Connecting with students

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Connecting with students

  1. 1. Connecting with Students Oh No! My teacher wants me to speak up in class...
  2. 2. 2Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Objective Address ways to overcome participation barriers and demonstrate techniques that may easily be used to promote active engagement of all students in a class
  3. 3. 3Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Agenda  Class Participation Relevance  Traditional Techniques to Promote Classroom Participation  Factors Influencing Student Participation  Goals of Participation  Classroom Challenges to Participation and Some Solutions  Final Thoughts
  4. 4. Class Participation Relevance
  5. 5. 5Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Class Participation Relevance • Optimal Learning comes from active engagement with course material • It is important to design class experiences and conduct class in a manner that aims to: • Ensure active participation • Ensure cognitive engagement Student Engagement
  6. 6. 6Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Class Participation Relevance • Class participation can address potential problems with students being unprepared • If students know there is a chance they will be asked to participate, they will be inclined to prepare for class • Create an expectation that students need to come to class prepared to participate. Accountability
  7. 7. 7Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Class Participation Relevance • Students prefer a class that relies less on teacher-talk and more on participatory engagement • Activities and relatable experiences • Lectures has its place in college teaching • K-12 lectures are simply boring and unenjoyable More Enjoyable Class
  8. 8. 8Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Class Participation Relevance • A systematic way of continuously gathering evidence of student learning. • Informs students of areas they have not mastered yet. • It provides feedback on the success of instruction and helps identify areas where instruction needs to be modified. Formative Assessment
  9. 9. Traditional Techniques to Promote Classroom Participation
  10. 10. 10Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Initiate-Respond-Evaluate (I-R-E) AKA Initiation – Response – Feedback • The most common strategy teachers use to engage their students in participation. • In this approach teaches control participation in class discussions by posing questions, recruiting a student response (voluntary or involuntary) and then evaluating the students response by offering feedback • Using this method, teachers may stylistically use slight variations, where feedback initiates further response and evaluation.
  11. 11. 11Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Cold Calling • Refers to calling on a student at random without warning • Controversial to some who feel that participation should be voluntary, especially for students who are shy or have anxiety • Proponents argue that this is a useful practice to hold students accountable for outside classwork and preparation
  12. 12. 12Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Group Discussion • Participation in group discussion is valuable to student learning • The common style of group discussion is dividing students into groups to discuss some aspect of the material and then report back • Social loafing is a routine problem • Students will “check out” or disengage during the activity • Teachers can guarantee participation of students by keeping students guessing who will be asked to present back to the whole class
  13. 13. Factors Influencing Student Participation
  14. 14. 14Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Factors Influencing Student Participation Class-size Seating arrangements Student confidence Communication apprehension Sex Age Student preparation Authority of the teacher Climate of respect Time of day Type of subject being learned Student assertiveness Teacher attributes
  15. 15. Goals of Student Participation
  16. 16. 16Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved What are your expectations for student participation? • Our goal should not be that every student will participate in the same way or at the same rate. Instead, it is to create an environment in which all participants have the opportunity to learn and in which the class explores issues and ideas in depth, from a variety of viewpoints. • Active Learners – they typically think while they speak • Reflective Learners – they need to reflect on their ideas before sharing with others.
  17. 17. Classroom Challenges & Solutions
  18. 18. 18Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Problem: Repetitive Content • You may be repeating the content because students have not yet mastered the skill or for test review. SOLUTIONS: • Assess prior knowledge • Skill grouping • Students teaching each other • For test review, divide class in groups, each with a different topic. Have the groups test each other...; i.e. create the test for their topic, design review games. Assess them on creativity, team work, accuracy.
  19. 19. 19Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Problem: The content is too hard. Part of the challenge is also that some students may hesitate to ask questions because they fear that other students will see them as not smart.
  20. 20. 20Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Solutions – Content too Hard SOLUTIONS • Allow anonymous questions. • Question box • Index cards – all students write a card with a question or comment • Allow them to work together. • Do a quick check for homework completeness and then let students grade their papers in pairs and then review in whole group • Jigsaw approach – divide up content among groups, each group becomes an expert on an area and then teach each other. • Connect material with real-world application – use index cards to write a real-world application of the content they are learning. • Break things down – Have students summarize a short text in a single word and then write 1-2 paragraphs on why they selected their word.
  21. 21. 21Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Problem: There is too much information to cover SOLUTIONS • Plan lectures for no more than 15 minute segments • Break up larger concepts into smaller segments, then assign activities for reinforcement. Repeat this cycle. • Give students the opportunity to stay connected with you during your lesson – handouts with blanks for them to complete as the material is covered; lecture bingo, quick-writes or quick-draws at key points in the lesson. • Ask for initial predictions on the topic – students can give their best guess on true/false questions before the topic is reviewed, and then revisit their responses once the lesson is given. Problem: There is too much to cover.
  22. 22. 22Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Problem: Reluctance to Participate Some students may be reluctant to participate, regardless of your approach, topic content, or its difficulty. Normal text • Bullet • Bullet o Sub-bullet SOLUTIONS: • Discuss benefits of participation and expectations in class. As a group come up with collective norms to ensure everyone has an opportunity to participate • Have students write an autobiographical sketch on their learning experiences to help you identify who you may need to follow up with. • Define participation broadly and allow students the opportunity to participate in different ways.
  23. 23. Feedback What are you experiencing?
  24. 24. Final Thoughts
  25. 25. 25Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved Final Thoughts • Not all strategies are equal • Traditional techniques that are commonly used have its limitations • Alternative techniques are just a few of the many used by teachers to actively engage students • Teachers need to sort out their philosophy of participation: • Whether to grade participation, • How to deal with apprehensive students, • Strategies that feel comfortable to use • How to create conditions that promote class participation
  26. 26. 26Page© 2012 University of Phoenix, Inc. | All rights reserved References Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993) Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook of college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Axelson, R.D., & Flick, A (2011) Defining student engagement. Change, 43(1), 38-43 Bean, J.C., &Peterson, D. (1998). Grading classroom participation. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 74, 33-40 Girgin, K.Z., & Stevens, D.D. (2005). Bridging in-class participation with innovative instruction: Use and implications in a Turkish university classroom. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 42, 93-106 Kagan, S. (1990). The structural approach to cooperative learning. Educational Psychology, 47(4), 12-15 Miranda, M.V. (2008). Increasing class participation in social phobic students. Community College Enterprise, 14, 9-23

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