Blessed are the geeks for they shall inherit the earth…… Now this sentence, Bible might have put it otherwise, but one individual, in a single decade changed this sentence that had stood, the test of time for 2000 years. That person was a Harvard Dropout….. a geek obviously and the founder of Microsoft. For past 19 hundred and 80 years no one knew about something called operating system, today you ask a 10 years kid and he might tell you a thing or two about Microsoft. So whether you like it or not…. the geeks have truly inherited the earth. Today Operating Systems have become ubiquitous in their reach, utility and ultimate appeal. From the ever irritating continuous texting of a teenager to a more sober ATM cash outle, you will find this beast everywhere and they come in all shapes and sizes. Operating Systems my dear fellow officers is a scary word, but trust me it is closer to your hearts than you think of. Closer perhaps than many of your friends and your relatives. After all you spend most of your time with it. You may not meet a friend for months, but you cant think of living without your Computer, Your Cells phone, you gadgets and.. oh did I mention that most consummate of addictive experiences….. FACEBook…With something so close and so near to our hearts, ever wonder how much thought we have actually given to this guy. Well today I am going to change this for you. Today we will know about the Operating System, the ins and outs, the pros and cons, and most importantly what kicks them and what kills them.Fasten your seat belts, switch off your cells phones, look closely at the projection while lend your ears to me, it’s going to be a rough but exhilarating ride my fellow passengers.
Operating systems are all about Processor Registers, Instruction Execution, Interrupt Processing, Multiprogramming, Cache Principles and Communication Techniques………I am myself impressed I said all of this at once. My topic might sound like a geeky pure technological and programmer oriented but trust me I will speak no alien language, jargons or heavy glossary. Other than few basic terminologies which will be explained on the way I request the audience to stay with me,….Living in a space era and luckily working in a less paper environment we are all competent enough to understand and comprehend the topic operating system wars.
The aim of presentation is to educate you what all is going in operating system arena? what is good for us? Do we have a choice other than what we are having? Would the adaptation of new technology be possible?
To achieve my aim I would follow the sequence of my presentation in three parts,
Defining Operating System ……….It is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.In Other Words, The interface between the user and the computer hardware.
We can easily understand the function of operating system if we understand the hierarchy of a computer.The base platform is hardware of computer in which the operating system resides.Now we install different applications on operating system of our choice like Microsoft office, Photoshop etc.At the end we interact with installed application and operating system itself.
An operating system operationally act as an interface between hardware and user which is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of a computer . As a host, one of the purposes of an operating system is to handle the details of the operation of hardware like input output devices and any installed software.
Operating systems functions many different computer processes…. to name some important, its starting up and shutting down, network activities and communications with other computers, timely updates for bugs and fixes, provides user interface for operations, ensure security of data and information, install and register desired programs, manage memory at all levels, organizes files and folders, connect to internet and intranet with different protocols, detect and connect all devices and controls hardware performance.
There are five categories of hardware for which OS are designed. Main frames are used for high end computing like super computers, Servers used for data storage and management, Microprocessors used in a verity of electronics equipment and gadgets, embedded systems like microchips planted in smart cards and very well known to all of us Personal computers.
The types of Operating systems are…. Real-time operating systems which are used to control machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. An RTOS typically has very little user-interface capability, and no end-user utilities, since the system will be a &quot;sealed box&quot; when delivered for use. Single-user, multi-tasking, as the name implies, this operating system is designed to manage the computer so that one user can effectively do one thing at a time. The Symbian OS for Nokia handhelds and mobiles is a good example of a modern single-user, single-task operating system.Single User, multi-tasking is the type of operating system most people use on their desktop and laptop computers today. Microsoft&apos;s Windows and Apple&apos;s MacOS platforms are both examples of operating systems that will let a single user have several programs in operation at the same time. A multi-user, multi-tasking operating system allows many different users to take advantage of the computer&apos;s resources simultaneously.
The major players in desktop operating system wars are windows by Microsoft, Mac OS by Apple, and linux which is an open source operating system.
We peep a bit into the history and look at the different phases and releases of operating systems. I will discuss only the major systems and events.1991 LinusTorvalds releases an open-source, Unix-like OS kernel that sort of bears his name. Like many other vital projects this breakthrough of computer history was also achieved at Bell Labs. 1993 Windows NT appears, and everyone assumes the NT stands for New Technology. Microsoft later denies this.1995 Windows 95 appears, to great fanfare. It spawns a new line of Microsoft operating systems.
1997 Apple released mac OS 7.71998 Microsoft releases its most promising versions of Windows 98.1999 Microsoft released second edition of Windows 982000 Windows 2000 which was based on Microsoft&apos;s NT technology. Microsoft now offered automatic software updates over the Internet.
2001 Apple abandons its old OS core and introduces Mac OS X, in this way Apple moved away from 1984 and into a brave new world.The Windows XP family is born. According to Microsoft, &quot;the XP in Windows XP stands for experience, symbolizing the innovative experiences that Windows can offer to personal computer users.&quot; 2002 Microsoft released Windows XP Service Pack 1 for removal of some security threats.Apple releases 10.2 with some new features2003 Apple releases 10.3 with certain security bug fixtures2004 Microsoft released yet another Service Pack for Windows which addressed certain bugs.A new operating system Ubuntu was born from linux platform which was said to be ‘Linux for human beings”2005 Apple released another version of Mac OS XUbuntu released it newer and improved version
2006: Windows Vista with Codenamed Longhorn in its development phase, Windows Vista did not enjoy much popularity because of its overdone security measures.2007 After the release of vista Mac brought into the market its new version with stunning visual effects.Ubuntu also released a version with improved features of driver detection and visuals.2008 Microsoft released it new server edition Windows server 2008 but yet to beat Linux servers.2009 is the year for the release of latest windows operating system that is Windows 7.Ubunut released its latest Ubuntu variant Kubuntu which changed the OS war scenario.
1. Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems that originated as an add-on to the older MS-DOS operating system for the IBM PC. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT kernel that was originally intended for OS/2 of IBM. As of 2009, Microsoft Windows holds a large amount of the worldwide desktop market share. Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers. In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research & development money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price/performance records and significant acceptance in the enterprise market.On October 22, 2009, Microsoft released Windows 7, the successor to Windows Vista, coming three years after its release. While Vista was about introducing new features, Windows 7 aims to streamline these and provide for a faster overall working environment.
Mac OS X is a line of partially proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple&apos;s primary operating system since 1984. A stunning fact is that unlike its predecessor and appealing visual effects with linux based architecture. The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart but usually runs on Apple&apos;s line of Macintosh server hardware. Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services.
1. Ken Thompson was a person wrote language B which he used to write Unix, based on his experience in the this project, B was replaced by C, and Unix developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influential in every modern operating system. The Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories. The name &quot;UNIX&quot; is a trademark of The Open Group which licenses it for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. &quot;Unix-like&quot; is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix.Unix-like systems run on a wide variety of machine architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in academic and engineering environments. The main flavors of Unix are Red Hat, Fedora, Linux, Debian, Gentoo, SuSE, Slackware, Ubuntu, Knoppix GNU, BSD and the list goes on…
There is an interesting and, in my opinion, historic battle unfolding around Operating Systems. Windows, Mac OS X and Linux have long disputed superior positions in comparison to one another, in what is essentially a race without a finishing line. I will discuss key features like security.
There are about 60,000 viruses known for Windows, 70 or so for the Macintosh and perhaps 40 for Linux. Most of the Windows viruses are not important, but many hundreds have caused widespread damage.
Windows lead at this competition too as it has highest number of lines of codes. Mac has about 50 million and Linux has 40 million lines of code.
We hate it or we love it, we adapt it or we leave it in any case widows is the market leader for operating systems. If we see around us every other desktop is having a wavy four colored logo…..so it does mean there is something about it. Windows has captured the market from a home user to a corporate client by its basic tactic that is ease of use. It is famously said about windows that to operate a windows based computer you only need to know your language. Currently available in 36 languages and still developing more.Like other operating systems Microsoft keeps on giving newer versions of windows but keeping in control the familiarity of environment. Windows vista was not very much liked because of its extreme security and a bit changed environment however the conversion was not felt difficult by the users.Microsoft updates its operating system at regular bases and after certain upgrades it releases a service pack. It also provides updates for its value added software like media player, web browser etc. But bad news that you would only be able to do so if you have the original copy or wait for service pack.Defiantly favorite of youngsters as all the game companies design games which are able to run on Microsoft windows. Even very famous games like Grand Theft Auto have an independent version for windows and no other operating system.Good at customer support but again for original copy
The biggest disadvantage of windows operating system is its instability. That reminds me of an interesting event. In 1998 Bill Gates was unveiling the new release of windows 98 with the claim that this operating system will never hang-up …… and the operating system crashed at the same time. Many of us have encountered the problem of blue screen which is also called blue screen of death. Windows is also hackers, nukers and freakers favorite. The most bugs reported for a single operating system is Wondows XP. And every other day we are asking someone…..do you have a good antivirus.This point may not bother many of us but it is a fact that windows are the most expensive operating system at all levels. Either its servers, desktops or mobiles.
In general, the MAC OS is more robust and handles objects better than Windows. However, it has been overwhelmed by Microsoft’s ubiquity, and survives mainly in niches like graphics, the movie industry, and publishing.It has a stunning GUI with great visual effects. The shiny style of apple can be appreciated in their operating system also.The operating system is said to be graphics designer’s heaven as the operating system is optimized for graphics processing specially.Because of its lesser but diehard fan community it also has less security issues than windows.Mac operating system is stable and does not show any colored window of death but I would like to remind you that Mac OS ten is based on Unix operating system
The foremost drawback of Mac operating system is its platform dependant. Apple claims that their operating system is designed keeping in the apple machines architecture. This is reason most of us have not used it.Difficult to use mouse as it has only one click but recently apple has designed a multitouch mouse for their new multitouch enabled operating system which might make the difference.Not all the software are designed for Mac as it goes for more cost if the software developers cater every operating system. Keeping in view the market share of Mac not much third party software designers release mac compatible versions.This one resembles with previous point as game is also a software but due to its importance it need to be mentioned.
The strongest point of linux diehard developers, designers and fans…..Its free. The Linux developer community has a firm standing on a point that if tycoons like Microsoft and apple reuse their code of previous version in newer ones…. Why do they charge for it every time? So they keep their most of their operating systems free for download.It does not ask for a heavy hardware requirement as it can run on a low specifications pc. Unlike windows it does not have unnecessary overheads.It is much stable as compared to both other operating systems.The source code is available to alter, amend or customize which allows the expert users to work with tailored operating system.A renowned feature of Linux is it security. Although the source code is open to all but the community has managed to keep it secure all the way.
Because of its lesser market share many software companies do not design their products for linux. Another reason for lesser number of software is different variants of Linux.It does not offer official support as it is open source and no company owns it. However the community is very helpful in every regard. Which sometimes gives better services than companies like Microsoft and apple.It has got graphics hardware accelerators but requires some expert configuration.It holds same disadvantage as that of mac….All the games do cannot be played on this operating system.
Whatever pros cons any system the deciding factor is customer.Despite of many flaws windows operating systems enjoy the major market share followed by 5 percent of Mac fanatic fans.Linux has very less market share but the current trend shows the rise.
After so many parameters and many terminologies twittering like birds around our heads we must be confused for what operating system to choose for our next or existing machine. I would not impose my choice over you but my choice might help you select your operating system.As we heard a very informative presentation from Sqn Leader Amir on Cyber Warfare which tells us the magnitude of our insecure data and information we must have this consideration as we are working in a sensitive organization with much of official data lying on our desktops…..so I have an idea…..have a good technology to counter the evil.Have a virus free life and no need to run for some good antivirus all the time.Enjoy free software as good as the costly one available in the market. Get a stunning and unbelievable Graphical User Interface with many customizable options.Now not to worry about the newer version of any software as you can have forward and backward compatible environment. Backward compatibility refers to use of current files with older and newer versions.You need not to pay anything to talk to some expert as you can have free and customer support.Get rid of all over heads which are processes running in you task manger all the time.As you got rid of overheads which means less processor, hard drive and ram working which in returns saves power. Your laptop battery life can be amazingly increased by one hour.Last but not the least the operating system I want to recommend is ethically non disturbing as you need not to pay anything for it. Till now you might have guessed the operating system I want to recommend, that is Linux. Linux has many flavors and my vote is for its recent release of Ubuntu.
Linux has gone from being a project for open-source enthusiasts to one of the most powerful and important forces in the software world. It&apos;s also now shaping up to be an increasingly viable choice as a desktop operating system, thanks to the effort of both the volunteer community and the companies that are banking on Linux to move them forward.I know both experts and regular users alike who have switched to it, as well as experts and regular users who have tried it and stayed with other things (whether Windows, Mac or another flavor of UNIX). But Linux is unquestionably drawing in more people than it did a decade ago, or even five years ago.Because Ubuntu is shaping up to be one of the most popular personal distributions -- thanks to its easy installation, configuration, and support communityMy last word of thought before I invite you for questions, “You can delay the technology…….but cannot avoid it”so better pace up with new technology rather than sticking to old XP.
My last word of thought before I invite you for questions, “You can delay the technology…….but cannot avoid it”So better pace up with new technology rather than sticking to old XP. The house is open for questions
50s is the main frame era, 60s is advancements in microprocessors, 80s for game consoles like atari and comodore, 90s is the era for personal computers, 2010s for open source and mobile operating system and computer oracles predicts the next decade for online operating systems.
Part I<br />UNDERSTANDING OPERATING SYSTEMS<br />7<br />
WHAT IS OPERATING SYSTEM<br />Set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.<br />The interface between the user and the computer hardware.<br />8<br />