WORKSHOP
“SCIENCE EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN SCHOOL: THE WAY FORWARD”
Florence, Auditorium Sant’Apollonia
21-22 October, 20...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

Introduction
Professional interests are a central to...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

1. Holland’s model of interests
The six interest-bas...
Theoretical background

Research and method

1. Advantages
Holland’s model

and

Results and conclusions

limitations

of
...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

2. Aim of the study
The present work is aimed to pro...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

1. Participants and procedure
Respondents in this st...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

2. Measures
The brief free domain RIASEC scale was d...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

3. Analyses
We used the software SPSS 20 for the ana...
Theoretical background

1. EFA

Research and method

Results and conclusions

(a)
Items

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ENGLISH ITEMS

ITALIAN T...
Theoretical background

1. EFA

Research and method

Results and conclusions

(b)
Items

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ENGLISH ITEMS

ITALIAN T...
Theoretical background

1. EFA

Research and method

Results and conclusions

(c)
Items

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ENGLISH ITEMS

ITALIAN T...
Theoretical background

Research and method

2. Correlations
Variable

Results and conclusions

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1

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2. I

.26**
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2. Correlations
Variable
1. R

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Research and method

2. Correlations
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1. R

1

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4

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Theoretical background

Research and method

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3. Analysis of variance
T-test puts in evidence gend...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

4. Discussions and conclusions
The exploratory facto...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

4. Conclusions – limitations and
further development...
Theoretical background

Research and method

Results and conclusions

4. Conclusions – implications for
practice
The resul...
References
Armstrong , P. I. Allison , W. Rounds , J. (2008). Development and initial validation of brief public
domain RI...
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16.30 martini

  1. 1. WORKSHOP “SCIENCE EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN SCHOOL: THE WAY FORWARD” Florence, Auditorium Sant’Apollonia 21-22 October, 2013 BRIEF ITALIAN RIASEC SCALE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS Mara Martini, Paola Gatti, & Chiara Ghislieri University of Turin Department of Psychology
  2. 2. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions Introduction Professional interests are a central topic in career guidance research and practice, in particular for adolescents. One of the most important theories was proposed by Holland (1959) who identifies six kinds of interests and organize them in the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model. To measure the interests defined by Holland’s theory in career counseling projects, were developed complex instruments such as the Self-Directed Search (SDS; Holland, Fritzsche, Powell, 1997), extensively used also in Italy in the Poláček’s (2003) version. A shorter free domain instrument was recently proposed by Armstrong, Allison and Rounds (2008). 2
  3. 3. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 1. Holland’s model of interests The six interest-based categories proposed by Holland (1959; 1997) to describe individuals and occupations are: Realistic Conventional Enterprising Investigative Artistic Social By matching an individual’s interests to occupational characteristics by Holland category, it is possible to identify potential career choices useful for career counseling programs (McDaniel, Snell, 1999; Armstrong et al., 2008). 3
  4. 4. Theoretical background Research and method 1. Advantages Holland’s model and Results and conclusions limitations of As Guichard and Huteau (2003), among the others, put in evidence, the widely used Holland’s model shows some advantages but also some limitations: Advantages: it is immediately usable in the career counseling practice: instruments as SDS allow to apply directly the model in guidance projects it shows an acceptable validity: several studies put in evidence a substantial coherence between the Holland’s typology and the educational/occupational choices it is in a halfway point between diagnostic and educative guidance approaches. - Limitations: it reduces the whole range of professions to six categories it does not evidence relations of the six types of interests to parental education and to aspects as sex or social prestige some studies question the six-vertexes structure of the model: C and E types seem quite near, so we can imagine a pentagon more than an hexagon (Vrignaud, Bernaud, 1994). 4
  5. 5. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 2. Aim of the study The present work is aimed to propose preliminary analyses on an Italian adaptation of Armstrong and colleagues’ (2008) public domain scales, which are not yet available in Italian. - As Armstrong and colleagues (2008) put in evidence, a shorter free domain scale to measure occupational interests can be particularly useful in research projects: projects where the length of current RIASEC measures may hinder certain types of research where the copyright restrictions used by test publishers may limit the types of research questions that you can ask above all in not funded projects (see also Goldberg, 1999). 5
  6. 6. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 1. Participants and procedure Respondents in this study consisted of 407 students in the North-West of Italy. Type of high school Science: 47.7% Artistic: 23.1% Humanities: 10.1% Socio-pedagogical: 9.8% Technical: 9.3% Year of high school 4th: 28% 5th: 72% 407 respondents Sex Female: 57.9% Male: 42.1% City/town Asti: 64.1% Cuneo: 24.8% Turin: 11.1% Among the 407 respondents, 33 filled in also the SDS scale in the Poláček’s version. 6
  7. 7. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 2. Measures The brief free domain RIASEC scale was developed by Armstrong and colleagues (2008) in two versions, selecting 8+8 items for each RIASEC type from the Interest Profiler (Lewis, Rivkin, 1999) and the O’NET occupations. Each version of the scale is made up of 48 items on a five-point Likert-type response format (1 strongly dislike - 5 strongly like). For the present work, Set A and Set B of interest profile items were translated in Italian and checked by the method of back translation. We will show just the results obtained on Set A, because the sample for Set B is being collected. The Self-Directed Search (Holland et al., 1997; Poláček, 2003) is made up of 228 items, including activities, competency statements occupations, and self-ratings of abilities, with 38 items used to measure each type. 7
  8. 8. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 3. Analyses We used the software SPSS 20 for the analyses: After descriptive analysis of each item (M, SD, Asymmetry, Kurtosis), we calculated Exploratory Factor Analysis and Cronbach’s alpha for each factor Correlations among the factors and analysis of variance have been then investigated Using the subsample of 33 respondents, correlations between the two instruments were finally analysed. 8
  9. 9. Theoretical background 1. EFA Research and method Results and conclusions (a) Items Loading ENGLISH ITEMS ITALIAN TRANSLATION Fix a broken faucet 6. Aggiustare un rubinetto rotto .82 Operate a grinding machine in a factory 5 Far funzionare una macchina in una fabbrica .76 Assemble products in a factory 7. Assemblare pezzi in fabbrica .75 Install flooring in houses 8. Installare il parquet nelle case .71 Lay brick or tile 2. Mettere mattoni o tegole .70 Assemble electronic parts 4. Assemblare pezzi elettronici .66 Work on an offshore oil-drilling rig 3. Lavorare su una piattaforma petrolifera .60 Test the quality of parts before shipment 1. Verificare la qualità dei pezzi prima della spedizione .34 Conduct biological research 5. Condurre una ricerca biologica .94 Do research on plants or animals 3. Fare ricerca su piante o animali .84 Work in a biology lab 7. Lavorare in un laboratorio di biologia .83 Develop a new medical treatment or procedure 4. Sviluppare nuove cure o procedure mediche .78 Study animal behavior 2. Studiare il comportamento degli animali .69 Study the structure of the human body 1. Studiare la struttura del corpo umano .65 Make a map of the bottom of an ocean 8. Tracciare una mappa del fondale di un oceano .64 Study whales and other types of marine life 6. Studiare le balene o altre tipologie di vita marina .63 R I Factorial solution: 6 Factors, 51.43% Explained variance; GLS method, Promax rotation. 9
  10. 10. Theoretical background 1. EFA Research and method Results and conclusions (b) Items Loading ENGLISH ITEMS ITALIAN TRANSLATION Write a song 4. Scrivere una canzone .81 Direct a play 2. Dirigere un’opera teatrale .79 Play a musical instrument 6. Suonare uno strumento musicale .76 Conduct a musical choir 1. Condurre un coro musicale .73 Write books or plays 5. Scrivere un libro o un’opera teatrale .72 Design sets for plays 8. Disegnare la scenografia per opere teatrali .44 Design artwork for magazines 3. Disegnare illustrazioni per i giornali .36 Perform stunts for a movie or television show 7. Eseguire acrobazie in un film o in uno spettacolo televisivo .25 Help people with family-related problems 5. Aiutare le persone con problemi in famiglia .90 Help people who have problems with drugs or alcohol 3. Aiutare persone con problemi di droga o alcool .84 Supervise the activities of children at a camp 6. Supervisionare le attività di bambini in campeggio .76 Teach children how to read 7. Insegnare a leggere ai bambini .72 Help elderly people with their daily activities 8. Aiutare le persone anziane nelle loro attività quotidiane .72 Do volunteer work at a non-profit organization 2. Fare il volontario in un’organizzazione non profit .66 Give career guidance to people 1. Dare consigli sulla loro carriera alle persone .48 Teach an individual an exercise routine 4. Insegnare a un individuo esercizi da svolgere quotidianamente .40 A S 10 Factorial solution: 6 Factors, 51.43% Explained variance; GLS method, Promax rotation.
  11. 11. Theoretical background 1. EFA Research and method Results and conclusions (c) Items Loading ENGLISH ITEMS ITALIAN TRANSLATION Manage a clothing store 5. Gestire un negozio di vestiti .68 Operate a beauty salon or barber shop 4. Gestire un salone di bellezza o un negozio di barbiere .66 Run a toy store 8. Aprire un negozio di giocattoli .42 Sell merchandise at a department store 3. Vendere merce in un grande magazzino .40 Manage the operations of a hotel 2. Gestire le attività di un hotel .38 Sell houses 7. Vendere case .36 Sell restaurant franchises to individuals 1. Vendere esercizi commerciali in franchising - Manage a department within a large company 6. Dirigere un’unità di lavoro di una grande azienda - Use a computer program to generate customer bills 3. Utilizzare un programma computerizzato di fatturazione .85 Maintain employee records 4. Aggiornare la documentazione degli impiegati .81 Inventory supplies using a hand-held computer 2. Fare l’inventario dei rifornimenti con un computer .79 Keep shipping and receiving records 8. Occuparsi della spedizione/ricezione di documenti .78 Generate the monthly payroll checks for an office 1. Predisporre i cedolini mensili degli stipendi in un ufficio .78 Compute and record statistical and other numerical data 5. Elaborare e registrare dati numerici e statistici .77 Handle customers’ bank transactions 7. Gestire le transazioni bancarie dei clienti .76 Operate a calculator 6. Usare un calcolatore .75 E C 11 Factorial solution: 6 Factors, 51.43% Explained variance; GLS method, Promax rotation.
  12. 12. Theoretical background Research and method 2. Correlations Variable Results and conclusions (a) 1 2 3 2. I .26** - 3. A .13** .28** 4. S .01 .33** 4 5 6 1. R 5. E .26** 6. C .26** .14** .01 .33** - .18** .15** -.07 -.05 .45** - Cronbach’s Alpha .85 .91 .83 .88 .76 .92 M 10.33 23.67 22.73 25.48 17.82 11.61 SD 7.10 8.25 9.26 8.36 8.98 6.09 N = 407 * p <.05; ** p <.01 12
  13. 13. Theoretical background Research and method 2. Correlations Variable 1. R 1 2 3 Results and conclusions (b) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 - 2. I .30 - 3. A -.02 .44** - 4. S -.05 .52** .61** - 5. E .23 .61** .18 .19 - 6. C .10 .01 -.18 .05 7. R_sds_activities .70** .16 8. I_sds_activities .17 .72** .32 9. A_sds_activities -.20 .37* 10. S_sds_activities -.15 11. E_sds_activities 12. C_sds_activities .09 .04 -.16 .24 .29 .37* .12 - .05 .25 - .71** .55** .04 -.08 -.03 .42* .44 .43* .73** .05 -.34 -.31 .28 .44** -.07 .01 -.11 -.17 .16 .22 .24 .21 -.01 -.15 .17 -.11 -.31 -.28 .16 .37* .43* .18 -.33 -.31 .50** - N = 33 * p <.05; ** p <.01 13
  14. 14. Theoretical background Research and method 2. Correlations Variable 1. R 1 2 3 Results and conclusions (c) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 - 2. I .30 - 3. A -.02 .44** - 4. S -.05 .52** .61** - 5. E .23 .61** .18 .19 - 6. C .10 .01 -.18 .05 7. R_sds .58** -.15 8. I_sds .20 .75** .25 9. A_sds -.13 .30 10. S_sds -.12 11. E_sds 12. C_sds .09 .04 -.23 .26 .18 .43* .08 - .07 .26 - .71** .56** .01 -.10 -.01 .20 .30 .31 .64** .08 -.37* -.08 .08 .51** -.07 -.03 -.20 -.22 .32 .02 .35* .01 -.05 .14 .16 -.20 -.14 -.31 .07 .19 .48** .07 -.01 -.08 N = 33 * p <.05; ** p <.01 .63** - 14
  15. 15. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 3. Analysis of variance T-test puts in evidence gender differences: - males show higher levels of R [t(120,08) = -5.25, p < .001] and C [t(314) = -2.42, p < .01 ] than females -females show higher levels of S [t(174,54) = 5.63, p < .001] than males. Anova puts in evidence some differences among types of high school: school -Humanities and Science show higher levels of I than Artistic, Socio-pedagogical and Technical [F(4, 401) = 8.51, p < .001] -Socio-pedagogical shows higher levels of S than Technical, Artistic, and Science; moreover Humanities and Science show higher levels of S than Technical [F(4, 400) = 4.75, p < .005]. 15
  16. 16. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 4. Discussions and conclusions The exploratory factor analysis results in a six-factor solution, in line with expectations. Factor loadings of the items and internal consistency of the subscales are satisfactory. An exception is the E subscale: factor loadings of items are quite low and two of “E items” merge into the C subscale, so they were eliminated. Consistently with the expectations, then, each subscale of the brief instrument correlates with the correspondent activities subscale of the SDS and with the correspondent SDS profile. An exception is, also in this case, the E subscale that does not correlate with the E SDS activities subscale nor with the E SDS profile. The C brief subscale, then, doesn’t correlate with the C SDS profile. Our results are quite coherent with Armstrong and colleagues’ results. Cronbach’s alpha for all the subscales is satisfying, ranging between .76 and .92. Convergent validity (correlations of the brief scale with the SDS activities and SDS profiles), then, is coherent with Armstrong and colleagues’ results, with the exception of E and C subscales. 16
  17. 17. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 4. Conclusions – limitations and further developments Among the limitations of this study: the dimension of the sub-sample which filled in the SDS so that we could not deeply test convergent validity the ongoing administration of Set B so that we could not compare the two versions of the scale. Among possible developments of this study: to administer both scales (brief free domain RIASEC scale and SDS) to a larger sample of participants in order to measure correlations and to test the brief scale also through a CFA, providing in this way further evidence of the construct validity (Hinkin, 1998) to administer the scale to a wider well-balanced Italian sample in order to develop norms for this population and use the instrument extensively in career counseling to develop a questionnaire useful for measuring other constructs in order to test discriminant and criterion related validity of the scale (Hinkin, 1998). 17
  18. 18. Theoretical background Research and method Results and conclusions 4. Conclusions – implications for practice The results of our study show that the brief RIASEC scale has good psychometric properties and may be thus useful for research aims. aims This confirms Armstrong and colleagues’ (2008) considerations. The scale seems particularly suitable for being used in preliminary phases of guidance projects which have to deal with cost or time restrictions. It can be adopted as an exercise and not as a test. 18
  19. 19. References Armstrong , P. I. Allison , W. Rounds , J. (2008). Development and initial validation of brief public domain RIASEC marker scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 287-299 Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Deary, I. Mervielde, F. Ostendorf, & F. De Fruyt (Eds.). Personality psychology in Europe (Vol. 7, pp. 7–28). Tilburg University Press: Tilburg, The Netherlands. Guichard, J., Huteau, M. (2003). Psicologia dell’orientamento professionale. Milano: Raffaello Cortina. Hinkin, T. R. (1998). A brief tutorial on the development of measures for use in survey questionnaires. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 104-121. Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 6, 35-45. Holland, J. L., Powell, A., & Fritzsche, B. (1994). SDS professional user’s guide. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. Lewis, P., & Rivkin, D. (1999). Development of the O*NET interest profiler. Raleigh, NC: National Center for O*NET Development. McDaniel, M. A., & Snell, A. F. (1999). Holland’s theory and occupational information. Journal of Vocational Behavior: Special Issue on Holland’s Theory, 55, 74–85. Polàček, K. (eds.) (2003). Manuale dell’adattamento italiano dell’SDS Self- Directed Search di J.L. Holland, A.B. Powell, B.A. Fritzsche. Firenze: Organizzazioni Speciali. Vrignaud, P., & Bernaud, J.L. (1994). Les intérets des Français soint-ils hexagonaux? 1. Élemént pour la validation du modele des intérets de Holland (RIASEC) en France. In Question d’orientation, 1, 17-39. 19

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