Low carb diet and cancer

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This presentation sums up the evidence regarding Low Carbohydrate Diet and incidence of cancer

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Low carb diet and cancer

  1. 1. Low carb diet and cancer. What do current prospective cohort trials and randomized risk marker studies show? 21/12/20141 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist Reijo Laatikainen, Authorized Nutritionist, MBA http://twitter.com/pronutritionist http://www.facebook.com/pronutritionist
  2. 2. Low carb diet likely to increase the risk of colorectal cancer if it’s animal based Low Carb cohorts • Risk of colorectal cancer  • Data restricted to men and animal based Low Carb Diet Low Carb RCTs (surrogate) • Risk markers of colorectal cancer  • (low production of short chain fatty acids, decreased colonisation of healthy bacteria) Other data • High intake of red and processed meat is linked to colorectal in many prospective cohorts • Low intake of fiber increases the risk of colon cancer 21/12/20142 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist
  3. 3. Evidence on colorectal cancer Low Carb cohorts • Fung et al. 2010 Low Carb RCTs (surrogate) • Brinkworth et al. 2010 • Russel et al. 2011 Indirect data • Larsson & Volk 2006 (red meat increases risk, meta-analysis), Gonzales et al. 2010 (red meat increases risk, EPIC study) • Park et el. 2005 (fiber protects, meta-analysis) 21/12/20143 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist
  4. 4. Data on other cancer types (effect and evidence) Low Carb cohorts High fat intake High intake of protein/red meat Lung cancer Increases (Fung et al.2010*) No effect (Gonzales et al. 2009, Epic study No effect (Gonzales et al. 2009, Epic study Breast cancer No effect (Fung et al.2010*) No effect* (Martin et al. 2011, Prentice 2006#) No effect (Alexander et al.2010, meta- analysis) Prostate cancer No effect (Fung et al. 2010?) Increases? (Ma&Chapman 2009, meta- analysis) No effect (Gonzales et al. 2009, Epic study) *) Only Low Carb cohort to look cancer sub-types #) Two North American large RCTs breast cancer incidence as end point. Previous meta-analyses of cohort studies yielded conflicting results 21.12.20144 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist
  5. 5. Summary • Low carb diet is likely to increase the risk of colorectal cancer at least among men if it is based on animal products, especially red and processed meat • Low carb diet is NOT likely to increase breast cancer even if it’s high in fat • There is limited evidence to suggest that high fat content of low carb diet might induce prostate cancer • In two large cohorts low carb diet is also linked to overall cancer mortality (Trichopoulou et al. 2007, Fung et al 2010) • Risk marker studies results are in line with cohort outcomes. Production of short chain fatty acids is reduced and amount of healthy bacteria in gut are reduced during a low carb diet 21.12.20145 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist
  6. 6. Palaeolithic diet improves satiety and can improve many metabolic parameters. However, the changes in the composition of diets used in clinical studies are smaller than commonly proposed in ancestral diets. 21/12/20146 http://twitter.com/pronutritionist Reijo Laatikainen, Authorized Nutritionist, MBA http://twitter.com/pronutritionist http://www.facebook.com/pronutritionist

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