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Small & beautiful:The ICT success of Finland & Sweden
The seminar on Nordic Leadership in ICT
VINNOVA, Mäster Samuelsgatan 56, Stockholm
22 Sep. 2015, 09:30–12:00
Eric Giertz, Annika Rickne & Petri Rouvinen
Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö, Niklas Arvidsson, Anders Broström, Magnus Gens,
Fredrik Johansson, Annu Kotiranta, Sven Lindmark, Monia
Lougui, Juri Mattila, Mika Pajarinen, Bryan Pon, Timo
Seppälä, Kent Thorén & Pekka Ylä-Anttila
Finland & Sweden in ICT
Petri Rouvinen
Towards the end of 1999...
Finland & Sweden on top of ICT – In hype & in reality
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
fdsaf
SEK 44238 m.
Nokia’s GDP
(value added)
in Finland,
Year 2000
SEK 42382 m.
Ericsson’s GDP
(value added)
in Sweden,
Year 2000
≈
2000 2000
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
1.8
4.0
1.6
3.1
Ericsson of Swedish GDP Nokia of Finnish GDP
Direct impact
Indirect impact
(sub-contracting
& partnering)
% of GDP
in 2000
WORLD
RECORD!?
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
38.2%
28.7
42.1
9.6
15.1
Swedish ICT Sector Finnish ICT Sector
Direct share
of Ericsson/Nokia
Share of ICT Sector Value Added in 2000, %
Other ICT
firms’
share
57.2%
61,8
42,8
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
Finland
Sweden
The ICT sector
as a percentage of GDP
NMT
Cf. Ch 2
GSM
1st disrupt
In wireless
network eq.:
1. Huawei
2. Ericsson
3. Nokia
(Siemens;
Alcatel-
Lucent)
Worldwide:
From monopolies
to competition
The 2nd disruption
Cloud computing
Mobile Internet
Big data, analytics
Tech convergence
Services, software,
deeper diffusion of
ICT in using sectors
As presented by Petri Rouvinen at the
Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar,
22 Sep. 2015
ICT sector: 5–6% of GDP,
3–4% or working hours
Nokia/Ericsson: 0.5% of
GDP, 10% of ICT sectors
The highest economy-
wide share of ICT experts
Similarities
Swe FinLow ICT investment intensity
Smaller in absolute terms
Small ICT consulting: Below 10%
High ICT investment intensity
Bigger: 2× employees, 6× firms
Large ICT consulting: Over 25%
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
History of the Finnish ICT Sector
• 1880s: The Finnish Senate – a dispersed telecom infra
– Operation: PTO-regulator & hundreds of private telecom operators
– Equipment: International competition, little domestic
• Since 1970s: Digitalization in other sectors
– Banking & engineering (pulp & paper eq.)
– Demanding Soviet exports
– Electronics: TVs etc.
• NMT: Int’l provision of telecom equip.
• 1990s: Facilitating factors
– Global
• Analog  Digital
• GSM (standardization process; Nokia; Tekes)
• Worldwide liberalization of telecom markets
– Domestic
• From a semi-closed to an open economy (reality & mindset)
• Relaxed constraints: Abundant supply of capital & labor
Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
History of the Swedish ICT Sector
Eric Giertz
Sweden: A belated but fast industrialization
1844–1866: A new foundation is put in place
– Liberal reforms
– free trade
– Infra service providers
– Banks
– A new parliament
1860–1920: Industrialization
– Entrepreneurship
– Domestic industries
– Export industries
– 400 private tele associations (Ericsson 1876)
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
From consolidation to welfare state 1920–1970
• Engineering industry goes bankrupt
– Concentration of ownership (financial spheres)
– Engineers hired as CEOs
– Restructuring & rationalization
• Social democratic government 1932
– Takes over infra service providers
– Close cooperation with private industry
– Focus on productivity growth, not on new ventures
• Supportive labor unions
– Higher productivity is promoted
– The Saltsjöbaden agreement
– Compulsory work & motion studies
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Source: Giertz, Marionettens död, Ekerlids förlag
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
”Developing Couples”
Four parties plan from acorns to oak trees
KTH
ASEA
Vattenfall
Ericsson
Televerket
Saab
Defence
ASEA
SJ (rail)
Private Companies
Public Partners
Government
E
X
P
O
R
T
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Close Government–Industry Cooperation
A Swedish computer industry is born
– 1948 The public agency MMN is established at KTH
– BESK is completed in 1953 (the US, France, Britain and Sweden)
– SARA in 1957 (Saab) – D21 in 1962
– Facit leaves computers in 1963
– A new development couple 12,000 main frame computers (failed)
Ericsson + Televerket = A very tight couple
– 1970 Ellemtel – a joint venture is established
– Joint development of electronic and automated switching
– 1976 Televerket puts AXE in operation in Södertälje
– 1978 Ellemtel transfers AXE competence to Ericsson
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
From stagnation to bankruptcies &
emergency measures in 1970–1990
Nils G. Åslings
Industriakut
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
The end of close gov’t–industry cooperation
A new generation of social democrats in in the cabinet
– SSU holds a congress in 1967
– A new position as Minister of Industry 1969
– Sveriges Investeringsbank 1967, Statsföretag AB 1969
– STU 1969, SUAB 1969, SIND 1973
– LO convention proposed Wage earner funds in 1971
Sweden: In good health … and then to an emergency room
– 1976 A new liberal-conservative government
– government becomes sole owner in many industries
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Gov’t is involved in ICT restructuring
Datasaab is established
– Stansaab established 1971 (SRT, Saab Scania, SUAB)
– Alfaskop is a huge success
– SRT leaves in 1973
– 1978 Stansaab & Saab Scania computer division = Datasaab
A state-owned PC industry is born
– January 1978 – a meeting in Linköping
– August 1978 ABC 80 is introduced
– 1979 Government takes over
Ericsson and Nokia takes over
NMT & GSM opens world market for Ericsson
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Hunting for global growth in 1990–2005
• Televerket & Ericsson are divorced
– Liberalization in 1993
– Ericsson takes over Teli (1994) and Ellemtel (1995)
– Telia AB makes IPO 2000
– Telia acquires Sonera in 2002
• Ericsson survived when bubble burst
– Ericsson outsourcing late 1990s
– Ericsson on top March 2000
– Ericsson hit by 3G licensees
– Leaves handsets to Sony Ericsson
– Saved by new issued shares in July 2002
– Employment in Sweden from 43,000 to 21,000 in four years
• A diversified ICT Sector is born
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Sweden Today
Eric Giertz
Software and services Hardware
Products and
systems
IT Operations,
Application
Mngnt and
Maintenance
Software and
net services
IT Consultants Components
The Swedish ICT Sector of Today
Commercial
Software
Net services
Repair &
Maintenance
Operations R&D
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Number of employees in ICT industry in Sweden
117,011
129,458
130,221
127,560
132,142
105,000
110,000
115,000
120,000
125,000
130,000
135,000
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Number of employees in different business logics
Software
Net Services
Service and Maintenance of ICT systems
ICT operations
ICT consultancy firms (Commercial systems)
ICT consultancy firms (R&D related)
Hardware (Components)
Hardware (Complete products and systems)
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Number of employees in Hardware companies
Hardware
(Complete products
and systems)
Hardware
(Components)
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
No of employees in Software & Net services
Net services
Software
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Internet-related business models
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Internet-related business models
• Proof of Concepts
• Industrial exits
• Loved by Business angels & VCs
• Employ rather few people
• Great importance for the use of
ICT in other sectors of industry
• Technology based B2B-companies serve
many customers in consolidated industries
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
No of empl. in Maintenance & IT operations
ICT operations
Service &
Maintenance
of ICT systems
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
No of empl. in ICT-consultancy firms in Sweden
R&D-related:
12 397 employees
492 work places
363 companies
Administration:
25 633 employees
1 118 work places
766 companies
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for Industry Dynamics
Annika Rickne
Mergers & acq. as enablers of industry dynamics
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0
500
1000
1500
2000
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3000
1985
1986
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1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
Valueoftransactionsinbil.USD
Numberoftransactions
Announced Mergers & Acquisitions in the IT Consulting & Services
Number of transactions Value of transactions
• In general, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) may create
consolidation, productivity, mobility, etc.
• Cyclic patterns of M&A – as linked to industry cycles
• Focus: ICT software and services sector
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for ind. dyn.: M&A in the Swedish economy
Swedish ICT software & service sector, 2000–2008: 9 341 firms
– 28% have been acquired (2 657 firms) (4 001 M&A)
– 1 % acquired by foreign owned companies
& still operate in Sweden (131 firms)
– So 5% of the acquired firms got a foreign owner
– Acquired firm in average 25 employees
Intensive M&A activity in Sweden
Above all small firms that are acquired
Motifs: Investment in tech capacity & int’l customer base
 acquisitions to pursue growth strategies
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for ind. dyn.: M&A for industrial transformation
• Larger actors – to compete on global markets
– But did not lead to new Swedish based multinationals
• Efficiency through synergy & scale
• New firm formation
– Larger firms abandon niche markets => open up for new entry
– New impulses and opportunities for entrepreneurship
– M&As increase the frequency of spin-out by 33% two years after the event
• Technology and competence diffusion
– Learning between acquired and owner firm
– Stimulated between-firm job mobility of key persons in the sector
– Increased managerial turnover
• Possibility for exit through M&As
– Motivation for entrepreneurs
• Private wealth – to potentially reinvest
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for industry dynamics:
Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Sweden & Stockholm
• International reputation as highly ICT productive
environment, especially Stockholm
• Goodwill builds on long history
• Software & hardware development, highly educated
& experienced, work efficiently at high standards
• Flat organization, consensus models  Speed
• Attract foreign capital
• Pride & rationale in staying Swedish
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Very large
concentration
to Stockholm
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for industry dynamics:
Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Silicon Valley
• Scale: firms, investors & customers
• Role models & peers
• Competent, connected & operational
investors with large pockets
• Speed
• Experienced in growth management
• A portal to the customers – consumers + B2B
• A portal to the US market
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Enablers for industry dynamics:
Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Potential for Sweden
• Remain as a leading hotspot
• Renew flow of engineers & designers from educ.
• Shortage of engineers + low mobility:
Has to be solved!
• Increase mobility between business & academia
• Retain experienced managers & engineers
• Facilitate angel & VC investment + management
involvement through legal arrangements
• Demanding, competent & early customers
• Tap into hotspots, e.g., Silicon Valley - Pave the way!
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Nordic gaming
Kent Thorén
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Nordic gaming: Historic development
• Commercial video games initiated
in the US & Japan in early 1970s
• Nordic (early attempts in 1980s, but) more
sustainable companies started around 1990
 Industry formation
• Conditions
– Rewritable storage media
– Home computers (PC games)
– Multimedia skills from “demo” groups
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Overview: Early Hits
Sweden Norway Denmark Finland
DICE (Pinball,
Rally games)
atod (Edge, The
Lawnmower man)
Funcom
(Pocahontas, The
Longest Jorney)
IO Interactive
(Hitman)
Housemarque
(Supreme
Snowboarding)
Development patterns
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Finland vs Sweden: Part I
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Finland
Sweden
TurnoverMEuro
• Dramatic shift!
• Finland mobile success
– Nokia’s pioneering efforts –
supplying game industry with
talent by down sourcing
– Support from Tekes
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Finland vs Sweden: Part II
2008 2010 2012 2014
SuperCell
Rovio
Fingersoft
Other Companies
Finland Sweden
Mobile focus vs Broad footprint
Super concentrated vs Concentrated
Finland Sweden
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
The Swedish Game Development Sector
Kent Thorén
Sweden: Overview of Development
• PC Games
• AAA games on PC and Console (PS, xBox)
• Facebook games (King)
• Mobile games (King, Toca Boca, Mediocre etc)
• PC Games? (Indie developers via Steam etc)
• VR?
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Backpacker Pan Vision/Aniware Minecraft Mojang
Battlefield DICE Mirrors edge DICE
Bioniuc Commando Grin Motorhead DICE
Candy crush saga King Need for Speed Ghost
Chronicles of Riddick Starbreeze/Tigon Payday Overkill/Starbreeze
Entropia Universe MindArk Pinball DICE
Europa Universalis Paradox RalliSport Challenge DICE
Far Cry 3 Massive Renegade Ops Avalanche
Goat Simulator Coffee Stain Smash hit Mediocre
Hotline Miami Dennaton Snactum Coffee Stain
Ignition Unique Development Sprinkle Mediocre
Just Cause Avalanche Stardoll Stardoll
Labyrinth 2 Illusion Labs Starstable Pizel Tales
Mad Skills Motocross Turborilla Syndicate Starbreeze
Magicka Arrowhead/Paradox Unravel Coldwood
ManagerZone Power Challenge Word Brain MAG Interactive
Midtown Madness DICE World in Conflict Massive
Major Releases 2015/6: Star Wars Battlefront (DICE), Magicka 2 (Paradox Interactive),
Mirrors Edge Catalyst (DICE), Need for Speed – Rivals (Ghost), Just Cause 3 (Avalanche),
Tom Clancy’s The Division (Massive), Mad Max (Avalanche), Wolfenstein: The New Order
(Machine Games), Minecraft on Hololens, Warhammer Vermintid (FatShark)
Examples
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Launch of First
Game
Developing
Second Game
Developing First
Game
Drop off forming a
Company
Launch of First
Game
Forming a
Company
Informal Group
Enters Game
Competitions
Major StudioGame Education
Project
Developing
Second Game
Consulting
or
employment
Consulting
Typical Patterns
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Key Success Factors
Making really
good games
Penetrating
Challenge
Bypassing
Reaching through
market noise
Virality
Emotion
Gameplay
Novelty
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Key Success Factors
Beneficial Circumstances
Competence
Making really
good games
Reaching through
market noise
IT Competence
Quality culture
Creativity
Design
Business Culture
Game Competence
Team orientation
Previous Success
*
Sharing Culture
Reputation
Contacts
Courage
Cross-firm support
Flat org.
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Key Findings
• Success on all platforms
• Games of high quality – international reputation
• The industry is the source of its own competitive
advantage, thanks to culture of sharing & helping?
• Education-incubator combinations  Regional clusters
• Capital difficult to get
• No targeted public support
Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
ICT in Other Sectors
Annika Rickne & Eric Giertz
ICT in Other Sectors
• ICT technology, products & knowledge permeates many sectors
– ICT in tech & competence platforms, development processes, process
equipment, internal administration, decentralization processes,
communications, global networks, service offerings, customer
communication, access to global markets, etc.
– Increases work productivity: Sweden above OECD average
– Spurs innovation
– Retail, health care, media, etc.
– A sharing economy
• Recent trends: Big data, cloud computing, Internet of Things
• Evidence from how various sectors in Finland uses ICT
– 1/3 has software development (mostly by contracting)
– 1/3 sees digitalization as enhancing their products
– 1/3 expects Big Data to have large impact in the next 3 years
– 43% expects Internet of Things to have large impact in the next 3 years
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
ICT permeates many sectors
Three aspects in focus here:
– ICT consultants as drivers of change
– Embedded systems in engineering
– Towards cash-less banking
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
The importance of R&D-related Consultancy
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
R&D related ICT Consultancy firms
Typical customers:
Engineering Corporations making
complex & assembled products
• Developing software components
(embedded systems) in costumer
products & systems
• Developing software & systems
for production processes
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
R&D related ICT Consultancy firms
• A handful dominating larger companies
(~1000 employees)
• Domestic owners
• Mainly domestic market but some
customers in other Nordic countries
• Differs a lot from ICT-consultancy firms
working with commercial systems
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Ericsson
Firm XX
Atlas CopcoDeLaval
Saab
Firm XX
Kockum
HusqvarnaViking
Saab Automobile
Ericsson
Ericsson
Saab
Saab
Hemocue
Autoliv
Ericsson Mobile
Firm XX
Saab
Volvo
Atlas Copco
Volvo
Kapsch
Firm XX
Firm XX
Firm XX ABB
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic
Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22.9.2015
To be discussed
• Does Sweden differ from other
industrial nations?
• Can externalization of ICT-related
R&D partly explain why large
Swedish engineering firms have
survived radical tech shifts when
foreign competitors have failed?
Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Emergence of an ICT-based disruptive
mobile payment service
• Long cooperation b/w Swedish banks in infrastructure & services
• Involvement of regulatory actors
 Harmony between reg. frameworks & business operations
• The corporate society 2.0
• Emergence of mobile payment services: Swish
– Societal interest in reducing cash payments
– Pressures from ICT-skilled competitors (telecom)
– Potential new entrants in the payment service industry
– Tech advances (processing of transactions,
real time handling, access Internet via smart phones)
– Disrupting the cash infrastructure & also the card infrastructure
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
Swish
Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015

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Nordic Leadership in ICT

  • 1. Small & beautiful:The ICT success of Finland & Sweden The seminar on Nordic Leadership in ICT VINNOVA, Mäster Samuelsgatan 56, Stockholm 22 Sep. 2015, 09:30–12:00 Eric Giertz, Annika Rickne & Petri Rouvinen Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö, Niklas Arvidsson, Anders Broström, Magnus Gens, Fredrik Johansson, Annu Kotiranta, Sven Lindmark, Monia Lougui, Juri Mattila, Mika Pajarinen, Bryan Pon, Timo Seppälä, Kent Thorén & Pekka Ylä-Anttila
  • 2. Finland & Sweden in ICT Petri Rouvinen
  • 3. Towards the end of 1999... Finland & Sweden on top of ICT – In hype & in reality Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 4. fdsaf SEK 44238 m. Nokia’s GDP (value added) in Finland, Year 2000 SEK 42382 m. Ericsson’s GDP (value added) in Sweden, Year 2000 ≈ 2000 2000 Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 5. 1.8 4.0 1.6 3.1 Ericsson of Swedish GDP Nokia of Finnish GDP Direct impact Indirect impact (sub-contracting & partnering) % of GDP in 2000 WORLD RECORD!? Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 6. 38.2% 28.7 42.1 9.6 15.1 Swedish ICT Sector Finnish ICT Sector Direct share of Ericsson/Nokia Share of ICT Sector Value Added in 2000, % Other ICT firms’ share 57.2% 61,8 42,8 Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Finland Sweden The ICT sector as a percentage of GDP NMT Cf. Ch 2 GSM 1st disrupt In wireless network eq.: 1. Huawei 2. Ericsson 3. Nokia (Siemens; Alcatel- Lucent) Worldwide: From monopolies to competition The 2nd disruption Cloud computing Mobile Internet Big data, analytics Tech convergence Services, software, deeper diffusion of ICT in using sectors As presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 8. ICT sector: 5–6% of GDP, 3–4% or working hours Nokia/Ericsson: 0.5% of GDP, 10% of ICT sectors The highest economy- wide share of ICT experts Similarities Swe FinLow ICT investment intensity Smaller in absolute terms Small ICT consulting: Below 10% High ICT investment intensity Bigger: 2× employees, 6× firms Large ICT consulting: Over 25% Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 9. History of the Finnish ICT Sector • 1880s: The Finnish Senate – a dispersed telecom infra – Operation: PTO-regulator & hundreds of private telecom operators – Equipment: International competition, little domestic • Since 1970s: Digitalization in other sectors – Banking & engineering (pulp & paper eq.) – Demanding Soviet exports – Electronics: TVs etc. • NMT: Int’l provision of telecom equip. • 1990s: Facilitating factors – Global • Analog  Digital • GSM (standardization process; Nokia; Tekes) • Worldwide liberalization of telecom markets – Domestic • From a semi-closed to an open economy (reality & mindset) • Relaxed constraints: Abundant supply of capital & labor Presented by Petri Rouvinen at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 10. History of the Swedish ICT Sector Eric Giertz
  • 11. Sweden: A belated but fast industrialization 1844–1866: A new foundation is put in place – Liberal reforms – free trade – Infra service providers – Banks – A new parliament 1860–1920: Industrialization – Entrepreneurship – Domestic industries – Export industries – 400 private tele associations (Ericsson 1876) Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 12. From consolidation to welfare state 1920–1970 • Engineering industry goes bankrupt – Concentration of ownership (financial spheres) – Engineers hired as CEOs – Restructuring & rationalization • Social democratic government 1932 – Takes over infra service providers – Close cooperation with private industry – Focus on productivity growth, not on new ventures • Supportive labor unions – Higher productivity is promoted – The Saltsjöbaden agreement – Compulsory work & motion studies Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 13. Source: Giertz, Marionettens död, Ekerlids förlag Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 14. ”Developing Couples” Four parties plan from acorns to oak trees KTH ASEA Vattenfall Ericsson Televerket Saab Defence ASEA SJ (rail) Private Companies Public Partners Government E X P O R T Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 15. Close Government–Industry Cooperation A Swedish computer industry is born – 1948 The public agency MMN is established at KTH – BESK is completed in 1953 (the US, France, Britain and Sweden) – SARA in 1957 (Saab) – D21 in 1962 – Facit leaves computers in 1963 – A new development couple 12,000 main frame computers (failed) Ericsson + Televerket = A very tight couple – 1970 Ellemtel – a joint venture is established – Joint development of electronic and automated switching – 1976 Televerket puts AXE in operation in Södertälje – 1978 Ellemtel transfers AXE competence to Ericsson Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 16. From stagnation to bankruptcies & emergency measures in 1970–1990 Nils G. Åslings Industriakut Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 17. The end of close gov’t–industry cooperation A new generation of social democrats in in the cabinet – SSU holds a congress in 1967 – A new position as Minister of Industry 1969 – Sveriges Investeringsbank 1967, Statsföretag AB 1969 – STU 1969, SUAB 1969, SIND 1973 – LO convention proposed Wage earner funds in 1971 Sweden: In good health … and then to an emergency room – 1976 A new liberal-conservative government – government becomes sole owner in many industries Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 18. Gov’t is involved in ICT restructuring Datasaab is established – Stansaab established 1971 (SRT, Saab Scania, SUAB) – Alfaskop is a huge success – SRT leaves in 1973 – 1978 Stansaab & Saab Scania computer division = Datasaab A state-owned PC industry is born – January 1978 – a meeting in Linköping – August 1978 ABC 80 is introduced – 1979 Government takes over Ericsson and Nokia takes over NMT & GSM opens world market for Ericsson Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 19. Hunting for global growth in 1990–2005 • Televerket & Ericsson are divorced – Liberalization in 1993 – Ericsson takes over Teli (1994) and Ellemtel (1995) – Telia AB makes IPO 2000 – Telia acquires Sonera in 2002 • Ericsson survived when bubble burst – Ericsson outsourcing late 1990s – Ericsson on top March 2000 – Ericsson hit by 3G licensees – Leaves handsets to Sony Ericsson – Saved by new issued shares in July 2002 – Employment in Sweden from 43,000 to 21,000 in four years • A diversified ICT Sector is born Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 21. Software and services Hardware Products and systems IT Operations, Application Mngnt and Maintenance Software and net services IT Consultants Components The Swedish ICT Sector of Today Commercial Software Net services Repair & Maintenance Operations R&D Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 22. Number of employees in ICT industry in Sweden 117,011 129,458 130,221 127,560 132,142 105,000 110,000 115,000 120,000 125,000 130,000 135,000 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 23. Number of employees in different business logics Software Net Services Service and Maintenance of ICT systems ICT operations ICT consultancy firms (Commercial systems) ICT consultancy firms (R&D related) Hardware (Components) Hardware (Complete products and systems) Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 24. Number of employees in Hardware companies Hardware (Complete products and systems) Hardware (Components) Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 25. No of employees in Software & Net services Net services Software Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 26. Internet-related business models Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 27. Internet-related business models • Proof of Concepts • Industrial exits • Loved by Business angels & VCs • Employ rather few people • Great importance for the use of ICT in other sectors of industry • Technology based B2B-companies serve many customers in consolidated industries Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 28. No of empl. in Maintenance & IT operations ICT operations Service & Maintenance of ICT systems Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 29. No of empl. in ICT-consultancy firms in Sweden R&D-related: 12 397 employees 492 work places 363 companies Administration: 25 633 employees 1 118 work places 766 companies Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 30. Enablers for Industry Dynamics Annika Rickne
  • 31. Mergers & acq. as enablers of industry dynamics 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Valueoftransactionsinbil.USD Numberoftransactions Announced Mergers & Acquisitions in the IT Consulting & Services Number of transactions Value of transactions • In general, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) may create consolidation, productivity, mobility, etc. • Cyclic patterns of M&A – as linked to industry cycles • Focus: ICT software and services sector Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 32. Enablers for ind. dyn.: M&A in the Swedish economy Swedish ICT software & service sector, 2000–2008: 9 341 firms – 28% have been acquired (2 657 firms) (4 001 M&A) – 1 % acquired by foreign owned companies & still operate in Sweden (131 firms) – So 5% of the acquired firms got a foreign owner – Acquired firm in average 25 employees Intensive M&A activity in Sweden Above all small firms that are acquired Motifs: Investment in tech capacity & int’l customer base  acquisitions to pursue growth strategies Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 33. Enablers for ind. dyn.: M&A for industrial transformation • Larger actors – to compete on global markets – But did not lead to new Swedish based multinationals • Efficiency through synergy & scale • New firm formation – Larger firms abandon niche markets => open up for new entry – New impulses and opportunities for entrepreneurship – M&As increase the frequency of spin-out by 33% two years after the event • Technology and competence diffusion – Learning between acquired and owner firm – Stimulated between-firm job mobility of key persons in the sector – Increased managerial turnover • Possibility for exit through M&As – Motivation for entrepreneurs • Private wealth – to potentially reinvest Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 34. Enablers for industry dynamics: Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Sweden & Stockholm • International reputation as highly ICT productive environment, especially Stockholm • Goodwill builds on long history • Software & hardware development, highly educated & experienced, work efficiently at high standards • Flat organization, consensus models  Speed • Attract foreign capital • Pride & rationale in staying Swedish Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 35. Very large concentration to Stockholm Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 36. Enablers for industry dynamics: Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Silicon Valley • Scale: firms, investors & customers • Role models & peers • Competent, connected & operational investors with large pockets • Speed • Experienced in growth management • A portal to the customers – consumers + B2B • A portal to the US market Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 37. Enablers for industry dynamics: Entrepreneurial Hotspots: Potential for Sweden • Remain as a leading hotspot • Renew flow of engineers & designers from educ. • Shortage of engineers + low mobility: Has to be solved! • Increase mobility between business & academia • Retain experienced managers & engineers • Facilitate angel & VC investment + management involvement through legal arrangements • Demanding, competent & early customers • Tap into hotspots, e.g., Silicon Valley - Pave the way! Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 39. Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 40. Nordic gaming: Historic development • Commercial video games initiated in the US & Japan in early 1970s • Nordic (early attempts in 1980s, but) more sustainable companies started around 1990  Industry formation • Conditions – Rewritable storage media – Home computers (PC games) – Multimedia skills from “demo” groups Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 41. Overview: Early Hits Sweden Norway Denmark Finland DICE (Pinball, Rally games) atod (Edge, The Lawnmower man) Funcom (Pocahontas, The Longest Jorney) IO Interactive (Hitman) Housemarque (Supreme Snowboarding) Development patterns Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 42. Finland vs Sweden: Part I 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Finland Sweden TurnoverMEuro • Dramatic shift! • Finland mobile success – Nokia’s pioneering efforts – supplying game industry with talent by down sourcing – Support from Tekes Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 43. Finland vs Sweden: Part II 2008 2010 2012 2014 SuperCell Rovio Fingersoft Other Companies Finland Sweden Mobile focus vs Broad footprint Super concentrated vs Concentrated Finland Sweden Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 44. The Swedish Game Development Sector Kent Thorén
  • 45. Sweden: Overview of Development • PC Games • AAA games on PC and Console (PS, xBox) • Facebook games (King) • Mobile games (King, Toca Boca, Mediocre etc) • PC Games? (Indie developers via Steam etc) • VR? Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 46. Backpacker Pan Vision/Aniware Minecraft Mojang Battlefield DICE Mirrors edge DICE Bioniuc Commando Grin Motorhead DICE Candy crush saga King Need for Speed Ghost Chronicles of Riddick Starbreeze/Tigon Payday Overkill/Starbreeze Entropia Universe MindArk Pinball DICE Europa Universalis Paradox RalliSport Challenge DICE Far Cry 3 Massive Renegade Ops Avalanche Goat Simulator Coffee Stain Smash hit Mediocre Hotline Miami Dennaton Snactum Coffee Stain Ignition Unique Development Sprinkle Mediocre Just Cause Avalanche Stardoll Stardoll Labyrinth 2 Illusion Labs Starstable Pizel Tales Mad Skills Motocross Turborilla Syndicate Starbreeze Magicka Arrowhead/Paradox Unravel Coldwood ManagerZone Power Challenge Word Brain MAG Interactive Midtown Madness DICE World in Conflict Massive Major Releases 2015/6: Star Wars Battlefront (DICE), Magicka 2 (Paradox Interactive), Mirrors Edge Catalyst (DICE), Need for Speed – Rivals (Ghost), Just Cause 3 (Avalanche), Tom Clancy’s The Division (Massive), Mad Max (Avalanche), Wolfenstein: The New Order (Machine Games), Minecraft on Hololens, Warhammer Vermintid (FatShark) Examples Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 47. Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 48. Launch of First Game Developing Second Game Developing First Game Drop off forming a Company Launch of First Game Forming a Company Informal Group Enters Game Competitions Major StudioGame Education Project Developing Second Game Consulting or employment Consulting Typical Patterns Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 49. Key Success Factors Making really good games Penetrating Challenge Bypassing Reaching through market noise Virality Emotion Gameplay Novelty Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 50. Key Success Factors Beneficial Circumstances Competence Making really good games Reaching through market noise IT Competence Quality culture Creativity Design Business Culture Game Competence Team orientation Previous Success * Sharing Culture Reputation Contacts Courage Cross-firm support Flat org. Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 51. Key Findings • Success on all platforms • Games of high quality – international reputation • The industry is the source of its own competitive advantage, thanks to culture of sharing & helping? • Education-incubator combinations  Regional clusters • Capital difficult to get • No targeted public support Presented by Kent Thorén at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 52. ICT in Other Sectors Annika Rickne & Eric Giertz
  • 53. ICT in Other Sectors • ICT technology, products & knowledge permeates many sectors – ICT in tech & competence platforms, development processes, process equipment, internal administration, decentralization processes, communications, global networks, service offerings, customer communication, access to global markets, etc. – Increases work productivity: Sweden above OECD average – Spurs innovation – Retail, health care, media, etc. – A sharing economy • Recent trends: Big data, cloud computing, Internet of Things • Evidence from how various sectors in Finland uses ICT – 1/3 has software development (mostly by contracting) – 1/3 sees digitalization as enhancing their products – 1/3 expects Big Data to have large impact in the next 3 years – 43% expects Internet of Things to have large impact in the next 3 years Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 54. ICT permeates many sectors Three aspects in focus here: – ICT consultants as drivers of change – Embedded systems in engineering – Towards cash-less banking Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 55. The importance of R&D-related Consultancy Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 56. R&D related ICT Consultancy firms Typical customers: Engineering Corporations making complex & assembled products • Developing software components (embedded systems) in costumer products & systems • Developing software & systems for production processes Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 57. R&D related ICT Consultancy firms • A handful dominating larger companies (~1000 employees) • Domestic owners • Mainly domestic market but some customers in other Nordic countries • Differs a lot from ICT-consultancy firms working with commercial systems Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 58. Ericsson Firm XX Atlas CopcoDeLaval Saab Firm XX Kockum HusqvarnaViking Saab Automobile Ericsson Ericsson Saab Saab Hemocue Autoliv Ericsson Mobile Firm XX Saab Volvo Atlas Copco Volvo Kapsch Firm XX Firm XX Firm XX ABB Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22.9.2015
  • 59. To be discussed • Does Sweden differ from other industrial nations? • Can externalization of ICT-related R&D partly explain why large Swedish engineering firms have survived radical tech shifts when foreign competitors have failed? Presented by Eric Giertz at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 60. Emergence of an ICT-based disruptive mobile payment service • Long cooperation b/w Swedish banks in infrastructure & services • Involvement of regulatory actors  Harmony between reg. frameworks & business operations • The corporate society 2.0 • Emergence of mobile payment services: Swish – Societal interest in reducing cash payments – Pressures from ICT-skilled competitors (telecom) – Potential new entrants in the payment service industry – Tech advances (processing of transactions, real time handling, access Internet via smart phones) – Disrupting the cash infrastructure & also the card infrastructure Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015
  • 61. Swish Presented by Annika Rickne at the Nordic Leadership in ICT Seminar, 22 Sep. 2015

Editor's Notes

  1. Apps & net based services Relation to ISIC 4 Principer för kategorisering Utgångspunkt i företagens affärsmodell Flytande gräns för IKT-företag Etablerade större företag tillhör flera kategorier Skilda affärsmodeller i samma kategori Mycket handpåläggning för tjänsteföretag
  2. (We don’t have data on firms acquired by foreign owned companies and subsequently moved out from Sweden) Standardavikelsen är ca 101 anställda och medianen är 7 anställda, så dom flesta företagen är små företag.
  3. No direct negative implications for the sector found Did not threat the competitive nature of the industry Layoffs at M&A balanced by growth in other firms Conclusion: Renewal and growth of the IT industry at large
  4. Location in a cluster/hotspot: Access to otherwise unattainable resources: ideas, discussions, human capital, financing, partnerships, intellectual property, customers, market knowledge, distribution channels, etc.
  5. Location in a cluster/hotspot: Access to otherwise unattainable resources: ideas, discussions, human capital, financing, partnerships, intellectual property, customers, market knowledge, distribution channels, etc.
  6. Location in a cluster/hotspot: Access to otherwise unattainable resources: ideas, discussions, human capital, financing, partnerships, intellectual property, customers, market knowledge, distribution channels, etc.
  7. Nordic region is globally recognized as leaders in video game development. Very high quality games are the norm. Lots of success, prizes and awards. An extremely fast growing game development sector, particularly in Sweden and Finland. Swedish music industry – not the largest number of artists but many of the great ones
  8. In scandinavia “demo scenes” – finland “assembly” events
  9. Pre 2000
  10. Finland had a dramatic growth – from 50% of Sweden Sweden: Foregin: King 15 B Sek Publisher owned: Dice probably 10 B sek, Massive ? Mojang!? 2 B Sek in 2013... Tekes – What and when?
  11. Finland had a dramatic growth – from 50% of Sweden Sweden: Foregin: King 15 B Sek Publisher owned: Dice probably 10 B sek, Massive ? Mojang!? 2 B Sek in 2013... Tekes – What and when?