Educating students holistically


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Educating Students Holistically

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  • William Perry – head of counseling, Harvard, 1950s • Discovered 9 “positions” from which students viewed knowledge & learning • Has been replicated & adjusted (and criticized)
  • Dualism: There only right & wrong answers Teacher’s job is to teach them right answers, and the student’s job is to recall them from memory Multiplicity: Everyone is entitled to their own opinion There are right ways and wrong ways to find answers; it’s the student’s job is to support opinions Contextual Relativism: Answers are relative to a background context; Most study different contexts, see things from different perspectives and come to a reasoned decision about answers.
  • Students’ Assumptions about Teachers • Basic Dualism: – This teacher knows the answers to my questions. • Full Dualism: – Good teachers know the answers; bad ones don’t. This particular teacher may or may not be that knowledgeable.
  • • Early Multiplism: – Discipline X may or may not be advanced enough to answer my questions. I’m going to this teacher to find out if X knows enough. S/he will tell me the answers, or give me the procedure (ritual) to work it out on my own. • Late Multiplism: – There are no answers to my questions; what I think is as valid as what the teacher thinks.
  • • Contextual Relativism: – There are a number of answers to my question, depending on how you look at it; maybe this teacher can help me see the alternatives more clearly. • Pre-Commitment: – There are a number of answers to my question, depending on how I look at it; maybe this teacher can help me decide what I should believ
  • One criticism of Kohlberg's theory is that it emphasizes justice to the exclusion of other values. As a consequence of this, it may not adequately address the arguments of people who value other moral aspects of actions (Evans et al, 1998 )
  • Educating students holistically

    1. 1. Educating Students Holistically Richard Dettling MSHRM, PHRA | February 4, 2012
    2. 2. <ul><li>Holism in Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hegel’s Spirituality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher-Ed’s Pragmatic Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Familiarize Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student development theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective Recollection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One-minute papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team reflective papers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals of the Reflective Recollection </li></ul>Workshop Goals <ul><li>Educating Students Holistically </li></ul>February 5, 2012 University of Phoenix
    3. 3. Holism in Education <ul><li>Hegel’s Spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-Ed’s Pragmatic Problem </li></ul>
    4. 4. February 5, 2012
    5. 5. Hegel’s Philosophy on Spirituality <ul><li>Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , notable 18 th century philosopher who wrote Phenomenology of Spirit </li></ul><ul><li>A connectedness to yourself and to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality is personal, but it is also rooted in being connected with others and with the world around you. </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality can only be achieved a group setting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Church, stadium, classroom, concerts, community events </li></ul></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Edwards, 1972)
    6. 6. Holism in Education <ul><li>All things are part of an indivisible unity or whole </li></ul><ul><li>There is an intimate connection between the individual's inner or higher self and this unity </li></ul><ul><li>In order to see this unity we need to cultivate intuition through contemplation and meditation. </li></ul>February 5, 2012 Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998) (Gardner, 2009) .
    7. 7. Higher-Ed’s Pragmatic Problem <ul><li>Individualistic </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creates competition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>future ethical and moral issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Results oriented </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tell me what I need to know to solve the problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching to the test </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>having a Test-centric mentality </li></ul></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)
    8. 8. Familiarize Participants <ul><li>Student Development Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development </li></ul>
    9. 9. Student Development Theory <ul><li>Student development is about becoming a more complex individual </li></ul><ul><li>Student development is characterized as the way a student grows, progresses, or increases his or her developmental capabilities as a result of enrollment in an institution of higher education </li></ul>February 5, 2012 Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998) (Gardner, 2009) .
    10. 10. Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development February 5, 2012
    11. 11. Perry’s Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development February 5, 2012 University of Phoenix William Graves Perry Jr. (1913 – 1998) <ul><li>William Perry’s scheme of intellectual development. </li></ul><ul><li>This scheme identifies a sequence of approaches to learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The Perry “positions” that we will discuss include: </li></ul><ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul>
    12. 12. Three broad categories <ul><li>Dualism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There only right & wrong answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s job is to teach them right answers, and the student’s job is to recall them from memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone is entitled to their own opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are right ways and wrong ways to find answers; it’s the student’s job is to support opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relativism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Answers are relative to a background context; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most study different contexts, see things from different perspectives and come to a reasoned decision about answers. </li></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)
    13. 13. Dualism/Received Knowledge <ul><li>All knowledge is received from a legitimate authority: Teacher, Parent, Pastor </li></ul><ul><li>Duality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The authority has the answer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is a right answer to question </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher knows right and wrong answer. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students learn the right answer from authority/teacher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students are the receiver of knowledge and must demonstrate recollection of knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998; Chickering, Dalton, & Stamm, 2006)
    14. 14. Dualism/Received Knowledge February 5, 2012 (Rapaport, 2011)
    15. 15. Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge <ul><li>Diversity of opinions and values is recognized as legitimate in areas where right answers are not yet known. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are multiple conflicting answers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiplicity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/Authority does not have the answer, but someone is working on finding the answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student begin to trust self and explore finding the right answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the teacher/authority doesn’t have the answer, everyone has the right to their own opinion. No wrong answer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/Authority does not want the right answer. Wants the student to think a certain way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Freshman should be around this stage </li></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
    16. 16. Multiplicity/Subjective Knowledge February 5, 2012 (Rapaport, 2011 )
    17. 17. February 5, 2012 (Rapaport, 2011)
    18. 18. Relativism/Procedural Knowledge <ul><li>Diversity of opinion, values and judgment derived from coherent sources, evidences, logics, systems, and patterns allowing for analysis and compariso n. </li></ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All proposed solutions must be supported by reasons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they must be viewed in context and relative to their support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everything is relative but not equally valid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are no right or wrong answers, it depends on the situation, but some answers might be better than others. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All answers must be support and put into context. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peers are legitimate sources of learning if they follow rules of adequacy. </li></ul></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Evans et al, 1998; Chickering et al, 2006)
    19. 19. February 5, 2012 Relativism/Procedural Knowledge (Rapaport, 2011)
    20. 20. Students Make Their Own Meaning <ul><li>When A teacher says: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Today we’ll learn 4 different ways to gain a </li></ul><ul><li>competitive advantage in business.” </li></ul><ul><li>A student thinks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dualist – Which is the correct one? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Why bother with the wrong ones? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplist - Only 4? Gee, I can think of a dozen! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relativist – What ethics underlie each of them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>– Which is the most efficient competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advantage ? </li></ul></ul>February 5, 2012 (Rapaport, 2011)
    21. 21. February 5, 2012 (Furman University, 2012; Goodreads, 2012) “ It is not knowledge, but the act of learning, not possession but the act of getting there, which grants the greatest enjoyment.” “ The search for truth is more precious than its possession.” Karl Friedrich Gauss, Letter to Bolyai Albert Einstein, Ideas and Opinions
    22. 22. Reflective Recollection <ul><li>Ideas to Encourage Reflective Recollection </li></ul>
    23. 23. Reflective Recollection <ul><li>Reflective Recollection is a process or a tool used in the classroom at the end of a chapter, unit, or week. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages students to think at a higher level </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Students will often see themselves as part of a group, connected with others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not as an individual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Used to move students from Dualistic thinking to Multiplicity thinking </li></ul><ul><li>The more often Reflective Recollection is used the earlier the student becomes a critical thinker / relativism </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Use a One-Minute Assessment <ul><li>Allows instructors to ask questions and collect responses on-the-spot. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves asking students to respond to a couple of questions to help the instructor evaluate the class </li></ul><ul><li>Questions should focus on current student learning and how this relates to the world around them. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Use Team Reflective Papers <ul><li>Reflective team papers document student’s learning processes during a class. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows students to be part of a group and how their reflections influence each of the students within the group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A summary of common themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and describe personal insights, moments of critical questioning, and comments or ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What effect do they have and what dilemmas, questions, or possibilities do they raise? How do these issues affect the clarity, order, confusion, or chaos of your thinking? How will you explore these issues further? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Use Journals <ul><li>Gives the student the opportunity to reflect on their own learning and experiences in the class </li></ul><ul><li>Great way to uncover the internal journey of each student </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases, the personal journey of each student may be more significant than the teacher can observe from the outside. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Use Interviews <ul><li>Conducted with instructor asking questions and the student responding </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a set of questions that covers specific objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Consider structured questions requiring a specific response and open-ended questions that allow for detailed answers. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Use Posters <ul><li>Assess holistic thinking from student individual and group research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of an individual poster/brochure or team poster/brochure as a weekly assessment to primarily ensure weekly objectives are understood. </li></ul><ul><li>A poster presentation guides the student through the basics of the study, freeing the presenter to focus on discussion of essential elements of the work. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions about poster format and design contribute to efficient and accurate transfer of information using this medium </li></ul>
    29. 30. Goals of Reflective Recollection <ul><li>Subtitle here </li></ul>
    30. 31. Theory to Practice <ul><li>Understand students’ development level </li></ul><ul><li>Let them try their wings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the journey of self discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engage the students in the process of their own education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate ‘holistic’ learning environments </li></ul></ul>February 5, 2012
    31. 32. Theory to Practice <ul><li>Moral development involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standard of right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>The transformations that occur in a person’s form or structure of thought with regard to what is viewed as right or necessary </li></ul>February 5, 2012 (Evans et al, 1998 )
    32. 33. Wrap-Up <ul><li>Many students only think in individualistic and dualistic terms when they graduate high school </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be holistic and multiplistic thinkers when entering college </li></ul><ul><li>Using Reflective tools and methods will facilitate students to be holistic and multiplistic thinkers </li></ul>February 5, 2012
    33. 34. February 5, 2012
    34. 35. References <ul><li>Chickering, A. W., Dalton, J. C., & Stamm, L. (1993). Encouraging Authenticity and Spirituality in Higher Education (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Corsini, R., & Miller, R. (1990). What is Holism in Education? Correspondence between Miller & Corsini. Individual Psychology: The Journal Of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice , 46 (1), 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Edwards, P. (1972). The Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Macmillian Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Evans, N. J., Forney, D. S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1998). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner, S. K. (2009). Student Development Theory: A Primer. ASHE Higher Education Report, 34 (6), 15-28 </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, J. P. (1986). ATOMISM, PRAGMATISM, HOLISM. Journal Of Curriculum & Supervision , 1 (3), 175-196. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapaport, W.J. (2011) William Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development: A journey along the 9 &quot;Perry&quot; positions. Retrieved from </li></ul>