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Leadership
Presented by: Johny A. Prudencio
• Leaders are born and not made
• Great leaders will arise when there is a great need
• This idea also strayed into the my...
• People are either born or not born with
the qualities that predispose them to success in
leadership roles
• People are b...
Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as
critical to leaders.
Traits

Adaptable to situations
Alert t...
Leaders could succeed or ‘derail’(McCall and
Lombardo.1983)
• Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident
and predi...
• Leaders can be made, rather than are born
• Successful leadership is based in definable,
learnable behavior
• Leadership...
Role Theory
• People around are expecting a role from their
leaders
• Leaders must do their role as well as his/her
subord...
The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s)
High

Concern for
People

Country Club
management
Middle of the ...
• Several people deciding together make better
decisions than one person alone
• A Participative Leader, rather than takin...
• The best action of the leader depends on a range of
situational factors
• Factors that affect situational decisions incl...
Yukl (1989) seeks to combine other approaches and
identifies six variables:
• Subordinate effort: the motivation and actua...
Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified three
forces that led to the leader's action:
• The forces in the situation
• The...
• Jay Galbraith (1973) states that:
* there is no one best way to organize
* any way of organizing is not equally effectiv...
Some important contingencies for companies byJoan
Woodward (1958)

1. Technology
2. Suppliers and distributors
3. Consumer...
‘Contingency in a nutshell’ (Gareth Morgan Images of
Organization)
• Organizations are open systems that need careful
mana...
Three empirically derived dimensions (Fred Fiedler)
• The
• The
• The
• People are motivated by reward and punishment.
• Transactional leadership is based in contingency, in
that reward or pun...
• People will follow a person who inspires them.
• A person with vision and passion can achieve great
things.
• The way to...
•
•
•
•

Developing the vision
Selling the vision
Finding the way forwards
Leading the charge
Working for a Transformation...
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadership
Theories of leadership
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Theories of leadership

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Leadership

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Theories of leadership

  1. 1. Leadership Presented by: Johny A. Prudencio
  2. 2. • Leaders are born and not made • Great leaders will arise when there is a great need • This idea also strayed into the mythic domain (ex. Jesus, Moses, Mohammed and the Buddah, etc.) • Originally proposed by Thomas Carlyle • Patriarchal minded
  3. 3. • People are either born or not born with the qualities that predispose them to success in leadership roles • People are born with inherited traits • Some traits are particularly suited to leadership • People who make good leaders have the right (or sufficient) combination of traits
  4. 4. Stogdill (1974) identified the following traits and skills as critical to leaders. Traits Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement-orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Skills Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organised (administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled
  5. 5. Leaders could succeed or ‘derail’(McCall and Lombardo.1983) • Emotional stability and composure: Calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress. • Admitting error: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into covering up. • Good interpersonal skills: Able to communicate and persuade others without resort to negative or coercive tactics. • Intellectual breadth: Able to understand a wide range of areas, rather than having a narrow (and narrow-minded) area of expertise.
  6. 6. • Leaders can be made, rather than are born • Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behavior • Leadership’ capability can be learned, rather than being inherent • Role Theory • The Managerial Grid
  7. 7. Role Theory • People around are expecting a role from their leaders • Leaders must do their role as well as his/her subordinates • Role conflict can also occur when people have differing expectations of their leaders. It also happens when leaders have different ideas about what they should be doing vs. the expectations that are put upon them.
  8. 8. The Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton in the early 1960s) High Concern for People Country Club management Middle of the road management Medium Low Team management Impoverished management Low Authoritycompliance Medium High Concern for Production (Task)
  9. 9. • Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone • A Participative Leader, rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process < Not participative Autocratic decision by leader Leader proposes Team proposes decision, listens decision, leader to feedback, then has final decision decides Highly participative > Joint decision with team as equals Full delegation of decision to team
  10. 10. • The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors • Factors that affect situational decisions include motivation and capability of followers and relationship between the followers • Leaders here work on such factors as external relationships, acquisition of resources, managing demands on the group and managing the structures and culture of the group
  11. 11. Yukl (1989) seeks to combine other approaches and identifies six variables: • Subordinate effort: the motivation and actual effort expended. • Subordinate ability and role clarity: followers knowing what to do and how to do it. • Organization of the work: the structure of the work and utilization of resources. • Cooperation and cohesiveness: of the group in working together. • Resources and support: the availability of tools, materials, people, etc. • External coordination: the need to collaborate with other groups.
  12. 12. Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified three forces that led to the leader's action: • The forces in the situation • The forces in then follower and • The forces in the leader
  13. 13. • Jay Galbraith (1973) states that: * there is no one best way to organize * any way of organizing is not equally effective • the optimal course of action is contingent (dependent) upon the internal and external situation
  14. 14. Some important contingencies for companies byJoan Woodward (1958) 1. Technology 2. Suppliers and distributors 3. Consumer interest groups 4. Customers and competitors 5. Government 6. Unions
  15. 15. ‘Contingency in a nutshell’ (Gareth Morgan Images of Organization) • Organizations are open systems that need careful management to satisfy and balance internal needs and to adapt to environmental circumstances • There is no one best way of organizing. The appropriate form depends on the kind of task or environment one is dealing with. • Management must be concerned, above all else, with achieving alignments and good fits
  16. 16. Three empirically derived dimensions (Fred Fiedler) • The • The • The
  17. 17. • People are motivated by reward and punishment. • Transactional leadership is based in contingency, in that reward or punishment is contingent upon performance. • Transactional leader often uses management by exception • The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
  18. 18. • People will follow a person who inspires them. • A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. • The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. • Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a belief in themselves rather than a belief in others.
  19. 19. • • • • Developing the vision Selling the vision Finding the way forwards Leading the charge Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed.

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