SCIENCE EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN SCHOOLS:
THE WAY FORWARD
Guidance and career counseling
for the promotion
of scientific ...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

• Numerous educational initiatives
designed to enhance the preparation of
youth in scient...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

• Attention to the needs of gifted students because these students have a greater
potenti...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
• Science enrichment programs could include (Chan et al., 2010):
inquiry-based learning
(B...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

inquiry-based learning
(Bybee et al., 2006; Dewey, 1933;
Huber & Moore, 2001;
Rapporto Ro...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

scaffolding
(Bruner, 1986)

when learners are being asked to solve
nontrivial problems, a...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

cognitive apprenticeship
(Ormrod, 2006)

a teacher and a student (or a group of a
small n...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

• Science enrichment programs could increase
science knowledge and mastery in groups of:
...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
• Important elements in encouraging students to aim for mathematical and
scientific career...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

• Because science attitudes are related to longterm science achievement (Kind, Jones, & B...
RESEARCH FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
• Research (Hofmann & Seidel, 2003) has found that students who have
stro...
RESEARCH FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
For the development of high science interest and confidence, it appears a...
RESEARCH FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
• But a sequence of science enrichment experiences

foster a positive
sci...
RESEARCH FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
• Science

• Di Fabio (in press)

enrichment programs and
education initi...
Differentiate intervention on (Di Fabio, in press, Di Fabio, 2013; Van Esbroeck, 2011):

students:

guidance and career co...
Innovative taxonomy:
differentiated
kind
of
intervention for career
and life construction
(Guichard, 2013)

1. Information...
1. Information interventions for promoting scientific talents
Information
about
career paths to:
- students
- parents
- te...
2. Guidance interventions for promoting scientific talents
Science enrichment programs (Inquiry based learning)
Guidance i...
3. Dialogue interventions for promoting scientific talents

individual and group career
counseling interventions for
caree...
ABOUT THE WORLD OF WORK
IN THE 21st CENTURY
In the context of
postmodern globalization,
characterized by major
development...
ABOUT THE WORLD OF WORK
IN THE 21st CENTURY
21st century
The postmodern era poses
challenges
related
to
(Savickas et al., ...
FOR WORKERS OF 21st CENTURY
21st century
Requirements:
Life-long learning
Use of new technologies
Flexibility
Maintenance ...
A NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
IN GUIDANCE
A new paradigm: life designing

Career construction theory
(Savickas, 2005)
“What ...
AIMS OF LIFE DESIGN INTERVENTIONS
(Savickas, 2011)
NARRATABILITY

INTENTIONALITY
CAREER
ADAPTABILITY
Concern
Control
Curio...
Savickas (2006)
“We’re both the painter and the
painting … We form and
construct ourselves and career
is a bridge to socie...
AIMS OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE
IN THE 21st CENTURY
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE is seen as a
“DISCIPLINE of CHANGE”

CAREER COUNSELOR ...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS

• Differential gender-related
expectations of pare...
SCIENCE GENDER GAP
• In the literature gender differences emerged in relation to the interest for scientific
subjects, wit...
SCIENCE GENDER GAP
• Gender differences in scientific career paths can be due to gender stereotypes
(Marchanda & Taasoobsh...
SCIENCE GENDER GAP
• Global Gender Gap Report (2011)

• Empowering girls and women and
leveraging their talent and leaders...
SCIENCE GENDER GAP
• Factors that directly or indirectly affect the career choice of young women (Dimitriadi, 2013)

The f...
SCIENCE GENDER GAP
• Factors that directly or indirectly affect the career choice of young women (Dimitriadi, 2013)

The s...
FACTORS AFFECTING SCIENCE GENDER GAP
(Dimitriadi, 2013; Ehrmann, 2007)
- The role of women in modern society and the pre-e...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
Role models are an important ...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
ROLE MODELS
(Dimitriadi, 2013...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
• Many enrichment programs and curricular initiatives enhance the sc...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER

irls
gful for g
anin
s are me
ram
ent prog ares, 2001)
chm
M
nce en...
PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER

eers
TEM car
for S
aningful
re me
seling a in press)
oun
,
ce and c...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
• Use of a new definition of ...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
1. Need to restructure career...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
•

Teachers as well as career...
GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR
THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS
IN RELATION TO GENDER
• The challenge for all socie...
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Enhancing

Awareness

for
• community
• schools
• teachers
• parents
• students
• adult educators
alo...
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

A gender-inclusive approach is
needed to include men as well as
women in the discussion
Curricula ref...
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Future enhancement (Chan et al., 2010; Di Fabio, in press)

1) Scaling to reach a wider
audience:

wor...
FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
•

The choice of career is a lifelong process that demands an accurate and an in
depth perception of a...
In the 21st century promotion of scientific talents is challenging (Brody,
2006; Chan et al., 2010; Maree, Elias, & Bar-On...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
adifabio@psico.unifi.it
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S1 SCIENCE EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN SCHOOLS: THE WAY FORWARD 10.00 di fabio

  1. 1. SCIENCE EDUCATION AND GUIDANCE IN SCHOOLS: THE WAY FORWARD Guidance and career counseling for the promotion of scientific talents Annamaria Di Fabio Florence (Italy), October 21-22, 2013 ACARISS
  2. 2. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Numerous educational initiatives designed to enhance the preparation of youth in scientific areas specifically for middle and high school students to encourage their interest and learning in scientific disciplines aiming to increase the number of students in the pipeline to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) careers (Brody, 2001; Chan et al., 2010)
  3. 3. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Attention to the needs of gifted students because these students have a greater potential to achieve in science (Neber & Marlene Schommer-Aikins, 2002; Preckel, Goetz, Pekrun, Kleine, 2008) • Gifted students learn best with more active, engaged approaches to learning: furthermore the value of direct interactions with practicing scientists as mentors and role models is stressed (Chan et al., 2010)
  4. 4. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Science enrichment programs could include (Chan et al., 2010): inquiry-based learning (Bybee et al., 2006; Dewey, 1933; Huber & Moore, 2001; Rapporto Rocard, 2007) scaffolding (Bruner, 1986) cognitive apprenticeship (Ormrod, 2006)
  5. 5. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS inquiry-based learning (Bybee et al., 2006; Dewey, 1933; Huber & Moore, 2001; Rapporto Rocard, 2007) learners may acquire new knowledge through formulating (and testing) new hypotheses in order to solve problems construct their own new perspectives and knowledge self-generated (and self-regulated) inquiry motivates learners to need, or want, to know (Lim, 2001) Positive effects (Chan, 2006): scientific concept difficulty levels, marked increases in (and deeper levels of) higher order thinking an increasing interest in careers in science and engineering
  6. 6. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS scaffolding (Bruner, 1986) when learners are being asked to solve nontrivial problems, an instructor (providing scaffolding as a more capable, knowledgeable peer) can provide instructional aids to detect and utilize the most salient, available information, when working toward reaching the most accurate conclusions and desired outcomes Positive evidence for the impact upon reasoning self-regulative thinking process-based approaches for learning science with the use of learning tools and gifted children’s rapid learning
  7. 7. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS cognitive apprenticeship (Ormrod, 2006) a teacher and a student (or a group of a small number of students) work together in a mentor–mentee relationship in order to accomplish a challenging task or to solve a difficult nontrivial problem students may learn how to complete a task and how to think about a task It has the features of modeling, coaching, scaffolding, articulation, reflection, increasing complexity and diversity of tasks, and exploration It serves as a viable tool for effective science teaching and learning
  8. 8. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Science enrichment programs could increase science knowledge and mastery in groups of: • general students (Bazler et al., 1993; Houtz, 1995; Di Fabio, Raschi, Sebastiani, Ugolini, & Palazzeschi, 2012; Quintanillaa & Thomas Packardb, 2013; Stake & Mares, 2005) • female students (Marchanda & Taasoobshiraz, 2013) • gifted students (Heller, 2013; Stakes & Mares, 2001)
  9. 9. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Important elements in encouraging students to aim for mathematical and scientific careers (Brody, 2001) − Solid preparation from an early age in maths and science content - Experience with hands-on content - Awareness of the utility of school-based learning in the workplace - Exposure to role models and mentors who work in these fields Access to peers who share these interests - Family variables (education of parents, careers of parents, support for students interests, etc.) - Affective and personality traits (investigative and theoretical interests, assertiveness, motivation, etc.)
  10. 10. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Because science attitudes are related to longterm science achievement (Kind, Jones, & Barmby, 2007; Krappa & Prenzel, 2011), the increase of positive science attitudes is important for promoting successful science careers
  11. 11. RESEARCH FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Research (Hofmann & Seidel, 2003) has found that students who have stronger and more persistent science interest and involvement have had (a) parents with more education (b) confidence in their abilities (c) strong family encouragement and family members interested and involved in science (a) a network of friends interested in science (b) support and positive advice from teachers (c) positive attitudes toward their science teachers (d) same-sex teacher models
  12. 12. RESEARCH FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS For the development of high science interest and confidence, it appears advantageous to be a boy who has • well-educated parents • general self-confidence • encouragement from family, peers, and teachers • teachers who are positive role models (Stake & Mares, 2001)
  13. 13. RESEARCH FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • But a sequence of science enrichment experiences foster a positive science orientation (Stake & Mares, 2001)
  14. 14. RESEARCH FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Science • Di Fabio (in press) enrichment programs and education initiatives to attract students to careers in scientific domains may involve Differentiated levels of interventions that involve students, parents, teachers, schools and the community (Chan et al., 2010; Stake & Mares, 2001) Students Parents Students Teachers Parents Community Schools Teachers Schools
  15. 15. Differentiate intervention on (Di Fabio, in press, Di Fabio, 2013; Van Esbroeck, 2011): students: guidance and career counseling intervention (in a continuum from science enrichment programs to specific career counseling intervention for promoting the awareness of scientific talents) parents: training to become able to recognize and facilitate the talents of their sons and daughters (metaphor of the detective, Di Fabio, 2013, in press) teachers: training to become able to recognize and facilitate the talents of their students and using a guidance didactics schools: more responsibility for guidance of students for promoting talents and particularly scientific talents community: more responsibility of all the actors in this guidance process and promotion of a guidance culture for promoting talents and particularly scientific talents
  16. 16. Innovative taxonomy: differentiated kind of intervention for career and life construction (Guichard, 2013) 1. Information 2. Guidance 3. Dialogue These differentiated kind of interventions are placed along a continuum but they do not exclude each other (Di Fabio, in press)
  17. 17. 1. Information interventions for promoting scientific talents Information about career paths to: - students - parents - teachers scientific Privileged witnesses of scientific careers in particular for reducing gender stereotypes privileged witnesses of scientific careers Schools and the community have to take care to provide and disseminate information about scientific career paths and to reduce stereotypes
  18. 18. 2. Guidance interventions for promoting scientific talents Science enrichment programs (Inquiry based learning) Guidance interventions on career choice processes Guidance didactics for promoting awareness and scientific talents Intervention for reducing gender stereotypes • For students: • • • • Training to become able to recognize and facilitate the scientific talents of their sons and daughters (metaphor of the detective, For parents: Di Fabio, 2013, in press) Intervention for reducing gender stereotypes in parents • Training to become able to recognize and facilitate the talents of their students • Training to use guidance didactics • Intervention for reducing gender stereotypes in teachers • For teachers:
  19. 19. 3. Dialogue interventions for promoting scientific talents individual and group career counseling interventions for career and life construction for promoting the awareness of one’s own talents including scientific talents
  20. 20. ABOUT THE WORLD OF WORK IN THE 21st CENTURY In the context of postmodern globalization, characterized by major developments in economics and information technology STEM careers are very important
  21. 21. ABOUT THE WORLD OF WORK IN THE 21st CENTURY 21st century The postmodern era poses challenges related to (Savickas et al., 2009): economical changes and globalization instable work world occupational prospects seem far less predictable, with job transitions more frequent and difficult. Career belongs to the person not the organization (Duarte, 2004)
  22. 22. FOR WORKERS OF 21st CENTURY 21st century Requirements: Life-long learning Use of new technologies Flexibility Maintenance of employability Creation of own opportunities Career adaptability
  23. 23. A NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK IN GUIDANCE A new paradigm: life designing Career construction theory (Savickas, 2005) “What is the meaning of my professional career in my life?” Theory highlights modalities by which the individual constructs his/her career “Seeking to unify the present through a reorganization of the past” (Guichard, 2010) Self-constructing theory (Guichard, 2005) “What should give meaning to my life?” Theory does not focus on career construction – its scope is more general “Seeking to unify the present through the development of future possibilities” (Guichard, 2010)
  24. 24. AIMS OF LIFE DESIGN INTERVENTIONS (Savickas, 2011) NARRATABILITY INTENTIONALITY CAREER ADAPTABILITY Concern Control Curiosity Confidence ACTIVITY BIOGRAPHICITY
  25. 25. Savickas (2006) “We’re both the painter and the painting … We form and construct ourselves and career is a bridge to society, to participate in the community.”
  26. 26. AIMS OF VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE IN THE 21st CENTURY VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE is seen as a “DISCIPLINE of CHANGE” CAREER COUNSELOR is seen as a “CHANGE AGENT” Also against gender stereotypes in career paths
  27. 27. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS • Differential gender-related expectations of parents and teachers of gifted students (Heller & Perleth, 2005)
  28. 28. SCIENCE GENDER GAP • In the literature gender differences emerged in relation to the interest for scientific subjects, with males more interested in science than females (Gouthier, Manzolis, & Ramani, 2008; Stake & Nickens, 2005; Stevens, Wang, Olivarez, & Hamman, 2007) • Since the 1970s there was a focus on barriers that might be holding females back from aspiring to careers in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) fields, and concern about the underrepresentation of females and minority groups in scientific fields continues today (Brody, 2001; Llumoka, 2012)
  29. 29. SCIENCE GENDER GAP • Gender differences in scientific career paths can be due to gender stereotypes (Marchanda & Taasoobshiraz, 2013) - Women are still underrepresented in science and technology like physics, information communications technology (ICT), and engineering (Xie & Reider, 2013; (National Research Council, 2011; Yazilitas, Svensson, & de Vries, 2013). - High employment numbers in sectors such as (OECD 2006, 2011, EURYDICE 2011): domestic work education (teachers and trainers) medicine biology health services pharmaceutical companies arts and humanities
  30. 30. SCIENCE GENDER GAP • Global Gender Gap Report (2011) • Empowering girls and women and leveraging their talent and leadership fully in the global economy, politics, and society are fundamental elements of the new models required to succeed in today's challenging world of work • European Commission (2011) • Facing a significant gender gap especially in STEM
  31. 31. SCIENCE GENDER GAP • Factors that directly or indirectly affect the career choice of young women (Dimitriadi, 2013) The family unit and particularly the background, education and experiences of the parental figure most influential in the family turn girls towards careers considered more “convenient” for family, less demanding, and which require fewer educational prerequisites when the family unit supports financially, emotionally, and socially the woman, the career choice made was much more based on girls’ skills, interests, and abilities and much less on workplace readiness
  32. 32. SCIENCE GENDER GAP • Factors that directly or indirectly affect the career choice of young women (Dimitriadi, 2013) The school and particularly the science teachers through the classroom stereotypes, barriers, identity and mentality of gender differences regarding gender roles in family and society are constructed and deconstructed, influencing career choices education should enable the youth in making an informed choice based on knowledge, information, interests, and understanding of one's skills Pay attention to the gender stereotypes sustained and propagated through the media (internet, films, TV, and magazines)
  33. 33. FACTORS AFFECTING SCIENCE GENDER GAP (Dimitriadi, 2013; Ehrmann, 2007) - The role of women in modern society and the pre-existing prejudices create glass ceilings Lack of information places young women in a difficult position of making a career choice, with little knowledge of available possibilities - Science is stereotyped as a male domain (OECD 2006, 2011, EURYDICE 2011): girls continue to feel that science is not “their space” and they make different educational and professional choices from boys some girls believe that a science career is incompatible with having a family and a balanced personal life good role models offer a glimpse into the reality of being a female employed in the field of science and/or technology
  34. 34. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER Role models are an important factor in elevating a young person’s aspirations Increasing exposure to role models in a variety of professions can assist female students in making career choices (Quimby & DeSantis, 2006) ROLE MODELS (Dimitriadi, 2013) Women are not introduced by teachers to role models with successful maths and/or science careers many pupils hold gender stereotype attitudes towards a range of occupations, associating certain characteristics with a particular gender (for example, women are more caring, better at talking to people, etc.; men are stronger, fitter, and more technical and practical)
  35. 35. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER ROLE MODELS (Dimitriadi, 2013) Young girls usually lack knowledge of − the specific characteristics of occupations, especially nontraditional ones − the requirements to study them − the available career paths, time-frame and career advancement options • Supplying to that should be the essence of career counseling • But this is not always available or accessible to young girls
  36. 36. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER • Many enrichment programs and curricular initiatives enhance the science achievement and attitudes of both girls and boys importance of inquiry-based learning (Di Fabio, in press; Di Fabio et al., 2012; Sesen & Tarhan, 2013) Longitudinal study: students who actively performed their own science experiments learned more than those who did not Other comparisons of hands-on versus more passive learning paradigms support active learning for enhancing science achievement Girls may benefit from opportunities to use science tools and equipment because they have less experience than boys in science-related activities outside the classroom Girls learn best through engaged learning activities that promotes student participation in a supportive environment For girls science role models, close mentoring, and detailed science career information are important for the promotion of science interest and achievement
  37. 37. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER irls gful for g anin s are me ram ent prog ares, 2001) chm M nce enri Scie (Stake &
  38. 38. PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER eers TEM car for S aningful re me seling a in press) oun , ce and c (Di Fabio uidan G
  39. 39. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER • Use of a new definition of achievement through career counseling: recognition and enhancement of expression of talents and of individual’s values and right to choice recognize the validity of multiple outlets for achievement desires and support to clients to find a comfortable balance of achievement across a range of life roles (Di Fabio, in press; Guichard, 2009)
  40. 40. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER 1. Need to restructure career counseling interventions (Di Fabio, in press; Savickas, 2011; Guichard, 2009, 2013 ; Guichard & Di Fabio, 2010): young women encouraged “to think outside the box” (Savickas, 2011), about what is important to them and about possibilities of combining what they value with a meaningful career Career counselors need to encourage women to explore how their abilities, talents, values, and attributes can best be realized and in which life roles provide support for females to continue in STEM fields so that career options will not be prematurely and unnecessarily restricted
  41. 41. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER • Teachers as well as career counselors need to carefully scrutinize their own biases, beliefs and expectations toward girls and women • such that in this self-examination process teachers and career counselors can come to fully respect the capabilities of bright young women as well as to support their aspirations in career choice (Di Fabio, in press)
  42. 42. GUIDANCE AND CAREER COUNSELING FOR THE PROMOTION OF SCIENTIFIC TALENTS IN RELATION TO GENDER • The challenge for all society, and particularly for career counselors provide an environment that is supportive of women and girls as well as men and boys, allowing them to develop to their full potential as equally valued and contributing members of society (Di Fabio, in press; Savickas, 2011)
  43. 43. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Enhancing Awareness for • community • schools • teachers • parents • students • adult educators along with curricula reform and a new preventive perspective (Di Fabio, in press; Kenny & Di Fabio, 2009; Kenny & Hage, 2009) Sensitivity Training as part of institutional change (Karpodini-Dimitriadi 2008)
  44. 44. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES A gender-inclusive approach is needed to include men as well as women in the discussion Curricula reforms have to be taken (Dimitriadi, 2013) Monitor gender equality Create a culture of success for women in STEM (Wachter 2008)
  45. 45. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES Future enhancement (Chan et al., 2010; Di Fabio, in press) 1) Scaling to reach a wider audience: workshops, seminars, and demonstrations concerned with selected topics in science methodology more gifted students come into contact with scientific research studies 2) Building stronger ties with school education: bridge the gap between school science education and student participants can be encouraged higher education with presentations of these previous students’ progress (and/or results) in their own schools or in other schools. 3) Involvement of educational researchers and experts in collecting and analyzing data, and providing new evidence regarding participants’ learning evaluate ongoing program effectiveness and suggest strategies for improvement 4) Evaluation of intervention effectiveness using pre and post-experimental design with control group
  46. 46. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES • The choice of career is a lifelong process that demands an accurate and an in depth perception of ability, potential, and achievement, and it is one of the major areas of concern for young people (Guichard, 2009; Guichard & Di Fabio, 2010) • The guidance system has to involve all actors and stakeholders (policy makers, school teachers and professors, school associations, parents, and the business world) so young children, especially girls, will receive all the required information in order to make proper choices that will allow them to pursue successful careers and help them to be happy in their lives (Savickas, 2011)
  47. 47. In the 21st century promotion of scientific talents is challenging (Brody, 2006; Chan et al., 2010; Maree, Elias, & Bar-On, 2009) both for individual and societal development (Heller, 2005; Subotnik & Rickoff, 2010; Di Fabio, in press) Importance of both enrichment program (as for example ACARISS project) guidance intervention (from information to guidance and to career counseling) for promoting talents in the scientific field
  48. 48. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION adifabio@psico.unifi.it

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