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- 1. CHONDROCRANIUM FEATURES OF FROG LARVAE OF THE GENUS PHYSALAEMUS (Anura: Leiuperidae) AND THEIR RELATIVES Diogo B. Provete UNESP-São Paulo, Brazil Punta del Este July 2010
- 2. Introduction <ul><li>The Family Leiuperidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phylogenetic position, relationships, diagnosis </li></ul></ul>
- 3. Grant et al. 2006
- 4. Grant et al. 2006
- 5. Introduction <ul><li>The genus Physalaemus and other related genera </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eupemphix , Engystomops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleurodema , Pseudopaludicola , Edalorhina , Somuncuria </li></ul></ul>
- 6. McDiarmid & Altig, 1999
- 7. Engystomops Physalaemus Pseudopaludicola Edalorhina Pleurodema Eupemphix
- 8. Aim <ul><li>To make a character survey concerning chondrocrania of Physalaemus larvae in a way that allows it to be further included in the diagnosis of the genus </li></ul>
- 9. Material and Methods <ul><li>Species analyzed: Physalaemus jordanensis, P. olfersii, P. latestriga, P. barrioi, P. cuvieri, P. centralis, P. marmoratus, P. moreirae, P. henseli, P. riograndensis, P. atlanticus, P. gracilis , Eupemphix nattereri , Pseudopaludicola sp. (aff. falcipes ) </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the literature: Physalaemus fernandezae , P. santafecinus, P. cuqui , P. biligonigerus, Pleurodema tucumana, P. borellii </li></ul><ul><li>Clear and stained following Taylor & Van Dyke (1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Material anayzed: DZSJRP-Tadpoles, CFBH </li></ul>
- 10. Results P. santafecinus P. fernandezae Vera Candioti, 2007 Alcalde et al. , 2006
- 11. Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. cuqui P. biligonigerus
- 12. Results Fabrezi & Vera, 1997 P. tucumana P. borelli
- 13. Results P. moreirae
- 14. Results P. barrioi
- 15. Results P. jordanensis
- 16. Results P. centralis
- 17. Results P. marmoratus
- 18. Results P. olfersii
- 19. Results P. centralis
- 20. Results E. nattereri
- 21. Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Physalaemus : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) suprarostral bearing a V- or U-shaped corpora, which is dorsally connected to the alae, the alae always bear a precessus anterioris; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) basihyal absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) basibranchial with short processus urobranchial; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) processus anterior branchialis absent; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) cornua trabeculae long and uniformily wide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(6) The neurocranium usually longer than wide and depressed. </li></ul></ul>
- 22. Discussion <ul><li>General features of chondrocranium of Engystomops and Pleurodema : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the corpus of the suprarostral is fused ventrally to the alae; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The processus branchialis is only common in Pleurodema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Eupemphix larvae, this character is similar to the Physalaemus condition. </li></ul>
- 23. Discussion <ul><li>Comparison among leiuperid tadpoles </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison with Leptodactylus </li></ul><ul><li>Less variation => all pond-type tadpoles, differently from Leptodactylus </li></ul>
- 24. Larson & De Sá, 1998 Leptodactylus Carnivorous (e.g., L. pentadactylus ) Lentic-benthic (e.g., L. fuscus ) Nidicolous (e.g., L. gr. marmoratus ) Semiterrestrial Physalaemus Lentic-benthic
- 25. Conclusion <ul><li>Its utility in phylogenetic reconstruction => among genera and families </li></ul><ul><li>Leiuperidae=> chondrocranium => morphological synapomorphy </li></ul>
- 26. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Lilian Franco Belussi => photos, along with continuous support and suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Denise de C. Rossa-Feres => chemicals, work space, and access to collection </li></ul>Grant # 011/2010