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History Vault Black Freedom and NAACP Use Cases

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Black freedom struggle and NAACP Papers. Topics for research.

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History Vault Black Freedom and NAACP Use Cases

  1. 1. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) ProQuest History Vault Black Freedom Struggle and NAACP Papers Topics for Research
  2. 2. ProQuest Resources for Black Studies Researchers • The Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century and the Civil Rights movement is “continuously fascinating for students” and almost all universities offer a wide range of classes on this topic. In addition, the civil rights movement is a popular topic for Ph.D. students. • ProQuest offers an amazing combination of different resources that can be used by a wide students and researchers to complete common assignments or research topics on Black Freedom in the 20th Century. • ProQuest products that can be used to complete these assignments are: • ProQuest History Vault • Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records • Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Organizational Records and Personal Papers, Part 1 • Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Organizational Records and Personal Papers, Part 2 • Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records, Supplement • NAACP Papers: Board of Directors, Annual Conferences, Major Speeches, and National Staff Files • NAACP Papers: NAACP's Major Campaigns: Education, Voting, Housing, Employment, Armed Forces • NAACP Papers: NAACP's Major Campaigns: Scottsboro, Anti-Lynching, Criminal Justice, Peonage, Labor, and Segregation and Discrimination Complaints and Responses • NAACP Papers: NAACP's Major Campaigns: Legal Department Files • NAACP Papers: Special Subjects • NAACP Papers: Branch Department, Branch Files, and Youth Department Files • ProQuest Black Historical Newspapers • Chicago Defender • Atlanta Daily World (1931-2003) • Los Angeles Sentinel (1934-2005) • New York Amsterdam News (1922-1993) • Pittsburgh Courier (1911-2002) • Baltimore Afro-American (1893-1988) • Norfolk Journal & Guide (1921-2003) • Philadelphia Tribune (1912-2001) • Cleveland Call & Post (1934-1991) • ProQuest Black Studies Center • ProQuest Congressional • Alexander Street: Black Thought and Culture • Alexander Street: Black Studies in Video • Alexander Street: Black Women Writers • Alexander Street: Women and Social Movements
  3. 3. Examples of Courses for History Vault 3
  4. 4. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Research Topic #1 Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation 4
  5. 5. Researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation • Sixty-three years ago, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a Montgomery, Alabama, bus. Almost immediately after the arrest, Black residents of Montgomery sprang into action, organizing a bus boycott that began four days later on December 5, 1955. • The Montgomery community boycotted the buses for 381 days and provided a key spark to what became the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. The boycott also launched the career of Martin Luther King Jr. When the boycott began in December 1955, King was the newly hired minister at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, but the leaders of Montgomery selected King to lead the Montgomery Improvement Association, the organization created to guide the bus boycott. • Here are three approaches for students researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott with primary sources: • 1. The Boycott through the lens of FBI Agents • 2. The history of the NAACP in Montgomery, Alabama • 3. Discrimination in transportation
  6. 6. Researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation The Boycott through the Lens of FBI Agents • For students interested in doing original primary source research on the Montgomery Bus Boycott and related events, the documents in ProQuest History Vault provide many possibilities. One collection for studying the boycott is the FBI files on Montgomery, Alabama, in Centers of the Southern Struggle, included in Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records. Although the FBI reacted somewhat slowly in the early days of the bus boycott, by late December 1955 and into January 1956, the FBI devoted sustained attention to the Montgomery protest, providing frequent updates back to Washington on the course of the boycott. Following the conclusion of the boycott in December 1956, the FBI established a file on southern segregation. This file, included with the Montgomery materials in Centers of the Southern Struggle, offers information on major civil rights events in 1957 through 1959: the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom on May 17, 1957 (the third anniversary of the Brown v. Board of Education decision) and two Youth Marches for Integrated Schools in 1958 and 1959.
  7. 7. Researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation The History of the NAACP in Montgomery, Alabama • Rosa Parks and E. D. Nixon were two very important Montgomery leaders involved in the bus boycott. Parks and Nixon were also leaders of Montgomery’s NAACP branch; Nixon as president of the branch and Parks as branch secretary and adviser to the branch’s youth council. The important role of Nixon and Parks in the boycott suggests that another possible research topic related to the Montgomery Bus Boycott would be to trace the history of the NAACP in Montgomery, Alabama. The NAACP Papers collection in History Vault includes interesting documentation on the Montgomery NAACP branch from 1945-1955, the bus boycott, and white resistance to the boycott. Closely related to NAACP files on the Montgomery Bus Boycott are the files pertaining to the state of Alabama’s determined campaign to force the NAACP to cease operations in Alabama. This campaign is documented in the NAACP Legal Department files in the case files for NAACP v. Alabama and the related cases of NAACP v. Flowers, NAACP v. Gallion, NAACP v. Patterson, and NAACP v. State ex rel. Patterson.
  8. 8. Researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation Discrimination in Transportation • A third topic connected to the Montgomery Bus Boycott that a student might research is discrimination in transportation. For this topic, the NAACP Papers collection will be a good source. A subject search on “discrimination in transportation” in History Vault retrieves 818 results. 293 of these results come from the NAACP Papers and document a wide range of different episodes. The other major set of results comes from a collection in Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records. This collection, Civil Rights Movement and the Federal Government, Records of the Interstate Commerce Commission on Discrimination in Transportation, 1961-1970, consists of over 300 case files of informal complaints that the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) investigated and in many cases sought to remedy between 1961 and 1970. Several of these complaints come from well-known events such as the Freedom Rides or the movement in Albany, Georgia, but most of the cases come from individuals experiencing discrimination in separate incidents.
  9. 9. Researching the Montgomery Bus Boycott and Discrimination in Transportation • In addition to History Vault, ProQuest Historical Newspapers will provide researchers with documentation on all three topics: the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the NAACP in Montgomery, Alabama, and discrimination in transportation
  10. 10. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Research Topic #2 Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights 10
  11. 11. Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights • In this example, I am in a class on civil rights. I want to write a paper on voting rights. I can start my research in ProQuest’s ebook product. During this research, I see that a lot of civil rights organizations were involved in voting rights efforts. One of the books I look into is “The Ticket to Freedom” by Manfred Berg. Berg’s book chronicles the efforts of the NAACP to gain voting rights and participation in the political process from the early years of the NAACP in the 1910s into the 1970s. • Berg’s book is just one of hundreds in the ProQuest Ebook product I can consult to get more information on Black voting rights in the 20th century. • I can also use ProQuest Dissertations and Theses to investigate what other students have written about civil rights organizations and voting rights. • After I look at the state of the field in ProQuest dissertations and ebooks, my next step is to go to ProQuest’s rich collection of historical newspapers to see how important events in the history of voting rights have been reported on in both major national newspapers as well as important Black newspapers.
  12. 12. Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights • In 1963 the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, in conjunction with local Mississippi civil rights leaders, including Mississippi NAACP leaders Aaron Henry, coordinated an important effort to allow African Americans to vote in what was basically a mock election and was referred to as a 1963 freedom vote. As reported in the Washington Post, the goal of the freedom vote was to “dramatize the fact that African Americans in Mississippi were simply unable to vote. The Freedom vote was also covered in the Cleveland Call and Post, the Black newspaper from Cleveland, Ohio. The Call and Post article especially referred to the role of the Council of Federated Organizations and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the Freedom Vote campaign
  13. 13. Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights • From the newspapers on the previous slide, I now have an important perspective on one episode in the fight for voting rights, and I continue my research looking at Mississippi Freedom Summer, a dramatic moment in which Black Mississippians, again led by SNCC and COFO, attempted to register voters and challenge the regular Mississippi delegation to the Democratic National Convention. This time, I come across coverage of the Freedom Summer in the New York Times and the Baltimore Afro-American. The Afro-American has extensive coverage with basically the full front page devoted to articles relevant to Freedom Summer. • After Freedom Summer, I want to see how events continue to be reported in the nation’s newspapers so I can continue by looking at stories covering the Selma to Montgomery March and Bloody Sunday – two final catalysts in the push for voting legislation. I get results from many ProQuest Historical Newspapers, including the Chicago Defender and the New York Times.
  14. 14. Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights • After I complete this background research using ebooks, dissertations, and newspaper coverage, I might move on to primary source material in the form of archival and manuscript collections. In order to add this content to my research, I move to the many important archival collections in ProQuest History Vault. History Vault contains 10 products on the Black freedom Struggle in the 20th Century highlighted by the NAACP Papers collection as well as the records of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Congress of Racial Equality, and presidential, Department of Justice and FBI records on the civil rights movement. • I search on NAACP and I retrieve many exciting results showing the long campaign by the NAACP for voting rights. Here are four examples of the types of documents I will find in the NAACP collection. • The example here is a leaflet regarding NAACP voting rights efforts. This is just one example of the types of documents that I will find in the NAACP Papers collections and in History Vault more generally.
  15. 15. Civil Rights Organizations and Voting Rights And here are two additional documents, one from the NAACP and one from the FBI regarding voting rights. Again, these documents are illustrative of the types of primary sources materials that researchers will find in History Vault.
  16. 16. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Research Topic #3 African Americans in the U.S. Military in the 20th Century 16
  17. 17. Researching African Americans in the U.S. Military in the 20th Century • Throughout American history, the relationship of African Americans to the nation’s military has been a window into the status of race relations in the U.S. This topic can be effectively researched using records in ProQuest History Vault. • Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records includes Judge William Henry Hastie’s papers regarding his work on assisting African Americans in the military from the period of 1940-1943. • The documents chronicle Hastie's duties and daily interactions with African Americans attempting to overcome the systematic discrimination present in the government. The majority of Hastie's files contain personal correspondence from young African American men and their families seeking the opportunity to serve the government and assist the war effort. With the assistance of Truman K. Gibson and James C. Evans, Judge Hastie sought to provide young African American men with equal access to the military. • This collection contains a rich record of the personal struggles faced by African Americans.
  18. 18. Researching African Americans in the U.S. Military in the 20th Century • Another excellent collection in the Black Freedom Struggle in the 20th Century: Federal Government Records is the Records of the Tuskegee Airmen. This collection reveals the heroic combat record of the Tuskegee Airmen as well as the discrimination and segregation faced by these same soldiers in the United States. The collection consists of combat reports, correspondence, and reports on discrimination faced by African American military personnel and conditions at the Tuskegee Army Air Field.
  19. 19. Researching African Americans in the U.S. Military in the 20th Century • NAACP Papers contains a major series on discrimination in the armed forces. The files provide an extensive chronicle of the work of NAACP lawyers on behalf of black servicemen and women from 1918-1955. One of the major cases included in these files is that of the all-Black 24th Infantry, many of whose members were court-martialed in the aftermath of a riot in Houston, Texas, during World War I. The NAACP protested the convictions and pled for clemency for imprisoned members of the 24th throughout the early 1920s. The campaign on behalf of the battalion was one of the association's major legal redress efforts from 1918 into the mid-1920s. • Other files in the armed forces series contain extensive correspondence with NAACP veterans affairs secretary, Jesse O. Dedmon, and correspondence files with each of the branches of the U.S. military: the army, Army Air Corps, and navy. The case files range widely in depth. Some cases contain little more than a copy of the original complaint to the NAACP national office and a letter from the national legal department to an NAACP branch recommending that a local attorney be found to take up the matter. A second, and more common pattern of case files, includes original complaints and references with follow-up support from the national office to the local attorney.
  20. 20. Researching African Americans in the U.S. Military in the 20th Century • For other resources on African Americans in the Military, be sure to also check ProQuest Historical Black Newspapers and ProQuest Black Studies Center. • In 1942, the Pittsburgh Courier called for a campaign that they labeled the “Double V” for victory against fascism abroad and racial discrimination at home. A search on “Double V campaign” or “Double V” in the Pittsburgh Courier leads to thousands of results, while the other newspapers in ProQuest Historical Black Newspapers include other extensive coverage of World War II events. • Black Studies Center includes an essay by Chad Williams that summarizes the contributions of African Americans in the U.S. Military. The HistoryMakers, available as a standalone database and as a module of Black Studies Center, includes the life story, in video, of former Tuskegee Airman John Rogers, Sr. The two-hour interview covers Rogers’s childhood and education, his enlistment and training as a Tuskegee Airman, and his further work in the Air Force, flying more than 100 combat missions, as well as his later career as a juvenile court judge in Illinois for 21 years.
  21. 21. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Research Topic #4 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom of August 28, 1963 21
  22. 22. Researching the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom of August 28, 1963 • On August 28, 1963, an estimated 250,000 people participated in the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. During the march, from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, delivered his now famous “I have a dream” speech, a speech that 50 years later continues to be one of the most famous speeches in American History. • Researchers interested in the 1963 March on Washington can study the March using the collections in ProQuest History Vault. Several collections include extensive documentation on the March, including the Bayard Rustin Papers, A. Philip Randolph Papers, NAACP Papers, Records of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and the Martin Luther King Jr. FBI File. Source: NAACP Papers in ProQuest History Vault
  23. 23. Researching the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom of August 28, 1963 23 Students can analyze the language of the speeches at the March on Washington. A. Philip Randolph, Director of the March, and Whitney Young, of the National Urban League, also addressed the marchers from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. There were other speakers including John Lewis of SNCC, Roy Wilkins of the NAACP, and Martin Luther King Jr. of SCLC. The first pages of the speeches of A. Philip Randolph and Whitney Young are shown here: Source: NAACP Papers in ProQuest History Vault
  24. 24. Researching the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom of August 28, 1963 24 Students can study the careful planning required for the March. In recent years, Bayard Rustin has gained increasing recognition for his pivotal role as the organizer of the March. ProQuest History Vault includes the Bayard Rustin Papers. Within the Rustin Papers, a large file on the March on Washington contains extensive detail on the March, including the preparations for the March, the political issues surrounding the March, and the aftermath of the March. Source: Bayard Rustin Papers in ProQuest History Vault
  25. 25. Researching the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom of August 28, 1963 25 Another interesting topic would be reaction following the march. This could include world reaction to the march as reported by the U.S. Information Agency, or reaction by the various civil rights organizations, or the anniversaries that have been celebrated since the 1963 March such as the anniversaries in 1973 or 1983. Source: Records of the National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs in ProQuest History VaultSource: Bayard Rustin Papers in ProQuest History Vault
  26. 26. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Research Topic #5 NAACP Annual Conventions 1910-1972 26
  27. 27. NAACP Annual Conventions 27 NAACP Annual Conventions offer many research opportunities for students. The Annual Conventions served both as a major catalyst for attracting publicity and as an important avenue for grass roots participation (through branch delegations) in the affairs of the national organization. The conferences were held in a different city each year. Students can study the speeches or the resolutions at individual conventions or they can compare conventions in different years or over a span of multiple years. Studying the language used in speeches at the NAACP conventions is another interesting research topic.
  28. 28. (Edit and/or crop photo to align within this space) Other Research Topics 28
  29. 29. Other Research Topics 29 The previous slides show 5 possible research topics using ProQuest resources on the Black Freedom Movement, but there are literally hundreds of topics that students and researchers might study via these resources. Here below is a listing of 60 additional topics that students might pursue. This list is just meant to provide examples – there are many other possibilities! 1. African American workers during the era of the Great Migration 2. African Americans and organized labor 3. Albany, Georgia, civil rights demonstrations 4. American Committee on Africa organizational history 5. Biography of A. Philip Randolph 6. Biography of Bayard Rustin 7. Biography of Congressman Arthur W. Mitchell 8. Biography of Mary McLeod Bethune 9. Biography of Robert F. Williams 10. Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters organizational history 11. Civil rights during the Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan administrations 12. Civil rights organizations and the push for anti-lynching legislation 13. Compare the planning for the 1941 March on Washington and the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom 14. Congress of Racial Equality organizational history 15. Department of Justice’s Civil Rights Division
  30. 30. Other Research Topics 30 16. Discrimination in education and school desegregation in Southern states, or outside the South or compare across states or regions 17. Discrimination in employment 18. Discrimination in housing 19. Discrimination in public accommodations 20. Discrimination in the military 21. Discrimination in transportation 22. FBI Surveillance of the Black Panther Party 23. Federal Council on Negro Affairs, known as the Black Cabinet under Franklin D. Roosevelt 24. Freedom Budget proposal by A. Philip Randolph 25. St. Augustine, Florida, civil rights demonstrations 26. Impact of the New Deal on African Americans 27. John F. Kennedy and Civil Rights 28. League of Revolutionary Black Workers organizational history 29. Legal work of the Congress of Racial Equality’s Scholarship, Educational, and Defense Fund for Racial Equality 30. Lyndon B. Johnson and Civil Rights
  31. 31. Other Research Topics 31 31. NAACP and discrimination in the criminal justice system 32. NAACP and international affairs 33. NAACP and its relationship to the Black Power Movement 34. NAACP and Veterans Affairs 35. NAACP and voting rights 36. NAACP annual conventions, analyze annual convention resolutions 37. NAACP annual conventions, analyze the language used at speeches at NAACP conventions 38. NAACP Branch Department under the leadership of Gloster B. Current 39. NAACP Branches – compare two different branches in different states or compare multiple branches 40. NAACP Branches -- study of a single branch 41. NAACP Branches – study of branches in one state 42. NAACP campaign against the Birth of a Nation movie 43. NAACP education discrimination cases after Brown v. Board of Education 44. NAACP legal cases [NAACP Papers collection contains records from over 600 cases on a wide variety of topics] 45. NAACP legal strategy leading to Brown v. Board of Education
  32. 32. Other Research Topics 32 46. NAACP, women leaders at the national and regional level 47. NAACP, women leaders at the state and branch level 48. National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (Kerner Commission) 49. National Association of Colored Women’s Clubs organizational history 50. Peonage or forced labor 51. Police community relations in urban areas 52. President Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights 53. Relationship between American workers, labor unions, and the federal government 54. Revolutionary Action Movement organizational history 55. Scottsboro case 56. Selma to Montgomery March 57. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Mississippi 58. Southern Christian Leadership Conference organizational history 59. Tuskegee Airmen 60. White House Conference on Civil Rights

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