux hosting offerings onto one or two machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate options for virtualization to lower costs for “co-location” services for customers. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Virtualization Defined <ul><li>Virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of resources across many aspects of computing </li></ul><ul><li>For our purposes - One physical machine to support multiple virtual machines that run in parallel. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem Assessment – Why Virtualization? <ul><li>Too many servers for too little work </li></ul><ul><li>Aging hardware reaching end of usable life </li></ul><ul><li>High infrastructure requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Limited flexibility in shared environments </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problem Assessment <ul><li>Low utilization metrics in servers across the organization… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Problem Assessment <ul><li>High costs and infrastructure needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Problem Assessment <ul><li>Heterogeneous Environments </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research into Virtualization at ITE <ul><li>Reduce the number of physical machines </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate environments but share hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Make better use of existing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualize Network and SAN interfaces to reduce infrastructure needs </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately save on maintenance and leases </li></ul><ul><li>More options available today than ever before… </li></ul>
  10. 10. More Software Options <ul><li>Wide array of virtualization products now available in the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships with Operating System vendors (i.e. SuSE, RedHat, Sun) yield tighter integration and better performance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. More Hardware Options <ul><li>Larger Intel/AMD machines with more CPU and memory </li></ul><ul><li>16, 32, 64-way Intel machines now available with up to 1 TB RAM </li></ul><ul><li>X86 Hardware Virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel VT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMD Pacifica </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Virtualization Scenarios <ul><li>Hardware Virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>Software Virtualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Para-Virtualization </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Core Technology <ul><li>The Hypervisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computing layer which allows multiple operating systems to run on a host computer at the same time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally developed in the 1970s as part of the IBM S/360 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many modern day variants from different developers </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Hypervisor <ul><li>Conceptual diagram of typical server configuration without virtualization </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Hypervisor <ul><li>The role of the Hypervisor in supporting Guest Operating Systems on a single machine. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Hardware Virtualization (example) <ul><li>IBM pSeries Servers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Software Virtualization (example) <ul><li>VMware Server (GSX) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Marketplace Offerings <ul><li>Freely Available </li></ul><ul><li>OpenVZ (Open Source) </li></ul><ul><li>VMWare Server (GSX) </li></ul><ul><li>Xen 3.0 (Open Source) </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Virtuozzo </li></ul><ul><li>VMWare ESX </li></ul><ul><li>Xen Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Virtual Server </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Iron </li></ul>
  19. 19. OpenVZ <ul><li>Maintained by SWsoft, Inc ( </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch from their commercial Virtuozzo product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supports 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Linux only, Open Source Product </li></ul><ul><li>$ - Free </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 20. VMWare Server (formerly GSX) <ul><li>Maintained by VMWare ( ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Est. 1999 - More mature than many competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supports 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Some limitations for clustering and HA imposed by vendor </li></ul><ul><li>Windows and Linux Host/Guest OS Support </li></ul><ul><li>$ - Free </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul>
  21. 21. Xen 3.0 <ul><li>Available from Xen Source ( http:// ) </li></ul><ul><li>In association with University of Cambridge ( http:// / ) </li></ul><ul><li>Support for 64-Bit and 32-way machines </li></ul><ul><li>Supports IntelVT </li></ul><ul><li>Linux support only, Windows expected later this year </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source Product – One of the most actively maintained projects in the open source community </li></ul><ul><li>$ - Free </li></ul>
  22. 22. VMWare ESX Server <ul><li>Maintained by VMWare ( ) </li></ul><ul><li>Supports 64-Bit Guest Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced clustering and high availability features </li></ul><ul><li>Windows and Linux Guest OS Support </li></ul><ul><li>Advance management tools </li></ul><ul><li>Low-overhead Hypervisor base installation </li></ul><ul><li>Packages ranging from $10-$25k and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>http:// / </li></ul>
  23. 23. Virtual Server Enterprise Edition <ul><li>By Microsoft </li></ul><ul><li>Support for 64-bit and 32-way machines </li></ul><ul><li>Linux and Windows support for Guest OS’s </li></ul><ul><li>$ - Licensing varies. One listing found for $594.29 - $1,069.58 , not including extra Windows licenses for Guest OS’s </li></ul>
  24. 24. Next Steps at ITE <ul><li>Complete testing and functionality assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Finalize architecture plans </li></ul><ul><li>Proceed with recommendations for implementation </li></ul>
  25. 25. ITE Web Services Test Plan <ul><li>Installation and configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenVZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VMWare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To date, we have installations running OpenVZ and Xen for testing purposes </li></ul>
  26. 26. ITE Web Services Test Plan <ul><li>Ability to start/stop partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to copy and replicate partitions </li></ul><ul><li>Assess functionality of required software installations (Apache, JBoss, PHP, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Performance testing – hdparm, Apache JMeter, etc </li></ul>
  27. 27. Current Architecture
  28. 28. Virtualized Architecture
  29. 29. Issues and concerns <ul><li>Supportability of Microsoft Server products running as Guest Operating Systems on a non-certified virtualization engine. </li></ul><ul><li>Managing load on virtualized systems can be more art than science. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Virtualization Assessment Matt Behrens Information Technology Enterprise Department of Administrative Services State of Iowa [email_address] (515)281-5481