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Video game, violence and dementia


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Presented at Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand by Dr Jim Ang from the University of Kent, UK

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Video game, violence and dementia

  1. 1. Video game, violence and dementia Jim Ang University of Kent 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. Canterbury
  4. 4. School of Engineering and Digital Arts University of Kent
  5. 5. University of Kent
  6. 6. 7 Canterbury: 40,000 Chiang Rai: 70,000
  7. 7. Kent’s Engineering and Digital Arts • A coherent and distinctive blend of technology and design expertise • Dedication to “advancing technology for humanity”, centred around social and environmental sustainability • Addressing the increasing more complex challenges facing humanity (including healthcare) through multidisciplinary approach • involving experts from diverse fields such as health, bioscience, psychology, sociology, and (digital) arts 8
  8. 8. About me • Video game enthusiast • Email junky • Senior lecturer in multimedia and digital systems • Backgrounds in computer science specialising in human computer interaction • Recent research focus has been in digital health focusing on mental health 9
  9. 9. Intelligent Interactions Group • Intelligent Interactions Group: all aspects of information engineering, multimedia systems and human-machine interactions 10 Computer vision Pattern recognition Human-computer interaction Ubiquitous computing
  10. 10. 11
  11. 11. 70s 80s 90s 12
  12. 12. On 1 Dec. 1997, 14-year-old Michael Carneal shot to death three students in Heath High School. The parents of the victims sued multiple organisations, including game companies. The lawsuit contends that Michael was influenced by several violent games: Doom, Quake, and Mortal Kombat. 13
  13. 13. Do video games cause violence? 14
  14. 14. 15
  15. 15. Video games coming of age GPU Sensors VR/AR Design principles 16
  16. 16. Let’s gamify it! 17
  17. 17. Bulimia • Incidences of Eating Disorders are occurring at alarming rates among younger women • The average cost of treating a patient is estimated at £8,850 per annum • At risk individuals are usually reluctant to engage in treatment due to stigma and anxiety of dealing with body image issues 18
  18. 18. Multi-User VR remote psychotherapy 19
  19. 19. Multi-User VR remote psychotherapy • 14 females deemed at high risk for Eating Disorders, with an average age of 20 years participated in the study. • We found a significant reduction in the scores on troubling thoughts about weight and body image after the VR Psychotherapy. • Two months follow up analysis showed that patients with Eating Disorders diagnosis benefited from the program. 20
  20. 20. “I felt uncomfortable in front of the VR Mirror. Trying to create yourself – not who you want to be but who you really are is not just uncomfortable, is miserable…” “However, I really – really liked it. It was a great experience and it helped me a lot, it helped me to understand several things about myself and my body and all the concerns I have. I enjoyed it and it made me think, it made me think a lot… “ [p12] Mirror Exposure Therapy 21
  21. 21. Exercise pain • Exercise is essential in helping to maintain a healthy way of living • But intense or prolonged exercise can cause discomfort and pain • What if pain perception could be offset during exercise? Can this lead to increased willingness to increase exercise intensity? 22
  22. 22. Exercise pain • We ran a study trying to answer this question: can VR be designed to “trick” people’s into exercising more and experience less pain? • 30 participants were recruited to go through some basic weight lifting training with a VR headset 23
  23. 23. VR Exercise • We used a smart wristband to track the movement of their physical hand, so that the virtual hand moved according to their physical hand • The trick: the visual weight as presented in the VR, understated or overstated the real weight by 50%. The real weight that was actually lifted remained the same 24
  24. 24. • We found that this VR trick appeared to be effective! 25 Overall our participants lasted approximately two minutes longer during the understate session During the understate session, the participants’ heart rate was significantly lower by 5-7 bpm, than during the control and overstate session During the understate session, the mean rate of pain intensity in the first minute was approximately 50%, lower than the control and overstate sessions
  25. 25. Dysphagia • a swallowing disorder, refers to difficulty or impossibility in swallowing food or liquid • Exercise-based rehabilitation can serve as an effective method by restoring their independence and quality of life • However, trained clinicians are needed to monitor the exercise • Patient adherence to rehabilitation programmes is frequently low - often due to low motivation 26
  26. 26. Game control via swallowing using skin sensors 27
  27. 27. Game-based swallowing therapy 28
  28. 28. 29
  29. 29. Game based cognitive assessment • To explore if user-game interaction behaviour can be used to infer cognitive abilities • Focus on touch and device motions patterns • Employ existing mobile games on the market 30
  30. 30. 31 Game based cognitive assessment
  31. 31. 32 Game based cognitive assessment Swipe speed Cognitive performance Cognitive performanceSwipe length Cognitive performanceDegree of movement Tetris: A significant correlation between max score and visuospatial abilities suggests that high demands are placed on visuospatial. Fruit Ninja: Mean time to cut items was positively correlated with increases in visuospatial ability.
  32. 32. Aggression and dementia • Can VR be used to reduce challenging behaviour among people with dementia in secured psychiatry setting? • A pilot study: 24 participants were recruited (8 individuals with dementia and 16 caregivers) • A mobile based VR system was used to stream audial and visual 360 content 33
  33. 33. Aggression and dementia • Pleasure significantly differed between before, during and after VR exposure • Ratings of general alertness significantly differed between before, during and after VR exposure • We found no adverse effects in the form of fear/anxiety, sadness and anger, which differs from previous findings 34 “The patient at the beginning was verbally aggressive, swearing at the researchers […] asking them to leave the room, however when the caregiver demonstrated the VR, even though he was still verbally aggressive and unsettled, he was interested. When the patient was using the VR, he appeared to enjoy being in his own world. We were later told that this patient could become agitated easily, and yet surprisingly, he tolerated VR and used it for the maximum period.”[PWD7, Observations, 12 ]
  34. 34. What about the Heath High School case? • In 2002, the court ruled that it was “simply too far a leap from shooting characters on a video screen to shooting people in a classroom.” • Subsequent research has found little to no evidence that playing video games cause real world violent behaviour. 35
  35. 35. In fact, violent crime rates in the US dropped through the 90s and 2000s, the time period video games were becoming mainstream. 36
  36. 36. “young men are too busy playing video games, this keeps them off the streets and committing crimes” 37
  37. 37. Thanks! 38 Jim Ang Research programmes in Electronic Engineering or Digital Arts MSc by Research (1 year) PhD (3-4 years) Remote/online study mode possible