CONTAINER DEPOSIT   LEGISLATION              Past     Present    Future     Container Recycling Institute © 2009   1
What is a “Bottle Bill”?A bottle bill is a law that. . . . Requires distributors and retailers to collect  a minimum refu...
Why Beverage Containers?   They are often consumed on the go - the industry    estimates that one third of all soft drink...
How do Container Deposits        Work?                                 Distributor collects                              ...
What is the Origin of Bottle Bills?   Problem: In the 50’s and 60’s, refillable    ‘deposit’ bottles were replaced by thr...
U.S. States with Container            Deposit Laws   Oregon  Vermont  Michigan   Maine    Iowa ConnecticutMassachusetts  D...
Canadian Provinces with CDL                                               Quebec                                          ...
Who supports ContainerDeposit Laws?  Environmentalists  Some   beverage producers  Processors of recycled materials  C...
Supporters like CDL because it: Has recovery and recycling rates of 66 - 96%  for beverage containers Reduces roadside l...
Who does not support CDL? Some   soft drink manufacturers and  bottlers Brewers and beer distributors Grocery manufactu...
Why oppose CDL?Opponents claim Bottle Bills: Increase costs to distributors and retailers Increase prices and lower beve...
Their Arguments are unfounded   Cost increases can be recouped in minimal price    increases that consumers barely notice...
There are societal andenvironmental costs associatedwith the manufacturing, disposal,and recycling of beveragecontainers. ...
In 1980, Dwight Reed, President National SoftDrink Association made the following statement:  “Society is telling us in un...
“. . . It is interesting to speculate on thestate of our public image, and ourpolitical fortunes, had that same sumbeen de...
In November 2008 the AluminumAssociation announced its goal toincrease the recycling rate of beveragecans to 75% by 2015 s...
In December 2008 the GlassPackaging Instituteannounced its goal to use 50%recycled glass by 2015, sayingglass manufacturer...
The Truth aboutContainer Deposit   Legislation    Container Recycling Institute © 2009   18
Bottle Bills Result in HigherBeverage Container Recycling RatesAverage Beverage Container Recycling Rates                 ...
Container recycling rates have declinednationally, despite continued growth inpopulation served by curbside recycling.    ...
Bottle Bills Reduce the       Disproportionate Environmental    Impacts of Beverage Container Wasting   Emissions: Replac...
Bottle Bills Reduce Litter  State           Beverage Container                              Total Litter                  ...
Litter on the farm:Costly damage to farmers                               “There is little alivestock deaths             ...
Bottle Bills Create Jobs     New Jobs Source of DataMA 1,800        Report of Cabinet Task Force on Bottle                ...
Bottle Bills Complement       Curbside Recycling                                           Population Served by Curbside  ...
“If the goal is to capture themaximum amount of materialspossible, then curbside recycling,deposits, and drop-off centerss...
In 2002 the BEAR multi-stakeholder group agreed that CDL          is cost effective   The 10 bottle bill states recycle 4...
Bottle Bills Decrease Taxpayer Burden     “…it (the Returnable Container Act -    RCA) has internalized the cost of solid ...
Financial Incentives are the Most Effective Way to Ensure High Container            Recovery Rates                     Typ...
Bottle Bills are PopularOppose 24%                            Support         Oppose         SupportSource: Peter D. Hart ...
Every state has attempted to pass abottle bill.           Container Recycling Institute © 2009   31
FACT: Bottle Bills work, and theywork everywhere!FACT: No state Bottle Bill hasever been repealed! In fact, threestates ha...
What is the Future         ofCONTAINER DEPOSIT  LEGISLATION?     Container Recycling Institute © 2009   33
Opportunities Urgency to conserve energy and reduce  climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions Growing demand for “produ...
Growing Beverage Container Waste =       Greater Need for Bottle BillsBillions ofUnits Wasted   150   125   100           ...
Challenges Industry   myths about recycling and  bottle bills Special interest financing of political  campaigns Declin...
“To reduce litter immediately,city and state leaders should push    for an expanded bottle bill…It’s        possible, if l...
Container Recycling Institute    89 East Lake Shore Trail     Glastonbury, CT 06033         202 263 0999email: CRI@contain...
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Bottle Bill information

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  • What is a Bottle Bill?
  • Proponents Include: American Medical Association Garden Club of America League of Women Voters National Audubon Society National League of Cities National parks and Conservation Association National Wildlife Federation Natural Resources Defense Council Rails to Trails Sierra Club Trout Unlimited U.S. PIRG
  • Bottle bill proponents argued that bottle bills: Increase recovery and recycling of beverage containers Reduce roadside litter and solid waste Conserve energy and natural resources Reduce costs associated with used beverage containers Create jobs and new businesses
  •       Opponents Include: National Soft Drink Association (representing Coke and Pepsi) Grocery Manufacturers of America Can Manufacturers’ Institute Glass Manufacturers’ Institute American Plastics Council NAPCOR
  •            
  • Bottle Bill information

    1. 1. CONTAINER DEPOSIT LEGISLATION Past Present Future Container Recycling Institute © 2009 1
    2. 2. What is a “Bottle Bill”?A bottle bill is a law that. . . . Requires distributors and retailers to collect a minimum refundable deposit, usually 5-10 cents on certain beverage containers Creates a privately-funded collection infrastructure for beverage containers Makes producers and consumers responsible for their packaging waste Container Recycling Institute © 2009 2
    3. 3. Why Beverage Containers? They are often consumed on the go - the industry estimates that one third of all soft drinks sold are consumed away from home! They compose 40-60% of litter. They consume enormous amounts of energy in the manufacturing process. Greenhouse gas emissions can be avoided by recycling beverage containers rather than manufacturing new ones. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 3
    4. 4. How do Container Deposits Work?  Distributor collects deposit when he/she delivers containers to retailer  Retailer collects deposit from consumer at point of purchase  Deposit is refunded to consumer when container is returned  Deposit is refunded to retailer when containers are returned to distributor Container Recycling Institute © 2009 4
    5. 5. What is the Origin of Bottle Bills? Problem: In the 50’s and 60’s, refillable ‘deposit’ bottles were replaced by throwaway, no-deposit beverage containers that created litter and wasted resources. Solution: Put a mandatory deposit on beverage containers to provide an incentive to recycle and a disincentive to litter. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 5
    6. 6. U.S. States with Container Deposit Laws Oregon Vermont Michigan Maine Iowa ConnecticutMassachusetts Delaware New York California Hawaii Container Recycling Institute © 2009 6
    7. 7. Canadian Provinces with CDL Quebec British Columbia Newfoundland Nova Scotia Alberta New Brunswick Saskatchewan Prince Edward Island Yukon Container Recycling Institute © 2009 7
    8. 8. Who supports ContainerDeposit Laws?  Environmentalists  Some beverage producers  Processors of recycled materials  Container manufacturing industries  Manufacturers who use recyclable materials  Farmers, Bicyclists and sportsmen  Civic groups  The general public Container Recycling Institute © 2009 8
    9. 9. Supporters like CDL because it: Has recovery and recycling rates of 66 - 96% for beverage containers Reduces roadside litter and solid waste Conserves energy and natural resources Reduces climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions Prevents pollution from manufacturing of new containers Creates jobs and new businesses that can’t be outsourced overseas Shifts costs associated with used beverage containers to those responsible for the waste Container Recycling Institute © 2009 9
    10. 10. Who does not support CDL? Some soft drink manufacturers and bottlers Brewers and beer distributors Grocery manufacturers and retailers Some waste haulers that profit from recyclables collection Container Recycling Institute © 2009 10
    11. 11. Why oppose CDL?Opponents claim Bottle Bills: Increase costs to distributors and retailers Increase prices and lower beverage sales Only address a fraction of the waste stream Decrease jobs Are not compatible with curbside recycling Are inconvenient for consumers Container Recycling Institute © 2009 11
    12. 12. Their Arguments are unfounded Cost increases can be recouped in minimal price increases that consumers barely notice, and gladly pay for their favorite beverages. CDL is effective for beverage containers because of litter and away from home use. It only addresses this portion of the waste stream because it only targets this portion. CDL and curbside collection are compatible, because CDL targets away from home recyclables. Consumers quickly become accustomed to returning their empties, and enjoy getting refunds. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 12
    13. 13. There are societal andenvironmental costs associatedwith the manufacturing, disposal,and recycling of beveragecontainers. The question for policymakersis “Who should pay these costs?” –government and taxpayers orproducers and consumers? Container Recycling Institute © 2009 13
    14. 14. In 1980, Dwight Reed, President National SoftDrink Association made the following statement: “Society is telling us in unmistakableterms that we share equally with thepublic the responsibility for packageretrieval and disposal. . . This industryhas spent hundreds of millions ofdollars. . . in the attempt to dispute,deflect, or evade that message. . .” Container Recycling Institute © 2009 14
    15. 15. “. . . It is interesting to speculate on thestate of our public image, and ourpolitical fortunes, had that same sumbeen devoted to disposal or retrievaltechnology.” Container Recycling Institute © 2009 15
    16. 16. In November 2008 the AluminumAssociation announced its goal toincrease the recycling rate of beveragecans to 75% by 2015 saying, “Containerdeposit programs are a proven,sustainable method of capturingbeverage cans for recycling. Statesthat have deposit programs have thehighest can recycling rates, on averageat 74% or higher, while the recyclingrate in non-deposits states is around38%.” Container Recycling Institute © 2009 16
    17. 17. In December 2008 the GlassPackaging Instituteannounced its goal to use 50%recycled glass by 2015, sayingglass manufacturers “willcontinue to work withpolicymakers to improve andexpand state beverage depositprograms.” Container Recycling Institute © 2009
    18. 18. The Truth aboutContainer Deposit Legislation Container Recycling Institute © 2009 18
    19. 19. Bottle Bills Result in HigherBeverage Container Recycling RatesAverage Beverage Container Recycling Rates (By Weight) Source: CRI’s 2008 Beverage Market Data Analysis (using 2006 data) Container Recycling Institute © 2009 19
    20. 20. Container recycling rates have declinednationally, despite continued growth inpopulation served by curbside recycling. Source: CRI’s 2008 Beverage Market Data Analyis, 2006 data Container Recycling Institute © 2009 20
    21. 21. Bottle Bills Reduce the Disproportionate Environmental Impacts of Beverage Container Wasting Emissions: Replacing the 141 billion beverage containers wasted in 2006 emitted almost 5 million tons of Greenhouse gases - the same as 3.3 million cars in one year Wasted energy: The energy required to replace the 141 billion containers wasted in 2006 was equivalent to 336 trillion BTUs: enough to meet the total annula residential energy needs of over 3.5 million American homes. Litter: In a 1999 survey, the Solid Waste Coordinators of Kentucky found that 54% of all litter collected consisted of beverage containers, carriers, bottle caps and pull tabs. Several studies have shown that deposit systems have a ripple effect in reducing all litter. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 21
    22. 22. Bottle Bills Reduce Litter State Beverage Container Total Litter Litter Reduced Reduced NY 70 - 80% 30% OR 83% 47% VT 76% 35% ME 69 - 77% 35 - 56% MI 80% 38% IA 77% 38%Source: “Trade-offs Involved in Beverage Container Deposit Legislation”, US GAO, 1990. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 22
    23. 23. Litter on the farm:Costly damage to farmers “There is little alivestock deaths community can do aboutcrop losses drought or disaster, butfeed we can do something positive about litter from contamination beverage containers byequipment supporting (Sen. Jim) damage Jeffords bill.” -- Larry Breech, President of the Pennsylvania Farmers Union, in an op-ed in The Philadelphia Inquirer, October 2002. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 23
    24. 24. Bottle Bills Create Jobs New Jobs Source of DataMA 1,800 Report of Cabinet Task Force on Bottle Bill, Mandatory Deposit Legislation for MA. May 1979.MI 4,684 US GAO, State’s Experience with Beverage Container Deposit Laws Shows Positive Benefits. Dec, 1980.NY 3,800 NY Beer Wholesalers Association, NYS Returnable Container Act: A Preliminary Study, 1984.VT 250-350 VT Agency for Environmental Conservation, VT 5-Cent Deposit, 1977. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 24
    25. 25. Bottle Bills Complement Curbside Recycling Population Served by Curbside Percent 100 CurbsideMore people in No Curbside 80bottle bill states are 60served by curbside 40recycling than in 20states without a 0bottle bill. Bottle Bill No-Bottle Source: BioCycle 2001 Bill Container Recycling Institute © 2009 25
    26. 26. “If the goal is to capture themaximum amount of materialspossible, then curbside recycling,deposits, and drop-off centersshould all be part of a wellthought out pollution preventionand waste reduction plan.” Lanier Hickman Former Director Solid Waste Management Association of North America Container Recycling Institute © 2009 26
    27. 27. In 2002 the BEAR multi-stakeholder group agreed that CDL is cost effective The 10 bottle bill states recycle 490 containers per capita per year, at a cost of 1.53 cents per unit. The 40 non-bottle bill states recycle 191 containers per capita per year, at a cost of 1.24 cents per unit.Thus, for a minimal price increase, more than twoand a half times as many containers are recovered!Note: the 11th bottle bill state, Hawaii implemented their law in 2005 Container Recycling Institute © 2009 27
    28. 28. Bottle Bills Decrease Taxpayer Burden “…it (the Returnable Container Act - RCA) has internalized the cost of solid waste management for beverage containers covered by the RCA… Therefore the taxpayer does not have to subsidize the disposal of empty beverage containers.” Then-Governor of New York George Pataki Container Recycling Institute © 2009 28
    29. 29. Financial Incentives are the Most Effective Way to Ensure High Container Recovery Rates Typical Financial Program Participation & Incentive Value Capture Rate Traditional 66% 5 cents Michigan 96% 10 cents California 67% 5-10 centsCurbside/Drop- 34% None off Container Recycling Institute © 2009 29
    30. 30. Bottle Bills are PopularOppose 24% Support Oppose SupportSource: Peter D. Hart Research Associates, 1993. 76% Container Recycling Institute © 2009 30
    31. 31. Every state has attempted to pass abottle bill. Container Recycling Institute © 2009 31
    32. 32. FACT: Bottle Bills work, and theywork everywhere!FACT: No state Bottle Bill hasever been repealed! In fact, threestates have expanded their originalbottle bills to include othercontainers.  Maine - 1990  California - 2000  Oregon - 2009 Container Recycling Institute © 2009 32
    33. 33. What is the Future ofCONTAINER DEPOSIT LEGISLATION? Container Recycling Institute © 2009 33
    34. 34. Opportunities Urgency to conserve energy and reduce climate-changing greenhouse gas emissions Growing demand for “producer responsibility” Falling recycling rates for aluminum, glass and PET containers Increase in litter and beverage container waste New bottle bill and expanded bottle bill efforts Inadequate supply of feedstocks in the PET , glass and aluminum recycling industries New coalitions of environmentalists and businesses support container deposits Increased editorial support from major newspapers Container Recycling Institute © 2009 34
    35. 35. Growing Beverage Container Waste = Greater Need for Bottle BillsBillions ofUnits Wasted 150 125 100 Glass 75 Aluminum 50 Plastic 25 0 1991 2001 2006 Source: American Plastics Council, CRI, US Dept. of Commerce Container Recycling Institute © 2009 35
    36. 36. Challenges Industry myths about recycling and bottle bills Special interest financing of political campaigns Declining public attention to recycling Hauling industry desire to collect valuable beverage container materials to offset their costs Container Recycling Institute © 2009 36
    37. 37. “To reduce litter immediately,city and state leaders should push for an expanded bottle bill…It’s possible, if leaders have the courage to take on the powerful bottlers’ lobby.” Editorial New York Times, July 2002 Container Recycling Institute © 2009 37
    38. 38. Container Recycling Institute 89 East Lake Shore Trail Glastonbury, CT 06033 202 263 0999email: CRI@container-recycling.org Visit us on the web at: www.container-recycling.org www.bottlebill.org Container Recycling Institute © 2009 38

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