The phenomenon of curriculumChange• Presented to• Prof Dr, Muhammad Asif Malik• Presented by• Anila Yasmin• Nadia Rafiq• M.Naeem Ashraf
Concept of change• Change is a constant law of nature. It always bringsimprovement. It always occurs Continuously.Technological advancement and explosion ofknowledge is the basic reason of varying style ofchange. Change is an ongoing, almost unconsciousprocess that involves reworking familiar elementsinto new relationship
Using Change Concepts forImprovement• While all changes do not lead to improvement, allimprovement requires change. The ability todevelop, test, and implement changes is essentialfor any individual, group, or organization thatwants to continuously improve.• There are many kinds of changes that will lead toimprovement, but these specific changes aredeveloped from a limited number of changeconcepts.
Forces driving change• community• technology• political economy• credibility: people want more and more frompublic education• complexity: competing demands of governmentsand interest groups
Features of change• it’s a PROCESS not an EVENT:– it requires - time- energy- resources• it is achieved incrementally and entailsdevelopment in feelings and skills in usingnew programs.• it should lead to improvement
Features of change• To work, it must be supported by individuals first.• ( institutions cannot change until the individualswithin them support the innovations)• It is a learning process in itself
What are your drivers for curriculumchange?• National ‘imposition’• Local need• Staff dissatisfaction• Parental Demands• Student demands – are all students achieving /participating• Standards – can they be maintained in view of thechallenges of new courses?• Leadership - meaningful change and curriculumevolution
What’s a curriculum for?• A school curriculum is intended to provide childrenand young people with the knowledge and skillsrequired to lead successful lives.• Today, there is growing concern that the taughtcurriculum needs to be reconsidered and redesigned. What is a curriculum for at this time? It comprises achallenging selection of subjects that help childrenand young people understand the world. It highlightsskills necessary for learning throughout life, as wellas for work, and for one’s personal development andwell-being.
What’s a curriculum for? But a curriculum is also political. Decisions about‘what’s in’ and ‘what’s out’ change from time to timedepending on political needs and aspirations.
Curriculum Change:• Process of Curriculum change may be assistedby permissiveness and Support in aaccordance of with a helpful improvement inCurriculum. Changing Curriculum Changesindividuals.• At the time of Curriculum Change it mustbe necessary in Consideration that Resourcesof implementation of Curriculum are availableor not.
Curriculum development and change• Successful curriculum development requiresbetter use of ‘change knowledge’ ‐ failureis often a result of neglecting it.Policy‐makers, education leaders and teachersneed to know more about the drivers ofsuccessful curriculum change in schools.There‐fore, learning about educationalchange and its key features should becomeinte‐gral elements of any serious curriculumreform process.
Curriculum development and change• Re‐conceptualizing curriculum. Many curriculumreforms are based on how the curriculum hastraditionally been organized. As a consequence,many curricula have become overloaded,confusing and inappropriate for teachers andstudents. Therefore, curriculum orientation shouldshift from a curriculum as product model to acurriculum as process model. This would alsotransform the role of the curriculum from apurely technical document into a morecomprehensive idea that also serves as guidelinefor school improvement.
Curriculum development and changeChanging the way teachers teach and studentslearn requires specific approaches. In‐servicetraining of teachers is not enough. Ifcurriculum reform aims at changing the waysstudents learn and teachers teach, moresophisticated implementation strategies arerequired. Therefore, helping teachers to createprofessional learning communities and schoolsto learn from each other are recommendedapproaches.
Types of curriculum change• 1. Empirical-rational: Stress is laid on the need forchange and the competence to implement. Thesechanges do not occur at school level as they are notcapable of bringing such change.• 2. Normative-re-educative strategies: It is based onthe rationality and intelligence of humans. This kind ofchange can occur by approaching humans convincingthem that there is a need to change their values,attitudes, understanding and skills.• 3. Power strategies: Changes should meet theexpectations of the superiors who are in a higherpower. Such coerce strategies are used often inschools.
According to John Mcneil the differenttypes of changes are:• 1. Substitution: In this type of change oneelement is substituted by the other, i.e. onecourse paper/one unit is replaced with another.Mostly, this kind of change is easily implemented.• 2. Alternation: If some material, content, itemor procedure is introduced into the existingmaterial and is adopted, it is consideredalteration.• 3. Perturbation: Some changes when introduceddisturb the programme for sometime and thenlater on they get adjusted or adopted into theprogramme
• 4. Restructuring: These changes lead tomodification of the system itself. For instance,team teaching, project method or competency-based teaching and evaluation. This change is likerestructuring.• 5. Value-oriented change: This change basicallybrings a shift from ones philosophy or basicideology towards a particular auricularprescription or orientation. Most of them whoresist should adjust with the changes and acceptthe same. The teachers who cannot adjust theirvalues to such changes may not be retained forlong.
Need of curriculum change• People improve with greatest enthusiasm when theydetect the desire of the stimulator of improvement toimprove himself• The direction of improvement should be determinedcooperatively. Peoples goals differ; however, if theyare to work together effectively, they must determinecooperatively the direction their efforts are to take.• The direction of improvement should be determinedcooperatively. Peoples goals differ; however, if theyare to work together effectively, they must determinecooperatively the direction their efforts are to take.
• People improve through experiencing. The kindof teacher one is may be determined largely bythe kinds of experiences he or she has had.School systems should seek to provide theirteachers with the best of in-service education.• Stimulators of improvement should divide theirtime between contacts with individuals andcontacts with groups. Research and practiceshow that both individual conferences andgroup work are effective in helping teachersimprove the quality of their work
• Whenever possible, improvement should beinduced in situations that involve problem solving.People improve most when a stimulator ofimprovement helps them solve their ownproblems• Stimulators of improvement should help keepchannels of communi-cation open. Psychologicalstatic easily gets between the sender and thereceiver of a message• Stimulators of improvement should use theirpower and influence with great care.Educational leaders have largesse to distribute inthe form of position, salary, approval, knowledge,prestige, disciplinary control/ and even affection.
• Stimulators of improvement should operateon a limited number of fronts at a given time.Curriculum workers are learning thatsweeping, comprehensive improvementsrarely take place
FACTORS AFFECTING CURRICULUM CHANGE• 1. Does the school have a well-definedphilosophy? Is it accepted by the teachers? Whatcontradictions are there between philosophy andpractice?• 2. When was the school last evaluated by anoutside group? Were there any keyrecommen-dations that were not acted upon?• 3. Has the school participated in educationalinnovations or experiments?• 4. Does the school staff participates inprofessional activities?
• 5. What provision is made for suitableequipment, facilities and instructional aids?• 6. What evidence is there of poorarticulation?• 7. To what extent are administrative andsupervisory practices democratic in nature?
Developing a Program for CurriculumChange• Develop a faculty consensus as to what levelof involvement your program or school shouldand can play in curriculum• If the decision is made to proceed withnecessary curriculum change, undertake aprocess to develop and implement this change
Developing a Program for CurriculumChange• Consider various funding possibilities.• Take into account changes in the regulatoryenvironment in your and neighboring states.• Consider all your constituencies that areaffected by the change process.• External organizations can influence thecurriculum innovation process.
Developing a Program for CurriculumChange• Institution missions, goals, and policies have apervasive influence on the policies andprocedures in your program• The way you organize and run the departmentor school can have an important effect on theinnovation process.
Explosion of Knowledge(as a factor of change)• Humanitys stored of knowledge has shown anadditive increase in the past, but in recentyears the growth in knowledge has beer-exponential. Not only has knowledgeaccumulated, but also there have been newways of orga-nizing it and looking at it.
The Community(as a factor of change)• There are certain key questions that should beasked about school-community relationships inseeking evidence of the need for programmemodifications.• 1. How does the community feel about theschool? What is being done to improve school-community relations?• 2. Has the population of the communitychanged? If so, in what ways?
• 3. Does the school have an active parent-teacher association or similar organization?• 4. What economic changes have taken placein the community?• 5. For how much time and to whom is theschool building open? How is it used?• 6. What studies do teachers make of theirstudents environmental backgrounds?• 7. What community resources are available?
The Society(as a factor of change)1. People conceive of the need2. People will draw up plans to deal with thesituation.3. People will carry out these plans.
‘Curriculum improvement• Changing people.• Making decisions.• Co-operative action on abroad base.• Developing a functional educationalphilosophy.• Studying pupils and their environment.• Keeping up to date with knowledge.• Studying ways to improve instruction.• Carrying on evaluation.
Other Factors Affecting CurriculumChange• 1. Socio-political factors As the states policies change, they have aninfluence on the educa-tional policies andschemes that they undertake It also takes into consideration the socialneeds and demands and changing trends inthe society with respect to various other issuesand contemporary developments
Economic Factors• Economic status of the people and the stateplay a role in the curriculum change. Theaspirations of people, their demands andexpectations from particular courses orcurricular inclusion at various stages ofeducation, all depend on he economic status.
Stages of curriculum change• The first Stagefirst stage is that of initiation, in which ideas forchange are launched and decisions are maderegarding the nature, direction and extent ofchange.The second stage is said to be one oflegitimating, in which the sentiment on behalfof change is being communicated.
Stages of curriculum change• The third stage in-volves congruence of theseparate systems of values held by the personor persons seeking to create change and bythe person or persons who are the targets orhuman subjects of the proposed change