Group #5Members• Jazmin Hernandez • Mohamad Rame Osman Goals Ideologies Geographic Allies Operations/Locations Outlooks & Expectations • Andreina Lugo History• Osmany Mourin Identifiers and Flag Tactics Methods of Operations Attacks• Lakwanza McDowell Leaders Funding
Organization History• PIJ is an Islamic militant group and was founded in 1981 in the Gaza Strip by Shaykh Abd Al Aziz Awda and Fathi Shiqaqi.• They are dedicated to the violent destruction of Israel and the unification of the Muslim world under an Islam "purified" of modern Western influence.• The PIJ initially operated out of Egypt, but after the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat by Egyptian radicals, the PIJ leadership was exiled to the Gaza Strip.• In 1989, Shaqaqi established PIJs headquarters in Damascus, where it has remained since.
Organization History Continued..• They adamantly opposed the 1993 Oslo Accords and attempted to derail the peace process by committing a number of terrorist attacks against Israel.• Israel dealt PIJ a severe blow in 1995 with its assassination of Shaqaqi in Malta.• The group rejects any political arrangements or diplomatic activity to solve the conflict. PIJ believes that the only way to inspire Palestinians to act is through jihadist violence leading to the eventual destruction of Israel.
Leaders of PIJ•PIJ was founded in the late 1970s by Fathi Shaqaqi which was a Palestinianwho led the Palestinian Islamic Jihad organization and was the initiator ofsuicide bombings.•He formed PIJ along with Sheik Odeh also known as Adb Al Aziz Awda.Fathi Shaqaqi was born in 1951 under Egyptian rule in Gaza, to a refugeefamily from Jaffa.•When Shaqaqi was older he attended college at the West Bank University ofBir Zeit, located in the Palestine territories, where he studied mathematics•In the 1970s he went on to study medicine in Egypt, and it was here, duringhis medical training that he became strongly influenced by the MuslimBrotherhood.•He returned to Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT) where he practicedmedicine in Jerusalem
•.While in Egypt Shaqaqi was also strongly influenced by the Iranian IslamicRevolution that took place in January 1979, led by Ayatollah Khomeini. .Before being kicked out of Egypt he joined the military group known as,Egyptian Islamic Jihad.•After the assassination of the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Shaqaqi return toGaza and formed Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) along with Sheik Odeh.•Fathi Shaqaqi was shot on October 26, 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema,Malta, by the Mossad.•His assassination produced disarray in Islamic Jihad since no competentsuccessor could replace Shaqaqi. His funeral in Damascus on November 1,1995 was attended by some 40,000
•Sheik Odeh also known as Adb Al Aziz Awda was born December 20,1950 inJabaliyah, Gaza Strip .•Awda was one of the original founders and the spiritual leader of the PIJ andis still involved in the organization, whose headquarters is in Damascus,Syria.•He was listed as a Specially Designated Terrorist under United States law on23 January 1995.•Awda was indicted in a 53-count indictment in the United States DistrictCourt, Middle District of Florida, Tampa.• Awda was added to FBI most wanted terrorists on February 24,2006
PIJ New Leader•Dr. Ramadan `Abdallah Shallah, earned a PH. D in banking andeconomics from the University of Durham in England.•Shallah was a professor at the University of South Florida inTampa. He moved to Damascus at the beginning of 1996, tohead the resistance of the PIJ
FundingPIJ receives essential support from Syria, which permits itsanctuary and from Iran which provides significant funding (and,according to some sources, nearly the entirety of PIJs budget).
Goals• While the Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) wants to wage war against all of “the world’s leading infidel power”, the United States, their special focus goes towards the elimination of Israel, which they call "Zionist entity".• The majority of their attacks are violently planned and directed against Israeli. Not only those living in Israel, but those in the Palestinian territories as well. • They have targeted rockets and explosives directly at Israeli cities and citizens. Their goal is killing them, injuring the Israeli civilians and their military is not enough for them. Violence is their only means; they are against any political representation or process.• The Jihad agreement states "Jihad against the Jewish existence in Palestine" and says that "the Jihad is the obligation of every Muslim and must be carried out immediately, regardless of the formation of an Islamic state.”
• They want to over throw the “evil regimes in the Muslim countries”, because they believe that their leaders are only superficially Muslim. So it is their religious obligation to fight and get rid of them so they can establish a “truly Islamic regime”.• The liberation of Palestine and pan-Islamic revival are two inter-related commitments of the Jihad. They believe that Jihad is the only way to liberate Palestine, since Muslim victory and the elimination of Israel are destined by God’s words in the Quran.• Just like the Hamas, the principles of the Jihad are derived from those of the Muslim Brotherhood, but it does not work to benefit the Palestinian people. One of its primary focuses is on the guerilla warfare and terror activities.• They want to create an Islamic state in all of historic Palestine, including present day Israel.• “The ultimate goal of the Jihad is to impose Islam on the entire world as the only true religion”.
Geographic Operations/Location• The Jihad operates mainly in Gaza with activity also in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, but has also carried out attacks in Jordan and Lebanon where some of their leaders are located.• The group’s senior leadership and controls are located in Syria, but they have representatives spread throughout the Middle East.
Tactics• Guerrilla tactics such as ambushes• Kidnappings• Explosives• Suicide bombings• Rocket attacks• PIJ has made little effort to develop a network of social services• Focuses on mainly violent acts to disrupt peace and to destroy certain infrastructures
Method of Operations• PIJ often favors suicide bombings as there method of choice• Suicide bombings was controversial amongst the group in 1996 but has gained support over the years• These bombings are primarily aimed at military and civilians and military personnel• Suicide bombing is used amongst PIJ because it is – Cost efficient – Hard to predict/spot – Causes massive casualties and panic – Delivers a strong message• There have been no direct attacks on U.S. properties or citizens—some have died in attacks, although the PIJ threatened to attack the U.S. embassy if it was relocated to Jerusalem from Tel Aviv
Claimed Attacks• An August 1987 shooting killed the commander of the Israeli military police in the Gaza Strip• A December 1993 shooting killed Israeli reservist David Mashrati aboard a bus• An April 1994 car bomb killed 9 people and injured 50 aboard a public bus• A January 1995 a suicide bomb killed 18 soldiers and 1 civilian near Netanya• A March 1996 suicide bomb at a Tel Aviv shopping mall killed 13 and injured seventy 5 more• A June 2001 suicide bomb killed 21 people in a Tel Aviv nightclub• A June 2002 suicide attack at the Meggido Junction killed 18 and injured 50• An October 2003 suicide bomb at a Haifa restaurant killed 22 and injured 60• An October 2005 bomb at a Hadera market killed 5 people• An April 2006 suicide attack in Tel Aviv killed eleven• A January 2007 suicide attack at an Eliat bakery killed three. Both the Al- Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and the PIJ claim responsibility.
Recruitment• They target a younger demographic• There method of recruitment is more secretive then other groups• The Tablighi Jamaat is main source of where most of the new members come from• The “exceptional” students of the Tablighi Jamaat are selected for missionary work in Tablighi center in Raiwind, Pakistan• Here a representive of the terrorist group offers membership and military training and students often say yes
Female Terrorist• The participation of women in Palestinian terrorism is increasing• Israeli security forces are aware of as many as twenty cases in which women were involved in terrorist activity against Israeli targets; some of these women acted as facilitators in planning and carrying out terrorist attacks, while others operated at the most radical level, carrying out suicide bombings.• An incident involving women Palestinian terrorism is the bombing of the Maxim restaurant in Haifa on October 4, 2003• Have a history of being young headstrong and educated, along with having troubling past• Advantages of using women as terrorist- Woman arouse less suspicion- They blend in western society easily- They are able to hide bombs more efficiently
Ideologies• The born of the Islamic Jihad of Palestine movement had an important historical event on the Palestinian new history. This movement called for the creation of Islamic role in the Palestinian resistant against the Zionist state in Israel. This movement stood against any thought of surrender to the Israelis but rather persuaded people to the “Jihad” which means to fight for their freedom and independence from the Zionist colonists. Their goal is retrieve the occupied Islamic land that the Jews stole from them and they saw that the only way in reaching their goal is by recruiting people to join their movement. They also said it is every Muslim’s duty to have the same goal they have. Therefore, al-Quds Brigades, the military wing of Islamic Jihad of Palestine, emphasizes on Jihad and resistance to reach their goals. According to them, Israel is terrorizing oppressing the Palestinian people so Israelis do not understand any language other than the use of force.
Allies• Islamic Jihad has much in common with Hamas, since both of them fight against the existence of the State of Israel. The distinction between the groups comes in the order of these priorities. Both groups were formed as offshoots of the Muslim Brotherhood and receive a large amount of funding from Saudi Arabia. With similar goals, Hamas and the PIJ have worked together on a number of projects.
FlagDome of the Al Aksa Mosque is at the centerwith two rifles coming out of it diagonally and The flag uses the sametwo fists coming out of the sides. colors as the PalestinianBetween the rifles it reads: flag.“God is the greatest”Superimposed in the center is Israel and its Mosque – Palestinianterritories. Nationalism and Powerful Religious SignificanceBottom line:"Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.” Rifles – Groups Militancy Fists – Commitment to the JihadAcross the top (Koranic verse): Israel – Symbolizes that it“And those who strive in Our (cause) - We should belong to the Muslimswill certainly guide them to our Paths, Forverily Allah is with those who do right."
Outlooks & Expectations•The Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ) is losing support and seems likely to stay arelatively small organization. They currently have fewer than 1,000 members. – This is partially due to the fact that they are more concerned with committing terrorist attacks rather than helping the poorer Palestinians, which then turn to Hamas. – It is also believe that their current leader Shallah, lacks the “charisma” of their previously gunned down leader Shaqaqi. – Many of their activities have been hindered in the United States after 9/11/01 due to a series of arrests and accusations.•Although they haven’t yet “directly targeted” the United States, we shouldbe aware since our most dominant religion is Christianity and to them that is“wrong”. But, we have had U.S. citizens become victims in PIJ attacks.•Regardless, they remain dedicated towards the violent destruction of Israeland its citizens through their terrorist actions.