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PLNOG16: IOS XR – 12 lat innowacji, Krzysztof Mazepa

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PLNOG16: IOS XR – 12 lat innowacji, Krzysztof Mazepa

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PLNOG16: IOS XR – 12 lat innowacji, Krzysztof Mazepa

  1. 1. IOS XR – 12 lat innowacji ! Krzysztof Mazepa kmazepa@cisco.com
  2. 2. 1. Rok 2004 – działo się  2. Co innowacyjnego oferował IOS XR w roku 2004 ? 3. IOS XR 32 bits -> IOS XR 64 bits - architektura systemu - nowe możliwości wprowadzone przez IOS XR 6.0 4. „Smaczki konfiguracyjne” wprowadzone w ostatnich kilku wersjach systemu IOS XR. Agenda
  3. 3. 4 luty 2004 – założenie firmy Facebook 1 maja 2004 – Polska zostaje przyjęta do Uni Europejskiej Rook 2004 – wprowadzenie pierwszej generacji routerów ISR (Integrated Services Router – Cisco ISR 1800/2800/3800) Inne produkty z tego okresu (Cisco 12000 series router, Cisco 7600 router, Cisco 7200 series router) 25 maja 2004 – Cisco ogłasza router CRS-1, pierwszy router pracujący z systemem operacyjnym IOS XR Krótkie spojrzenie w przeszłość 
  4. 4. Innowacje wprowadzone przez IOS XR CRS-1 newsletter (rok 2006)
  5. 5. Cisco Networkers 2005
  6. 6. 666© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 What Is IOS XR™? • Real time Modular Micro- Kernel Architecture • Distributed Processing • High scalability • Always-On Operations • Service Separation and Isolation • Integrated Management OSPF BGP LDP PPP ISSU A Next Generation High-End Operating System which delivers:
  7. 7. 777© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 Router OS Evolution Control Plane Applications Forwarding Plane Applications Network Stack System Infrastructure Forward Infrastructure OS Scheduler ManagementPlane Applications HAInfrastructure Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane Control Plane Data Plane Management Plane BGB RIP ISIS OSPF Routing PIM IGMP RIB L2 Drivers ACL FIB QoS LPTS Host Service PFI Interfac e CLI SNMP XML Netflow Alarm Per.fMg mt SSH SSH SSH Checkpoint DB Multicast IPC System DB Distributed Infrastructure Memory MgmtIPC MechSynch. ServicesScheduler Kernel System Services Monolithic Kernel Centralized Infrastructure Integrated Network stack Centralized applications Micro Kernel Distributed Infrastructure Independent Network stack Distributed applications New Router OS Architecture Is Required to Deliver: • Continuous system operation • Scalability • Flexible service delivery • Single unified system view
  8. 8. 888© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 IOS XR Software Architecture Overview Picking The Correct OS To Meet CRS Software Requirements TRUE Microkernel (Mach, QNX) MMU with full protection Applications, drivers, and protocols are protected Monolithic Kernel (BSD, NT…..) MMU with partial protection Applications are protected Process Manager Filesystem Application Driver ApplicationApplication Kernel Filesystem Network Driver FAULT FAULT FAULT FAULT
  9. 9. 999© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 IOS XR Kernel—Key Benefits FEATURE Preemptive scheduler with support for process priority Micro-Kernel Monolithic Kernel Protected memory architecture for application processes Protected memory architecture for system processes Fault protection for application processes Fault protection for Kernel processes Fault protection for Host Stack Fault protection for device drivers Fault protection for file system In Service SW Upgrade for application processes In Service SW Upgrade for Infrastructure processes (IPC), kernel processes and device drivers POSIX API Yes Yes NO Yes NO NO NO NO Yes NO Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
  10. 10. 101010© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 RP/0/RP1/CPU0:equinox# process restart snmpd RP/0/RP1/CPU0:equinox# show processes snmpd Job Id: 288 PID: 8528114 Executable path: /disk0/hfr-base-3.2.85/bin/snmpd Instance #: 1 Version ID: 00.00.0000 Respawn: ON Respawn count: 2 Max. spawns per minute: 12 Last started: Thu May 12 11:46:38 2005 Process state: Run (last exit status : 15) Package state: Normal Started on config: cfg/gl/snmp/admin/community/ww core: TEXT SHAREDMEM MAINMEM Max. core: 0 startup_path: /pkg/startup/snmpd.startup Ready: 6.657s Process cpu time: 0.721 user, 0.145 kernel, 0.866 total Process Restartability JID# remains constant, PID# changed on restart Respawn counter incremented with process restart Process state reports ‘Run’ plus last termination code
  11. 11. 111111© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 IOS XR Modular Packaged Software • Upgrade specific Packages/Composites Across Entire system Targeted Install to specific cards • Point Fix for software faults DRP LCRP SC Manage- ability Security GMPLS Multi- cast Opt’l Mand Opt’l Mand Opt’l Mand Mand Mand RPL BGP ISISOSPF Forwarding Base Admin OS Base OS Forwarding Forwarding Manage- ability Security GMPLS Multi- cast RPL BGP ISISOSPF Base OS Line Card GMPLS Multi- cast Base Admin OS 111111© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14
  12. 12. 121212© 2005 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.IPM-A14 Scalable Configuration • IOS-XR CLI command set is similar to IOS, yet key enhancements have been made to support scalability • Routing Policy Language Unified and scalable approach to routing policy • Two stage configuration Configuration roll-back, avoids artefacts due to intermediate steps • Task/role-based AAA Tight control over scope of operations staff activities
  13. 13. XR 64 Bit
  14. 14. Dawno, dawno temu ... w 2013 roku NCS Delivers Breakthrough Internet Capabilities for Leading Global Service Providers BSkyB, KDDI, Telstra and Others SEPTEMBER 24, 2013 SAN JOSE, Calif., September 24, 2013 – With Internet traffic rapidly growing amid new waves of cloud, mobile, video and machine-to-machine applications, Cisco today introduced the Cisco® Network Convergence System (NCS), a network fabric family designed to serve as the foundation of a massively scalable, smarter and more adaptable Internet. Several leading global service providers – including BSkyB (Sky), KDDI and Telstra – are deploying the Cisco NCS to create new revenue streams, simplify operations and deliver exciting personalized experiences to their customers. The system's programmability and virtualization capabilities enable service providers to accelerate the transition to software defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV).
  15. 15. Virtualization …. … ability to run multiple operating systems on top of a single physical platform by providing an abstract view to each. The software layer providing virtualization is called a “virtual machine monitor” or “Hypervisor”. The operating system instances are called “virtual machines (VM)” or “guest OS”
  16. 16. Virtualization… • Effective resource utilization by splitting across multiple Operating Systems • Hypervisor is the Virtualization abstraction layer • Hypervisor runs on bare metal or inside Host OS Physical Hardware CPU Memory I/O Disk Operating System App Operating System App Hypervisor Physical Hardware CPU Memory I/O Disk Operating System App
  17. 17. NCS 6008 – Software Concepts Virtualized IOS XRv Evaluation Linux (Host OS) Linux (Host OS) QNX QNX SysAdminVM XRVM XRVM_2(Future) XRVM_3(Future) IOSXR + Sysadmin IOSXR + Sysadmin SysAdminVM XRVM XRVM_2(Future) XRVM_3(Future) Classic IOS XR Route Processor Line Card • Independent Admin/XR • Fault isolation • XR Scalability for multiple tenants • Admin VM: • System management and monitoring • XR VM: • Routing application and management • Consistent IOS-XR user interface Virtualized IOS XR
  18. 18. Benefits of Virtualization Benefits of Virtualized Cisco® IOS-XR Hypervisor • Multiple, highly secure and isolated app containers • Co-existence of multiple XR versions • Zero topology and packet loss upgrade • Improved system reliability with separate admin and application virtual machines (VMs) • Flexible XR/service VM placement on dedicated compute device Service Integration In-Service Software Upgrade (ISSU) Reliability Control Plane Expansion
  19. 19. Rok 2015 ... 1
  20. 20. Cisco Advances Industry's Most Comprehensive Portfolio of Service Provider Solutions with Unmatched Levels of Programmability, Virtualization and Scalability MARCH 17, 2015 SAN JOSE – March 17, 2015 – Today, Cisco announced three significant enhancements to the Cisco® Evolved Programmable Network (EPN) portfolio, an open, elastic, and application-centric network infrastructure framework that enables service providers to accelerate time to revenue while reducing the costs of deploying new services. The new technologies include: - Cisco Application Engineered Routing - Cisco IOS XRv 9000 Virtual Router - High-density 100GE line cards for the Cisco ASR 9000 Series With this announcement, Cisco is integrating its industry-leading programmability, virtualization and orchestration capabilities into its best-of-breed core and edge networking portfolio. These latest EPN innovations will help service providers increase overall profitability and service agility in delivering new revenue-generating services to customers. ..... Virtual Router Enables Delivery of On-Demand Services To rapidly respond to customer demands and trial on-demand solutions, service providers must deploy advanced virtualization capabilities. Adding to Cisco’s nearly 50 virtual network functions, the most in the industry, which span security, managed services, broadband, policy and mobility applications, Cisco has packaged the scale and carrier-class performance of Cisco IOS XR as a virtualized router. The IOS XRv 9000 Virtual Router, to be available in the second quarter of 2015, further increases service agility and provides a low cost entry point for the IOS XR family. Additionally, IOS XRv operates on x86-based hardware for on demand, cost optimized service deployment and complements the existing Cisco Cloud Services Routers (CSR1000v) targeted at the enterprise and managed services markets. XRv 9000
  21. 21. IOS XRv Vision Statement Common SP Operating System across physical and virtual Data planes Abstracted Network Services & Automation SDN Network APIs – NetConf / YANG, etc Virtual XR DataplanePhysical High touch Dataplanes IOS XRv Virtual XR DP Physical cost-optimized Dataplanes / merchant DISCLAIMER: Many of the products and features described herein remain in varying stages of development and will be offered on a when-and-if-available basis. This roadmap is subject to change at the sole discretion of Cisco, and Cisco will have no liability for delay in the delivery or failure to deliver any of the products or features set forth in this document.
  22. 22. Lightweight and optimized admin plane Infra management SMU management VM/LXC management Lifecycle Management for CP and DP Install Start/Stop/Restart Upgrade/Downgrade Liveness (Heartbeat monitoring) Hypervisor LXC VF DP LXC XR CP Data Plane Controller LINUX VM TenGigE0/0/0 GigE0/0/1 GigE0/0/2 MgmtEth0/0/1 vswitch Data Plane Referred to as Virtual Forwarder (VF) XR Combined RP+ LC functionality DPA Nomenclature • Data Plane Controller – DPC • Data Plane Agent – DPA • Virtual Forwarder – UVF • LXC – Linux Container XR based Virtual Router Server LXC Admin
  23. 23. Rok 2016
  24. 24. 64-bit IOS XR … coming to a platform closer to you Q4 CY15 Q2 CY16 Q4 CY16 NCS5508 NCS5001 NCS5002 NCS1002 ASR9000(*) In development More in CLUS 2016 * On ASR9k, 32-bit QNX images and 64-bit linux images will be supported24 Fixed 1 RU 40x10G SFP+ 4x100G QSFP28 Fixed 2 RU 80x10G SFP+ 4x100G QSFP28 Modular 8 Slot 288x100GE QSFP28 Fixed 2RU 2Tbps DWDM capacity 2Tbps client capacity 8 CFP2 trunks and 20 QSFP clients
  25. 25. Guiding Principles for IOS-XR operational enhancements 25 Bring Your own Application • Provide a platform on which customers can host their apps • Customer apps, Third party apps, Cisco apps Automatable interfaces • Provide visibility into the device through machine friendly interfaces Open architecture  Decrease tool chain variance • Fit into customer’s operational workflow
  26. 26. IOS XR 6.0 Fully automated initial installation - Bootable ISO - Autoprovisioning Visibility for smarter control, simpler monitoring, and faster troubleshooting - Streaming telemetry - Machine-to-machine (M2M) interfaces Flexible design for agile maintenance and updates - Application hosting - Flexible packaging and provisioning Open architecture - Linux-based OS High performance - Lightweight containers:
  27. 27. Details
  28. 28. Fully automated initial installation
  29. 29. XR Boot Process • XR 6.0 image will be released in the form of bootable self-extracting ISOs • Similar to any Linux distribution. • NCS 5000 and 5500 possess a BIOS that offers NetBooting using iPXE. • iPXE is an open-source network boot firmware that supports: 1. Booting from HTTP/HTTPS. 2. Controlling the boot process via scripts. 3. Performing image validation. • XR 6.0 comes with an Auto-Provision process • Executed at the end of the control-plane boot sequence. • Executed inside the Shell. • Can execute Scripts or apply Static Configuration. 29
  30. 30. IOS-XR Boot Process with iPXE HTTP SERVER IP address Next-server Filename=http://<http-srv>/image-new.ISO DHCP SERVER Image-new.ISO IP address Next-server Filename=http://<http-srv>/AutoProv-SN.sh or Filename=http://<http-srv>/Config-SN.txt script-SN.sh config-SN.txt Apply configuration Execute script Additional Scripts Packages, etc… XR Boot AutoProvision execution iPXE boot XR Install N iPXE Y 1 2 3 GET script-SN.sh or config-SN.txt4 GET addon scripts/packages/configuration 5 30
  31. 31. Visibility for smarter control, simpler monitoring, and faster troubleshooting
  32. 32. Streaming Telemetry: Introduction sensing & measurement Where Data Is Created Where Data Is Useful syslog SNMP CLI storage & analysis 32
  33. 33. Streaming Telemetry Design Vision • Get as much data off the box as quickly as possiblePerformance • Grant full access to all operational data on the box*Coverage • Serialize the data in a flexible, efficient way that fits customers automated toolsAutomation 33*User needs to have the correct privileges
  34. 34. Telemetry • Common modeling language • Describes monitoring data structure and attributes • Goal is YANG (experimental SysDB name space in IOS-XR 6.0) • Push Model • Stream data continuously with incremental updates based on subscriptions • Data delivery • JSON (compressed) inside TCP • Google Protocol Buffer inside UDP • Google Protocol Buffer inside gRPC • Observe network state through a time-series data stream 34
  35. 35. Streaming Telemetry Model XR Control Plane Host OS Telemetry Policy Telemetry Agent Namespace Telemetry Receiver Telemetry Configuration • Telemetry Configuration • Described in JSON. • Define one or multiple collection group(s). • Each group contains a rate and a pointer to one or multiple objects in the experimental SysDB path (6.0 only) • Telemetry Policy • Define the encoder, transport and the receiver(s) for each policy. • Telemetry Agent • XR process that runs automatically and looks for registered policies to act on. 35
  36. 36. Flexible design for agile maintenance and updates
  37. 37. • 64-bit OpenEmbedded Linux support.  Processes containerization.  Brings in standard Linux toolchain.  Third-Party applications support. • NCS5500, NCS5000 and NCS1002 will support only 64-bit Linux • ASR 9000 will still have 32-bit QNX support X86 Hardware 64 bit Linux Control Admin NPU System Admin System Control Classic XR XR 6.0 32 bit QNX IOS-XR 6.0: A New Software Infrastructure 37
  38. 38. Introduction to Containers • LXC (LinuX Containers) let you run a Linux system within another Linux system. • A container is a group of processes on a Linux machine. • These processes form an isolated environment. • Inside the container, it looks like a Virtual Machine. • Outside the container, it looks like normal processes running on the system. • Containers look like Virtual Machines, but are more efficient. X86 Hardware Operating System Hypervisor Traditional Virtualization App Lib OS … … App Lib OS App Lib OS App Lib OS X86 Hardware Operating System Containers 38
  39. 39. Why Containers? • They are Fast Deploy and Boot in less than one Second vs Minutes for Virtual Machines • They are Lightweight Only a few MB of Disk Space per Container vs several hundred MB for traditional Virtual Machines. • They provide Similar Services as VMs Each container has: • Its own network interfaces - Can be bridged, routed... just like with KVM. • Its own filesystem - e.g.: RedHat host can run Debian container. • Isolation (security) - Two containers can't harm (or even see) each other. • Isolation (resource usage) - Soft & Hard quotas for RAM, CPU, I/O. X86 Hardware Operating System … App Lib OS App Lib OS LXC1 LXC2 39
  40. 40. IOS-XR Container Roles: The Host • Runs Yocto based 64-bit Open Embedded Linux kernel. • Built using Windriver 7 • The main functions of the host are: • Interact directly with the underlying hardware. • Provide kernel services for the containers. • Provide libraries, tools, and utilities to help launch, monitor, and maintain containers. • Provide the network infrastructure to allow containers to communicate. Routing Processor 64-bit Host OS Control Plane Admin Plane Third Party 40
  41. 41. IOS-XR Container Roles: The Control Plane • The heart of IOS-XR 6.0 • Runs a Yocto based 64-bit OELinux composed of 2 types of packages: 1. Cisco developed packages for core network functions (BGP, MPLS, etc.) 2. Yocto packages for standard Linux tools and libraries (bash, python, tcpdump, etc.). Routing Processor 64-bit Host OS Control Plane Admin Plane Third Party 41
  42. 42. IOS-XR Container Roles: The Admin Plane • Runs a Yocto based 64-bit Linux. • Provides services that were originally provided by the admin mode of XR. • Runs processes responsible to perform system diagnostics, monitor environmental variables, and manage hardware components. • First container to be booted by the host, and is responsible for the start and maintenance of all the other containers in the system. Routing Processor 64-bit Host OS Control Plane Admin Plane Third Party 42
  43. 43. IOS-XR Container Roles: Third Party • Runs any 64-bit Linux distribution. • Launched from the XR container using virsh and libvirtd. • Access Network Interface through the Third Party Network Name Space (TPNNS). Routing Processor 64-bit Host OS Control Plane Admin Plane Third Party 43
  44. 44. Flexible Packaging 4
  45. 45. • Server-like Workflows • Modular Disaggregated • Update, Upgrade, Remove • Dependency management • Secure • Repository Support • Third Party Applications • RPM • YUM • New Install Commands Networking Software Delivery Direction 45
  46. 46. RPM: XR New Package Format • RPM Package Manager is the new Package format starting with IOS-XR 6.0. • Packages are placed in a reachable repository and accessed via FTP/SFTP/SCP/TFTP or HTTP or pre-staged on the box • Third Party packages are installed with RPM or YUM inside the Shell. • IOS-XR packages are installed with “install update/upgrade”. • Install commands are a wrapper around YUM to provide multi-arch support. • Both YUM and install commands provide dependency verification/resolution. 46
  47. 47. XR Packages Naming Convention <name>-<version>-<release>.<architecture>.rpm ncs5500-mgbl-1.0.0.0-r600.x86_64.rpm SMU <name>-<version>-<release>.<defect>.<architecture>.rpm ncs5500-mgbl-1.0.0.1-r600.CSCab12345.x86_64.rpm Package 47
  48. 48. PIE Install RPM Install • No dependency management • Offline process required to copy packages • Require multiple operations • install add • install activate • install commit • CSM for package content • Dependency management • Online process over secure transport • Single operation • install update or install upgrade • On-box / Off-box package inspection using rpm tool • Description • Dependencies • Content 48
  49. 49. Installing and Updating Third Party Packages • Third Party Packages are traditional Linux tools available from the Shell • Communication: lighttpd ,openssh, wget, curl, etc. • Programing: python, ruby, perl, etc. • Utilities: sed, gawk, tar, gzip, vi, etc. • Additional packages provided by vendors (No Cisco Support) • Chef • Puppet • Installed using yum or rpm yum-config-manager --add-repo=http://192.168.0.254/XR/6.0.0 yum install chef –y 49
  50. 50. Czasem trzeba czekać na pewne funkcjonalności ... 5
  51. 51. Few usability highlights - Global Configuration Replace – Ever wanted to quickly move interface configuration from one port to another? This new feature allows for quick customization of router configuration by match and replace based on interface names and / or regular expressions (see presentation below for details) - Non-interactive EXEC commands – Ever wanted to initiate a router reload without being asked for confirmation? A new global knob has been introduced to remove user interaction with the parser - BGP advertised prefix count statistics – A new knob provides access to advertised count stats (something you could do easily in IOS but not in IOS XR) - OSPF post-reload protocol shutdown – A new knob that would keep OSPF in shutdown state after a node reload - Interactive Rollback operations – Ever issued the wrong rollback ID by mistake? –a new knob would ask for user confirmation before committing - CLI / XML serviceability enhancements to several platform dependent commands such as “show controllers” and “show hw-module fpd” commands - And many more …
  52. 52. Key Takeaways • No Change in traditional CLI Operation with IOS-XR 6.0 • 6.0 is available on NCS5500, NCS5000 and NCS1000 Platforms • 6.1.1 is available on ASR9k (traditional 32-bit QNX offering will still be supported) • Operational enhancement for Automated Operations • Operating System change for Open Source tooling 52

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