07 participation, voting, and elections(clicker)

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  • The urban (and mostly liberal) concentration of Columbus, Ohio, located at the center of the map in Franklin County, is split into thirds, each segment then attached to—and outnumbered by—largely conservative suburbs.
  • Bob Barr and John Linder were placed in the same district…had to face off in the Republican primary.
  • Freshman U.S. Rep. John Barrow of Athens is placed in a newly drawn 10th District with longtime Republican U.S. Rep. Charlie Norwood of suburban Augusta, and Rep. Jim Marshall, a Macon Democrat, will have a much different district with fewer black voters, a traditional gauge of Democratic strength. John Barrow – New 10th but still thereJim Marshall – 3rd to 8th but still thereThese 2 Democrats voted AGAINST the Health Care Bill
  • U.S. Constitution, Article II, Section 1“Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.
  • Every 10 years a census is performed to determine the allotment of seats in Congress (and therefore the Electoral College).
  • Every 10 years a census is performed to determine the allotment of seats in Congress (and therefore the Electoral College). Required to Pledge? Not in Georgia…26 States and the District of Columbia (3) have some form of law or binding pledge to vote for the candidate with which they are affiliated. Georgia, however, does not.“Faithless Electors” Electors who do not vote for their party’s designated candidate. Since the founding of the Electoral College, there have been 156 faithless Electors. 71 of these votes were changed because the original candidate died before the day on which the Electoral College cast their votes. Three of the votes were not cast at all as three Electors chose to abstain from casting their Electoral vote for any candidate. The other 82 Electoral votes were changed on the personal initiative of the Elector.
  • SIZE not WHOM is determined by congressional delegation…Article II, Sec. 1 says that “no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.”Puerto Rico, while given by the parties delegates to the national convention, as a territory, does not have any electoral college representation.States with 3 = Wyoming, N and S Dakota, Montana, Alaska, Delaware, Vermont along with D.C.
  • The usage of the Electoral College did not exist until early 1800s.I say “on behalf” because actual congresspersons are not members of the electoral college (they cannot be – article II, sec. 1).
  • Every 10 years a census is performed to determine the allotment of seats in Congress (and therefore the Electoral College).
  • Every 10 years a census is performed to determine the allotment of seats in Congress (and therefore the Electoral College).
  • 1800 Election – The electoral college failed to produce the majority needed for any candidate.12th Amendment (1804) – designed to prevent a repetition of this election by linking the pres and vice pres.1824 Election –
  • 07 participation, voting, and elections(clicker)

    1. 1. Participation, Voting, and Elections Chapters 8 and 10
    2. 2. Clicker Question How many blog comments have you posted? a. 10+ b. 7-9 c. 4-6 d. 1-3
    3. 3. Clicker Question New Blog Requirements: ONLY 10 POST NEEDED (NOT 20) 10 posts = 100% Up to 5 post = Extra Credit (1 pt each) ALL POSTS DUE: June 24th by 5pm
    4. 4. Clicker Question Do you believe it is right to participate in a political protest if you are dissatisfied with the policies of our government? a. Yes b. No
    5. 5. Clicker Question Do you believe it is a problem that citizens with lower incomes and less education are significantly less likely to participate in politics? a. Yes b. No
    6. 6. Clicker Question Do you think the policies enacted by our elected representatives would be different if EVERYONE voted? a. Yes b. No
    7. 7. Clicker Question The Constitution was amended to allow women the right to vote in all public elections in: a. 1870 b. 1885 c. 1920 d. 1948
    8. 8. Clicker Question Do you support women’s suffrage? a. YES b. NO
    9. 9. Key Terms Suffrage – The right to vote. USAGE: Women were extended suffrage in _____. Franchise – ALSO, the right to vote…or the group of people who have the right to vote. USAGE: In America the franchise includes all adults _____ or older.
    10. 10. Political Participation Political participation refers to a wide range of activities designed to influence government. Today, voting is the typical form of participation, although political participation also includes activities like petitioning, protesting, and campaigning.
    11. 11. Types of Participation Voting – Casting a vote, campaign contributions, sign posting, etc. Lobbying - Exerting direct pressure on elected officials. Public Relations – An effort to sway public opinion on behalf of an issue or cause. Litigation – Using the courts to seek relief or effect some type of change Protest – Assembling crowds to confront a government or other official organization.
    12. 12. Frequency of Participation
    13. 13. Clicker Question The most recent expansion of the franchise in the United States took place in 1971, when the: a. Motor Voter Act was passed b. poll tax was abolished c. Supreme Court struck down white primaries d. voting age was reduced from twenty-one to eighteen
    14. 14. Historical Turnout
    15. 15. Clicker Question Which country has higher voter turnout than the United States? a. Mexico b. Germany c. Italy d. All of the above
    16. 16. Voter Turnout Around the World % % % % % % % % % % % Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Denmark Domican Republic Ecuador Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Italy Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Norway Peru Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Venezuela Average = 70%
    17. 17. Clicker Question Would you be more likely to vote if election day were a holiday? a. Yes b. No
    18. 18. Clicker Question Would you be more likely to vote if you could vote at any polling location? a. Yes b. No
    19. 19. Clicker Question Would you be more likely to vote if we had more parties on the ballot? a. Yes b. No
    20. 20. The Calculus of Voting (Why is Turnout so HIGH?) R = pB − C + D R = the reward gained from voting in a given election p = probability of vote “mattering” B = Benefit of voting--differential benefit of one candidate winning over the other C = Costs of voting (time/effort spent) D = citizen duty, goodwill feeling, psychological and civic benefit of voting
    21. 21. Clicker Question The “Calculus of Voting” suggests that people will only vote if the ___________ outweigh the __________. a. Democrats, Republicans b. Issues, Laziness c. Benefits, Costs d. Costs, Benefits
    22. 22. Who Does Vote? Both the decision to vote and particular voting behavior is associated with a number of demographic factors. What factors predict voting behavior? Income Education Age Race/Ethnicity Gender Strength of Partisanship
    23. 23. Voting and Demographics
    24. 24. Voting and Demographics
    25. 25. Why is Turnout So Low? Demographics – Expansion of groups traditionally associated with low voting rates – Young, African Americans, Latinos. Barriers to Voting – Only 2/3 of eligible voters were registered during the past 3 decades. (Motor Voter 1993) Lack of Attractive Choices – Because we only have 2 parties it becomes an either/or situation. Too Much Complexity – Too much time and effort is involved in being informed because we vote on almost everything. Voter Fatigue – Americans vote far more often than people in parliamentary regimes – The only country that votes more than the US is Switzerland. Citizen Disaffection – Poor candidates and contentious or negative campaigning may have kept people away from the polling booths – Apathy, Cynicism, Alienation.
    26. 26. Clicker Question Would you support expanding the electorate to those between the ages of 16 and 18? a. YES b. NO
    27. 27. Why or Why Not? Reasons: Easily Persuaded by parents – not independent Too immature – May not understand the complexity Won’t take it seriously – no vested interest Not informed; Politics doesn’t affect them Won’t vote anyway
    28. 28. Clicker Question Reasons: -Can’t join the military; not legal adults -Not mature enough -Uneducated -Not sophisticated enough to make reasonable decisions -No jobs -They wouldn’t vote anyway -Would vote frivolously -Not enough “at stake” – Too dependent on parents
    29. 29. Clicker Question Do you believe that POOR/WORKING CLASS people are sometimes PURPOSEFULLY disenfranchised? a. YES b. NO
    30. 30. Types of Elections Primary Election – Elections held to select a party’s candidate for the general election. OPEN primary – A primary election in which the voter can wait until the day of the primary to choose which party to enroll in to select candidates for the general election. CLOSED primary – A primary election in which voters can only participate in the nomination of candidates if they are formally enrolled as a member of that party for a period of time prior to the primary day.
    31. 31. Clicker Question Do you believe that OPEN PRIMARIES are FAIR? a. YES b. NO
    32. 32. Clicker Question Joe walks into his voting station and the election judge asks him which party's ballot he would like to vote on today. Joe is in a)a closed primary state. b)an open primary state. c)a caucus state. d)a dictatorship.
    33. 33. Clicker Question Except in rare occasions, boundaries for congressional and state legislative districts in the United States are redrawn by the states every _______ years. a. two b. ten c. twenty d. twenty-five
    34. 34. Reapportionment and Redistricting Reapportionment – Every 10 years the census is used to tell us where people have moved (within and across states). Redistricting – Usually, in response to reapportionment (but not always), states redraw district lines so that their districts achieve basic equality. Gerrymandering – Redistricting with PURPOSE. Partisan and Incumbent usually OKAY, racial is a NO. Shaw v. Reno, 1993 – Districts based exclusively on racial criteria are unlawful.
    35. 35. Districts Gone Wild Illinois’ 4th District North Carolina’s 12th District
    36. 36. Gerrymandering Techniques • Packing: Places the opposing party's voters in the fewest possible districts, to minimize their influence on other districts • Cracking: Spreading voters of one type over many districts where they will comprise minorities that are unable to influence elections. • Hijacking: Separating an incumbent candidate from his constituents and placing him or her in a district where he or she has no name recognition. • Kidnapping: Drawing two incumbent candidates into the same district so they must run against each other.
    37. 37. Cracking and Packing Fig. 4 portrays an example of cracking, where voters have been divided among a number of districts, so that the RED party holds a 9-7 advantage in three districts and BLUE wins just a single district Fig. 3 portrays an extreme example of packing, where a single district is composed solely of RED voters, throwing the advantage to the BLUE party in the remaining three districts. Fig. 2 represents an incumbent protection or "sweetheart" gerrymandering plan, in which district boundaries are draw to split the number of seats evenly between the parties and to insure a strongly partisan voting base in every district. Fig. 1 creates 4 competitive districts, where there are an equal number of voters from each party in every district.
    38. 38. Cracking 2005 – Georgia’s 12th District • Oho Columbus, Ohio
    39. 39. Packing California’s 23rd District Democratic Packed District
    40. 40. Hijacking 2005 – Georgia’s 12th District John Barrow was drawn out of his district And placed in the 10th D but moved back to the 12th and won anyway.
    41. 41. Kidnapping Georgia’s 7th and 11th Districts Bob Barr and John Linder were placed in the same district…had to face off in the Republican primary.
    42. 42. 2000 – Census gives GA +2 districts Democratic controlled Assembly map 11th was an attempt to create a majority- minority district 2002 – Republicans win control of Gen. Assembly Argue that 2001 map splits too many communities/counties; creates districts that are irregularly shaped; too partisan in nature 2005 – New Map… Redistricting in Georgia
    43. 43. 2001 Map 2005 Map
    44. 44. 2010 Census
    45. 45. Seat Change
    46. 46. District Size
    47. 47. Clicker Question Would you vote to change the redistricting process in Georgia? a. Yes b. No
    48. 48. Campaigns - Median Voter Theory • Rather than differentiate themselves, there are clear incentives for candidates to “go to the middle” because that’s where the voters are. • Electoral competition drives parties together… • So, the reason candidates appear to be so centrist is because they are both competing for “Bob’s” vote in order to win.
    49. 49. Median Voter Theory Obama McCain
    50. 50. How Do Voters Decide? Social Characteristics – SES, Religion, Ethnicity Party Loyalties – Strength of Partisan Identification Candidates – experience, decisiveness, personal warmth, etc. Issues The Economy – Bush I vs. Clinton (“It’s the Economy Stupid”) Foreign Policy – Wars, International Crises
    51. 51. Clicker Question Which step comes last? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting
    52. 52. Clicker Question Which step comes first? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting
    53. 53. Clicker Question Which step comes second? a. Reapportionment b. Census c. Redistricting
    54. 54. Clicker Question The number of a state’s electoral votes is determined by a. Number of members in the House of Representatives b. Percentage of registered voted that voted during the last election. c. Number of members it has in both chambers of Congress. d. state’s proportionate share of the overall national population
    55. 55. Clicker Question In the 2000 presidential race, George Bush won Missouri 50 percent to 47 percent. How many of Missouri's eleven electoral votes did Bush get in 2000? a)six b)seven c)nine d)eleven
    56. 56. Electoral College Important Numbers The Electoral College 55 House +Senate + 3 Article II 3
    57. 57. Why do we have the Electoral College? Options for Electing a President 1. Indirectly By “Experts” – Let Congress or State Legislatures choose the President. REJECTED! – NOT ENOUGH DEMOCRACY 2. Directly by Citizens – Let citizens vote directly for the president. REJECTED! – NOT ENOUGH QUALITY Solution: Involve both “Experts” and Citizens. Legitimacy and Quality The Electoral College
    58. 58. How does the System Work? (OVERVIEW) 1. Prior to election day, each party within a state chooses a slate of electors that are important figures within their political party. 2. On Election Day, we vote for a party’s slate of electors that have pledged to vote for the presidential candidate we prefer. 3. The Popular Vote is then CONVERTED into the Electoral Vote. (Maine and Nebraska are Different) 4. In December, the electors gather in their respective state capitols to cast ballots for president and vice president. In January, Congress convenes, opens the ballots received from each state, and announces the official outcome.
    59. 59. How does the System Work? 1. Prior to election day, each party within a state chooses a slate of electors that are important figures within their political party. Required to Pledge? Not in Georgia… 26 States and the District of Columbia (3) have some form of law or binding pledge to vote for the candidate with which they are affiliated. Georgia, however, does not. “Faithless Electors” •Electors who do not vote for their party’s designated candidate. •Since the founding of the Electoral College, there have been 156 faithless Electors. •71 of these votes were changed because the original candidate died before the day on which the Electoral College cast their votes. •Three of the votes were not cast at all as three Electors chose to abstain from casting their Electoral vote for any candidate. •The other 82 Electoral votes were changed on the personal initiative of the Elector. The Electoral College
    60. 60. The Electors… Number Given to Each State = Size of Congressional Delegation GEORGIA, with 14 House districts, has 16 Electoral College votes. (Remember, you add 2 for the Senate) Largest State = California with 55 electors Smallest States = 7 states +D.C. have 3 electors How are they Chosen? •Electors are typically long-time party activists who are selected by their state party organization as a reward for their loyalty to the party.
    61. 61. The Electoral College All the electors from ALL of the states make up the Electoral College •The Electoral College consists of 538 members 435 (House) + 100 (Senate) + 3 (D.C.) = 538 CONSTITUTIONALLY, to win a presidential election, a candidate must receive a MAJORITY of the Electoral Vote. 538/2 = 269 (Majority = 270) The Electoral College
    62. 62. 2. On Election Day, we vote for a party’s slate of electors that have pledged to vote for the presidential candidate we prefer. This is the POPULAR VOTE
    63. 63. 3. The Popular Vote is then CONVERTED into the Electoral Vote. The Electoral College How’d that happen?
    64. 64. From Popular Vote to Electoral Vote 48 states award electors based on the Winner-Take-All System. Thus, 50% +1 Vote = 100% of Electors Popular Vote (National = 53% to 46% Obama) In the 2008 election, 52% of Georgia voters chose McCain while 47% of Georgia voters chose Obama. Electoral Vote (National = 68% to 32% Obama) ALL 15 of Georgia’s electoral college seats were then awarded to John McCain. The Electoral College
    65. 65. Maine (4) and Nebraska (5) Maine and Nebraska award electors through a more proportional process. HOW? Each state selects electors at the congressional district level and then awards the 2 “extra” electors to the statewide popular vote winner. The Electoral College
    66. 66. Clicker Question What do you think about the Nebraska/ Maine system? a)I love it, lets do it! b)Might Work here. c)No way, never!
    67. 67. 2008 Electoral College Vote What’s misleading about this map? Hint: Should McCain have won? The Electoral College
    68. 68. 2008 Electoral College Vote (Scaled to # of Electoral College Votes)
    69. 69. 2000 – Bush vs. Gore So, how is it possible that Al Gore won the popular vote (by almost 544k votes) and yet lost the electoral college vote (271 to 266)? A Winner-Take-All system means that any extra votes (those beyond what is necessary to win) are “SURPLUS” in the sense that they do not affect the winner’s electoral vote result for that state. Example: Gore only needed 3.2M votes to win New York but he received 4.1M…That’s 900,000 “extra” votes that increased his popular vote total but did not change his electoral vote total. The Electoral College
    70. 70. Clicker Question Had the entire country used the Nebraska/ Maine system in 2000, Al Gore would have been president. a) TRUE b) FALSE
    71. 71. Concerns about the Electoral College 1. Does everyone’s vote count the same? Wyoming – 71,242 votes per elector California – 199,378 votes per elector 2. How does this process affect voter turnout? Battleground States vs. Safe States 3. Reinforces 2-party system Democracy = Choice The Electoral College
    72. 72. Number of Presidential Candidate Visits (September 26th to November 2nd, 2004)
    73. 73. Advertising Money Spent ($ =1 million) (September 26th to November 2nd, 2004)
    74. 74. Other Ways? Congressional District Approach? We could all change to the Maine/Nebraska model – Strangely, if this had been done in 2000, Bush would have won by a larger electoral margin (Small states tend to be Republican + large states like CA and NY would be split) Proportional Voting? In 2008, Georgia would have awarded 8 electors to McCain and 7 electors to Obama. Had this been used in 2008 (in TX, CA, GA, FL, OH, PA, and WI), McCain would have picked up an additional 45 electoral college votes. The Electoral College
    75. 75. Georgia 2008 Had Georgia used the Maine approach, Obama would have picked up between 3 and 5 of our electoral college votes.
    76. 76. Clicker Question What does the Constitution require to be elected President? a. A Plurality of the Popular Vote b. A Majority of the Electoral Vote c. A Plurality of the Electoral Vote d. A Majority of the Popular Vote
    77. 77. Clicker Question Would you approve or disapprove of an amendment to the Constitution which would do away with the electoral college and base the election of a President on the total vote cast throughout the nation? a. YES b. NO
    78. 78. Historical Support APPROVE DISAPPROVE NO OPINION June 1944 65% 23% 13% January 1977 73% 15% 12% Nov. 1980 67% 19% 15% June 2008 74% 21% 5%

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