Tass conference

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Tass conference

  1. 1. Plagiarism, cheating, collusion, and more: What faculty can do to address the root causes of academic dishonesty in their classrooms? Presented by: Alexandra A. Escobar and Richard Dettling
  2. 2. Some Problems  Research shows almost 50% of students are engaging in some form of academic dishonesty in universities in the United States and Canada (McCabe, Butterfield, & Trevino, 2006; McCabe, 2009).  When academic quality and integrity is compromised, the institution suffers.
  3. 3. Some Problems  Students who engage in academic dishonesty may not develop the necessary academic skills and content knowledge in college (Postle, 2009).  This behavior can lead to questionable ethics beyond school which can negatively impact the community at large (Harding, Carpenter, Finelli, & Passow, 2004; Anitsal, Anitsal, & Elmore, 2009; Nonis & Swift, 2001).
  4. 4. How are you addressing these challenges?  Prevention  Education  Response
  5. 5. Using Theory to Enhance Practice  Granitz and Lowey (2007) presented six ethical theories to understand plagiarism
  6. 6. Ethical Theories to Understand Plagiarism (Granitz & Lowey, 2007) Ethical Theory Application Alignment to Student Behavior & Justification Deontology Deciding what is right or wrong based on duty to others Applies to students who claim they did not know they plagiarized since this would conflict with their sense of duty Utilitarianism Cost benefit analysis: making decisions based on what generates the greatest amount of happiness Plagiarism can lead to higher grades and harms no one Rational Self-Interest Benefiting oneself and giving to others based on what has been given. Plagiarism is ok when the assignment is irrelevant or the teacher does not put forth much effort in teaching
  7. 7. Ethical Theory Application Alignment to Student Behavior & Justification Machiavellianism Self-interest behavior, no regard to consequences on others Students brag about their plagiarized work and then blame others if they get caught Cultural relativism Acting in accordance to the values of one’s culture Plagiarism is allowable in students’ own country/culture Situational/ contingent ethics Behaviors and ethical decisions are influenced by individual, social, and situational elements Plagiarism is permitted under extenuating circumstances Ethical Theories to Understand Plagiarism (Granitz & Lowey, 2007)
  8. 8. Extending the Model  What can instructors do?  Compiling best practices
  9. 9. What Can Instructors Do? Student Behavior Ways faculty can address root causes Deontology: Students not understanding they plagiarized • Socialize the school’s code of Academic Integrity • Direct instruction on note-taking, paraphrasing, and citation • Know and promote available resources to help students Utilitarianism: Plagiarism can lead to higher grades and harms no one • Get to know your students • Instill ethics in students, discuss current ethical issues in society • Have high expectations • Let students know you will check for plagiarism • Do in class-writing assignments (writing sample)
  10. 10. Student Behavior Ways faculty can address root causes Rational Self-Interest: Plagiarism is ok when the assignment is irrelevant or the teacher does not put forth much effort in teaching • Show students you care • Relevant and individualized assignments and assessments. Narrow topics are best. • Require students to use current events and sources within the last 5 years • Avoid busy work • Prepare students for assignments and debrief completed work Machiavellianism: Students brag about their plagiarized work and blame others if caught • Instill ethics in students • Model scholarly integrity as a faculty What Can Instructors Do?
  11. 11. Student Behavior Ways faculty can address root causes Cultural Relativism: Plagiarism is allowable in students’ own culture • Emphasize the importance and value of academic integrity in U.S. institutions • Do not assume students know how to cite • Know and promote available resources to help students Situational/Contingent Ethics: Action is justified under extenuating circumstances • Share time management strategies • Break up larger assignments to weekly tasks (outlines, annotated bibliographies, drafts) • Consider some flexibility in late policy • Have students turn in a reflection on the writing process, struggles, aha moments, etc. What Can Instructors Do?
  12. 12. A Shared Responsibility  Prevention, education, and response are all necessary for effectively addressing academic dishonesty and reducing its occurrences on our campuses.  Upholding academic integrity is a joint effort and the shared responsibility of students, faculty, and administrators (Macdonald & Carroll, 2006).
  13. 13. And finally… Questions and/or Comments?
  14. 14. References Anitsal, I., Anitsal, M., & Elmore, R. (2009). Academic dishonesty and intention to cheat: a model on active versus passive academic dishonesty as perceived by business students. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 15(2), 17-26. Granitz, N., & Loewy, D. (2007). Applying ethical theories: Interpreting and responding to student plagiarism. Journal Of Business Ethics, 72(3), 293-306. doi:10.1007/s10551-006-9171-9 Harding, T. S., Carpenter, D. D., Finelli, C. J., & Passow, H. J. (2004). Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study. Science & Engineering Ethics, 10(2), 311-324. Macdonald, R., & Carroll, J. (2006). Plagiarism—a complex issue requiring a holistic institutional approach. Assessment & Evaluation In Higher Education, 31(2), 233-245. doi:10.1080/02602930500262536
  15. 15. References Cont. McCabe, D.L, Butterfield, K.D, Treviño, L.K. (2006). Academic dishonesty in graduate business programs: Prevalence, causes, and proposed action. Academy of Management Learning & Education. 5(3). 294-305. Retrieved from Ebscohost. McCabe, D.L. (2009). Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: An empirical investigation. Journal of Nursing Education. 48(11), 614-623. Nonis, S. & Swift, C.O., (2001). An examination of the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace dishonesty: A multicampus investigation. Journal Of Education For Business, 77(2), 69. Postle, K. (2009). Detecting and deterring plagiarism in social work students: Implications for learning for practice. Social Work Education, 28(4), 351-362. Wilkinson, J. (2009). Staff and student perceptions of plagiarism and cheating. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 98-105.

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