A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

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A Basic Modern Russian Grammar

  1. 1. resh ussian F R ssia Ru from A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova
  2. 2. © A Basic Modern Russian Grammar, Eugenia Nekrasova,1997. © Graphic Design, eBook publisher, Dmitry Pobedimsky, 2002. ISBN 5-85550-119-1 Ron Maxim, Director, Government Cargo Support Services, Maersk Sealand, Atlanta, GA, USA: ...Mrs.Nekrasova`s book is very creative... Frederick Lyons, Resident Representative, United Nations Development Programme in the Russian Federation This book very definitely helped me improve my Russian fluency. With good humour and strong didactic principles it leads through the difficulties of the Russian Grammar. Markku Lehto, Chief of Moscow Bureau of the Finnish Broadcasting Company, Finland The book is really very helpful. The explanations given in the book are clear and inventive. The teaching materials have been very well sorted. To the Readers This book is meant both for the learners and the teachers of Russian. The name of the book speaks for itself: "A Basic Modern Russian Grammar". The attention is focused on the facts of Modern Russian language which are basic, of high frequency and in common use. As most of the learners are not professional linguists the author tried to avoid unnecessary linguistic terms. The explanations, charts and presentation of grammar material enable the learners of Russian understand some practical mechanisms of the language in a certain logical order . The teachers of Russian can use it in their practical work. All the charts originally belong to the author. The author expresses her deep gratitude to Mr D. Pobedimsky without whom the book would not have succeeded and to Prof. T. Wade (UK) for his encour- agement. I wish you success, Eugenia Nekrasova
  3. 3. Shortly about the Author Eugenia Nekrasova, Moscow, Russia. M.A. in Philology and Education, Moscow State University. For many years she has been working as a full-time senior teacher and lecturer for the USSR / Russian Federation Minis- try of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Language Service, teaching Russian, English and related subjects to foreign diplomats, businessmen and journalists, including the staff of the United Nations Moscow office, Sea Land CIS Logistics, Caterpillar Overseas, Ernst & Young, the State Finnish Radio & TV Moscow office and many others. Now she divides her time between teaching and writing books on language. She has written five successful books on learning Modern Russian as a Second Language and on learning English for people speaking Russian: 1. "A Basic Modern Russian Grammar" - 380 pages, "Gummerus", Helsinki, Finland, 1998. Published in Finnish, translated from English. ISBN 951-20-5264-4 2. "Exercises in Basic Modern Russian Grammar" - 250 pages, "Gummerus", Helsinki, Finland, 2000. Published in Finnish, translated from Eng- lish. ISBN 951-20-5507-4 3. "Living & Working in the Former USSR" - 211 pages, colour illustrated, succesfully practised course book of Modern Russian, best used for crash- courses. ISBN 5-85550-121-3 4. "Popular English Grammar" - 400 pages, "Slavyansky Dom Knigi" Publish- ers, Moscow, Russia,1999. First print - 25,000 copies. ISBN 5-93220-001-4 5. "English for Work and Travel" - 360 pages, "Slavyansky Dom Knigi" Pub- lishers, Moscow, Russia, 2000, with D.Pobedimsky. First print - 15,000 copies. ISBN 5-93220-052-9 The author would gladly accept any comments on the book email: eugnekr@mail.ru
  4. 4. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Part 1 Eugenia Nekrasova The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular AGREEMENT BETWEEN WORDS IN RUSSIAN There are 2 main types of relations between the words in a Russian sentence: Agreement and Governing. Agreement could be in Gender, Number and Person. The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular THE PRINCIPLE OF GENDER AGREEMENT Agreement in Gender takes place: between the long adjectives and the nouns, between the adjectival pronouns and the nouns, between the ordinal numerals and the nouns, between the cardinal numeral «one» and nouns, between the long participles and the nouns, between the nouns/personal pronouns and the short participles /short adjectives, between the nouns/personal pronouns and the verbs in the Past tense form. Part 1 deals with the first five types of Gender Agreement. Part 1 covers the problems of Gender Agreement between nouns and words preceding them in units. I called the words preceeding nouns in units - the characterizing words. The characterizing words can be: adjectives, adjectival pronouns (possessive, demonstrative etc), ordinal numerals, long participles, cardinal numeral «one». You will learn: how to establish the Gender of a noun and how to make the Singular form Gender Agreement between nouns and words characterizing them. Part 1 page 1
  5. 5. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova HOW TO ESTABLISH THE GENDER OF A NOUN All Russian nouns are attributed to one of the three genders: Masculine (M), Feminine (F) or Neuter(N) You will be glad to know that the gender of the majority of the Russian nouns one can tell from the ending of the dictionary form (Nominative Case). The gender of nouns is mostly a formal thing. The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular Now you will learn how to determine the gender of a noun. Nouns ending in consonants and -é are Masculine: äîì - house äðóã - friend ìóçˆé -museum ÷åëîâˆê - man ã‹ðîä - city Êèò‚é - China Nouns ending in -à, -ÿ, -üÿ, -èÿ are Feminine: ì‚ìà - mama, mommy ‹ëãà - Volga ìàø‰íà - car ñòàòüµ - article íˆäåëÿ - week ôàì‰ëèÿ - surname Ðîññèÿ - Russia Nouns ending in -î, -å, -üå, -èå are Neuter: ìˆñòî - seat çä‚íèå - building ì‹ðå - sea òåëåâ‰äåíèå - TV êóïˆ - compartment çäîð‹âüå - health But things are never that simple in languages: irrespective of the Feminine -à, -ÿ ending a small group of nouns denoting males E.g. has Masculine gender agreement (so called «Natural Masculines»): h Notice! ìîé (Ì) + ï‚ïà ï‚ïà - father, dad äˆäóøêà - grandfather ìóæ÷‰íà - man äµäÿ - uncle The following nouns are Neuter: ìåíþ - menu âðˆìÿ - time ‰ìÿ - name h Notice! æþð‰ - jury èíòåðâüþ - interview òàêñ‰ - taxi Part 1 page 2
  6. 6. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova THE GENDER OF SOFT SIGN NOUNS A very big group of nouns ending in -Ü (soft sign) could be either Feminine or Masculine. The Gender of these nouns could be found in the dictionaries. h Nouns denoting males («natural masculines») are Masculine: Notice! ãîñòü - guest, âîä‰òåëü - driver, ó÷‰òåëü - teacher, ïèñ‚òåëü - writer, öàðü - Tzar, êîð‹ëü - king, âðàò‚ðü - goalkeeper etc. The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular Names of months ending in -ü are all Masculine: ÿíâ‚ðü - January, ôåâð‚ëü - February, etc. «Natural» feminines are all Feminine: ìàòü - mother, äî÷ü - daughter etc. Nouns ending in -çíü, -ñòü, -ñü are Feminine: æèçíü - life í‹âîñòü - news ï‹äïèñü - signature etc. The Gender of other soft sign nouns has to be learned individually. hNotice! REPLACING SINGULAR NOUNS BY PERSONAL PRONOUNS A noun could be replaced by the following personal pronouns depending on the established gender: Masculine nouns by îí - he, it Ãäå âàø äðóã? Âîò îí. Ãäå âàø äîì? Âîò îí. Feminine nouns by îí‚ - she, it Ãäå â‚øà ìàø‰íà? Âîò îí‚. Ãäå â‚øà ì‚ìà? Âîò îí‚. Neuter nouns by îí‹ - it Ãäå â‚øå ìˆñòî? Âîò îí‹. N Ãäå ¬òî çä‚íèå? Âîò îí‹. Part 1 page 3
  7. 7. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar HOW TO ESTABLISH THE GENDER OF PLACE NAMES Eugenia Nekrasova All the place names could be divided into 2 groups: First group The place names have the endings which formally fit the Russian system of endings: M. Êèò‚é, Òàéë‚íä, Âüåòí‚ì, Àì˜ð, Åíèñˆé - îí F. Ðîññ‰ÿ, Ôèíëµíäèÿ, Àìˆðèêà, ‹ëãà - îí‚ The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular N. Ïðèì‹ðüå - îí‹ Second group There are many place names which do not fit the Russian system of endings: Áàê˜, Ñ‹÷è, Òáèë‰ñè, Õˆëüñèíêè, Ìèññ˜ðè, Òà‰òè, Ò‹êèî, Îíò‚ðèî These words exist only in this unchangeable (indeclinable) form. Their gender is established in a special way (through association with the «generic» word). FOREIGN INDECLINABLE NOUNS AND THEIR GENDER AGREEMENT There is a group of nouns of foreign origin in Russian which do not decline. E.g. øîññˆ - highway ð‚äèî - radio (set) ìåòð‹ - subway êèí‹ - movies, cinema òàêñ‰ - taxi, cab àòåëüˆ - studio,dress shop êàôˆ - cafe áþð‹ - office êóïˆ - compartment èíòåðâüþ - interview ïàëüò‹ - overcoat etc. All these words are Neuter and their Gender agreement and pronoun replacement is Neuter. E.g. ̉íñêîå øîññˆ - Minsk highway - oí‹ èíòåðˆñíîå èíòåðâüþ - interesting interview - îí‹ í‹âîå ïàëüò‹ - new overcoat - îí‹ but ãîðµ÷èé ê‹ôå - Masculine - hot coffee h Notice! Part 1 page 4
  8. 8. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova THE GENDER AGREEMENT BETWEEN NOUNS AND CHARACTERIZING WORDS IN THE SINGULAR The adjectives and adjectival words are registered in the dictionaries in the Masculine. You can make other gender forms on your own if you follow the rules which will be stipulated further. The gender agreement between nouns and adjectives The Masculine adjectival endings which a foreign learner may trace from the The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular dictionary are as follows: -ûé like in í‹âûé - new, èçâˆñòíûé - famous -îé like in áîëüø‹é - big, large, ïëîõ‹é - bad, äîðîã‹é - expensive, dear -èé like in ð˜ññêèé - Russian, àíãë‰éñêèé - English, õîð‹øèé - good, ì‚ëåíüêèé - small, little, ïîñëˆäíèé - last So, these adjectives can be attached to the nouns the gender of which is marked or established as Masculine, for example: Masculine adjective + Masculine noun M. M. í‹âûé + äîì M. M. áîëüø‹é + äîì M. M. õîð‹øèé + äîì Feminine adjective + Feminine noun To make a Feminine adjective to attach it to a Feminine noun, you have to replace Masculine endings by -àÿ ending. ûé, îé, èé àÿ E.g. M. F. F. íîâûé íîâàÿ ìàøèíà new new car M. F. F. áîëüøîé áîëüøàÿ ìàøèíà large, big big car Part 1 page 5
  9. 9. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova M. F. F. M. F. F. ïëîõîé ïëîõàÿ ìàøèíà àíãëèéñêèé àíãëèéñêàÿ øêîëà bad bad car English English school M. F. F. M. F. F. äîðîãîé äîðîãàÿ ìàøèíà õîðîøèé õîðîøàÿ øêîëà expensive expensive car good, nice good school M. F. F. M. F. F. ðóññêèé ðóññêàÿ øêîëà ìàëåíüêèé ìàëåíüêàÿ øêîëà The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular Russian Russian school small, little small school The only exception to this rule presents a limited group of adjectives ending in -íèé like h Notice! ïîñëåäíèé - last, ðàííèé - early, ïîçäíèé - late etc. -èé in -íèé is replaced by -ÿÿ ïîñëåäí|èé ïîñëåäí|ÿÿ ñòðàíèöà - last page ïîçäí|èé ïîçäí|ÿÿ îñåíü - late autumn Neuter adjective + Neuter noun To make the Neuter adjective to attach it to a Neuter noun, you have to replace -ûé, -îé or -èé by -îå: íîâûé íîâîå ïàëüòî - new overcoat áîëüøîé áîëüøîå îêíî - large window ïëîõîé ïëîõîå ðàñïèñàíèå - bad schedule ðóññêèé ðóññêîå ñëîâî - Russian word ôèíñêèé ôèíñêîå ðàäèî - Finnish radio ìàëåíüêèé ìàëåíüêîå îêíî - small window Exception But -èé is replaced by -åå if a Masculine adjective ends in -íèé, -æèé, -øèé, -÷èé, -ùèé. E.g. N. N. ïîñëåäí|èé ñâåæ|èé ïîñëåäí|åå ïèñüìî - last letter ñâåæ|åå ìÿñî - fresh meat h Notice! õîðîø|èé õîðîø|åå íàñòðîåíèå - good mood ãîðÿ÷|èé ãîðÿ÷|åå ìîëîêî - hot milk íàñòîÿù|èé íàñòîÿù|åå âðåìÿ - present time Part 1 page 6
  10. 10. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova THE GENDER AGREEMENT BETWEEN ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS OF ADJECTIVAL ORIGIN An adjectival noun has the form of an adjective but functions as a noun. Most of the adjectival nouns result from the omission of a noun qualified by the adjective, for example: Notice! h M. ó÷¸íûé (÷åëîâåê) - scientist F. âàííàÿ (êîìíàòà) - bathroom M. ðóññêèé (÷åëîâåê) - Russian (nat.) F. íàáåðåæíàÿ (óëèöà) - embankment M. áåçðàáîòíûé (÷åëîâåê)-unemployed N. âòîðîå (áëþäî) - second course The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular F. ðóññêàÿ (æåíùèíà) - Russian (nat.) N. ãîðÿ÷åå (áëþäî) - main course F. ñòîëîâàÿ (êîìíàòà) - dining-room N. ìîðîæåíîå - ice-cream So, the adjectival nouns are qualified like normal nouns: M. M. èçâåñòíûé + ó÷¸íûé - famous scientist F. F. áîëüøàÿ + ñòîëîâàÿ - large dining-room h Notice! N. N. âêóñíîå + ìîðîæåíîå - delicious ice-cream The possessive pronouns used as characterizing words Ýòî ìîé äîì. M This is my house. Ýòî ìîÿ ìàøèíà. This is my car. My Ýòî íàø äîì. N F This is our house. Ýòî ìî¸ ìåñòî. M This is my seat. Ýòî íàøå ìåñòî. Our Ýòî íàøà ìàøèíà. This is our seat. N F This is our car. Ýòî âàø äîì? Is this your house? M Ýòî âàøà ìàøèíà? Your Is this your car? Ýòî òâîé äîì? N (from «âû») F Is this your house? Ýòî âàøå ìåñòî? M Is this your seat? Ýòî òâîÿ ìàøèíà? Ýòî òâî¸ ìåñòî? Your Is this your car? Is this your seat? N (from «òû») F Part 1 page 7
  11. 11. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova Possessive pronouns åãî (his), å¸ (her), èõ (their) do not change according to the gender principle, they exist only in one unchangeable form: hNotice! åãî äîì - his house åãî (his) åãî ìàøèíà - his car åãî ìåñòî - his place å¸ å¸ äîì - her house (her) The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular å¸ ìàøèíà - her car èõ èõ äîì - their house (their) å¸ ìåñòî - her place èõ ìàøèíà - their car èõ ìåñòî - their place Summary ìîé, íàø, âàø, òâîé, åãî, å¸, èõ + äîì ìîÿ, íàøà, âàøà, òâîÿ, åãî, å¸, èõ + ìàøèíà ìî¸, íàøå, âàøå, òâî¸, åãî, å¸, èõ + ìåñòî The demonstrative and determinative pronouns used as characterizing words ýòîò - this, the... close to hand Âîò ýòîò äîì. M Here is this house. Âîò ýòî ìåñòî. this Âîò ýòà ìàøèíà. Here is this place. N F Here is this car. ýòî... - this is, that is - special case! M. Ýòî ìîé äîì. F. Ýòî ìîÿ ìàøèíà. N. Ýòî ìî¸ ìåñòî. This is my house. This is my car. This is my seat. Notice! It is necessary to distinguish the characterizing ýòî, which changes according to genders and ýòî used in the meaning of «this is, that is, these are, those are». The latter is not a characterizing word, and it does not change according to genders. Part 1 page 8
  12. 12. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova òîò - that one, the one which was meant, distant object M Âîò òîò äîì. Here is that house. that Âîò òî ìåñòî. N F Âîò òà óëèöà. Here is that place. Here is that street. The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular òàêîé - this kind, the same Òàêîé äîì? M This kind of house? this N kind F Òàêîå ïèâî? Òàêàÿ ìàøèíà? This kind of beer? This kind of car? òàêîé - used in expressive sentences like: M Ñåãîäíÿ òàêîé âåòåð! It is so windy today! N F Ñåãîäíÿ òàêîå ñîëíöå! Ñåãîäíÿ òàêàÿ æàðà! It is so sunny today! It is so hot today! òàêîé - what a..., combines with long adjectives: Òàêîé ñèëüíûé âåòåð! What a heavy wind! M Òàêîå æàðêîå ëåòî! N F What a hot summer! Òàêàÿ ñèëüíàÿ ãðîçà! What a heavy thunderstorm! Part 1 page 9
  13. 13. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova Similar meaning could be rendered by êàêîé - such a..., what a ... Êàêîé ñèëüíûé âåòåð! M What a heavy wind! Êàêîå æàðêîå ëåòî! Êàêàÿ ñèëüíàÿ ãðîçà! What a hot summer! N F What a heavy thunderstorm! The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular òàêîé æå - the same, the same kind as, combines with long adjectives: Òàêîé æå äîì. The same kind of house. M Òàêîå æå ïèâî. Òàêàÿ æå ìàøèíà. The same kind of beer. N F The same kind of car. ñàìûé - the very, the most, most Indicates precise location: Ì. Ýòî ñàìûé öåíòð ãîðîäà. It`s the very centre of the city. Combines with long adjectives to denote superlative meaning: Ýòî ñàìûé áîëüøîé äîì. M This is the biggest house. Ýòî ñàìàÿ äîðîãàÿ ìàøèíà. This is the most expensive car. N F Ýòî ñàìîå óäîáíîå ìåñòî. This is the most comfortable seat. òîò ñàìûé - the same, the very, mentioned before Âîò òîò ñàìûé äîì. M Âîò òî ñàìîå ìåñòî. Âîò òà ñàìàÿ ìàøèíà. N F Part 1 page 10
  14. 14. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova The Interrogative Pronouns used as characterizing words The Interrogative Pronouns are used in questions: êàêîé - what, which, what kind of, what is the number of..? Êàêîé? M Êàêîå? Êàêàÿ? The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular N F Êàêîé ó âàñ âàãîí? What is your carriage number? What is the class of your carriage? Êàêîé îí ÷åëîâåê? What kind of person is he? Êàêîé ó âàñ òåëåôîí? What is your telephone number? What kind of telephone do you have? Êàêàÿ çàâòðà áóäåò ïîãîäà? What is the weather like tomorrow? Êàêàÿ ó âàñ êâàðòèðà? What kind of apartment do you have? What is the number of your apartment? Êàêîå ó âàñ êóïå? What is the number of your compartment? What is the class of your compartment? Êàêîå ó âàñ ìåñòî? What is the number of your seat? ÷åé? - Whose..? Who is the owner? To whom it belongs? ÷åé? ×åé ýòî äîì? M Whose is this house? N whose? F ÷ü¸? ÷üÿ? ×üÿ ýòî ìàøèíà? ×ü¸ ýòî êóïå? Whose is this car? Whose is this compartment? Part 1 page 11
  15. 15. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova Other characterizing words âåñü - all, the whole M âåñü äåíü - the whole day all, âñÿ ñòðàíà âñ¸ âðåìÿ - all the time N the whole F - the whole country îäèí - one, a... îäèí äîì The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular M - one house, a house îäíî ìåñòî a... îäíà ìàøèíà - one seat, a place N one, F - one car, a car ñàì - is an emphatic pronoun, it can characterize both nouns and personal pronouns: M îí ñàì - he himself ...self ñàìî - by itself N F îíà ñàìà - she herself THE GENDER OF NOUNS DENOTING PROFESSIONS IN RUSSIAN Names of professions ending in consonants and the soft sign are exclusively masculine as originally they were male dominated. h Notice! E.g.: Îí Îíà profession âðà÷ - doctor Ì. Ì. Ì. Ì. õîðîøèé âðà÷ õîðîøèé âðà÷ The characterizing words are always Masculine irrespective of sex: Some other popular nouns denoting professions: Äèêòîð - announcer, äèðåêòîð - director, ó÷èòåëü - teacher, ïðåäñåäàòåëü - chairman, ïðîôåññîð - professor, ïîâàð - cook, èíæåíåð - engineer, áóõãàëòåð - bookkeeper, òðåíåð - trainer, ýêñêóðñîâîä - guide, ðåæèññ¸ð - film-director, ôîòîãðàô - photographer, ðåäàêòîð - editor etc. Part 1 page 12
  16. 16. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Part 2 Eugenia Nekrasova The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. SINGULAR - ONLY NOUNS The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. Not all the nouns have both Singular and Plural forms. There are nouns which exist only in the Singular. They include nouns which denote: h Notice! «collectives»: ïîñóäà - dishware, ìåáåëü - furniture, îáóâü - footware, îðóæèå - weapons, îäåæäà - clothes, êîñìåòèêà - cosmetics, etc. human activities: ïîëèòèêà - policy/politics, ïðîìûøëåííîñòü - industry, ýêîíîìèêà - economy/economics, ìåäèöèíà - medicine, ñïîðò - sports, òåëåâèäåíèå - television, ðàäèî - radio, etc. substances; foods, cereals, fruits and vegetables: çîëîòî - gold, íåôòü - oil, øåðñòü - wool, ìàñëî - oil, butter, ïèâî - beer, ðèñ - rice, ìÿñî - meat, ìóêà - flour, âèíîãðàä - grapes, èçþì - raisins, êàïóñòà - cabbage, ëóê - onion, øîêîëàä - chocolate, etc. feelings and sensations: ñ÷àñòüå - happiness, çàâèñòü - envy, etc. FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS The nouns of all Genders make Plural forms with the help of 2 groups of endings: First Group -û or -è ending: Big Group of Masculine& Feminine Nouns Second Group -à or -ÿ ending: Small Group of Masculine & Neuter Nouns First Group: Masculine & Feminine Nouns -û ending («hard line») after hard consonants Singular Plural M. ÷åìîäàí ÷åìîäàíû - suitcases M. êîìïüþòåð êîìïüþòåðû - computers M. èíîñòðàíåö èíîñòðàíöû - foreigners etc. -û ending instead of -à F. ìàøèíà ìàøèíû - cars F. êâàðòèðà êâàðòèðû - apartments F. æåíùèíà æåíùèíû - women etc. Part 2 page 13
  17. 17. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar -è ending («soft line») instead of -ü, -é and -ÿ Eugenia Nekrasova Singular Plural M. äåíü äíè - days M. ñëîâàðü ñëîâàðè - dictionaries M. ðóáëü ðóáëè - roubles The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. M. ãîñòü ãîñòè - guests F. íî÷ü íî÷è - nights M. ìóçåé ìóçåè - museums F. íåäåëÿ íåäåëè - weeks F. ôîòîãðàôèÿ ôîòîãðàôèè - photos ã, ê, õ,+ è Singular Plural Special cases! F. êíèãà êíèãè - books M. ó÷åáíèê ó÷åáíèêè -textbooks F. ñïè÷êà ñïè÷êè - matches æ, ÷, ø, ù + è M. ñëóõ ñëóõè - rumours Singular Plural etc. F. ëûæà ëûæè - skies M. íîæ íîæ‰ - knives M. âðà÷ âðà÷‰ - doctors M. ïëàù ïëàù‰ - raincoats etc. Second Group: Masculine and Neuter nouns This group is much smaller than the -û, -è group but the nouns are frequently used. -‚ ending («hard line») after hard consonants in the Masculine nouns Singular Plural ãîðîä ãîðîä‚ - cities, towns äîì äîì‚ - houses ëåñ ëåñ‚ - forests, woods ïîåçä ïîåçä‚ - trains âå÷åð âå÷åð‚ - evenings îñòðîâ îñòðîâ‚ - islands öâåò öâåò‚ - colors áåðåã áåðåã‚ - banks, coasts ïàñïîðò ïàñïîðò‚ - passports ñ÷¸ò ñ÷åò‚ - bills, accounts íîìåð íîìåð‚ - numbers, hotel rooms ìàñòåð ìàñòåð‚ - craftsmen etc. Part 2 page 14
  18. 18. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova -‚ ending instead of -o in Neuter nouns («hard line») ‹çåðî îç¸ðà - lakes ñë‹âî ñëîâ‚ - words ëèö‹ ë‰öà - faces The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. êðˆñëî êðˆñëà - armchairs ÿéö‹ ÿéöà - eggs ïèñüì‹ ï‰ñüìà - letters îêí‹ ‹êíà - windows ñòåêë‹ ñò¸êëà - window glasses etc. also âðˆìÿ âðåìåí‚ - times ‰ìÿ èìåí‚ - names -ÿ ending («soft line») instead of -å in Neuter nouns ïîëå ïîëÿ - fields çäàíèå çäàíèÿ - buildings ïðåäëîæåíèå ïðåäëîæåíèÿ - sentences, offers SPECIAL CASES OF PLURAL NOUN FORMATION Singular Plural äðóã äðóçüÿ - friends äåðåâî äåðåâüÿ - trees áðàò áðàòüÿ - brothers Singular Plural ñûí ñûíîâüÿ - sons ñîñåä ñîñåäè - neighbours ñòóë ñòóëüÿ - chairs ãîñïîäèí ãîñïîäà - sirs, ëèñò ëèñòüÿ - leaves ladies & gentlemen õîçÿèí õîçÿåâà - owners ÿáëîêî ÿáëîêè - apples Singular Plural óõî óøè - ears ðåá¸íîê äåòè - children ÷åëîâåê ëþäè - people Part 2 page 15
  19. 19. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Singular Plural Eugenia Nekrasova õðèñòèàíèí õðèñòèàíå - Christians ìóñóëüìàíèí ìóñóëüìàíå -Muslims ðîññèÿíèí ðîññèÿíå - citizens of Russia The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. àíãëè÷àíèí àíãëè÷àíå - English äàò÷àíèí äàò÷àíå - Danes êðåñòüÿíèí êðåñòüÿíå -peasants ãðàæäàíèí ãðàæäàíå - citizens àðìÿíèí àðìÿíå - Armenians öûãàí öûãàíå - Gypsies etc. êîò¸íîê êîòÿòà - kittens öûïë¸íîê öûïëÿòà - chiñken etc. PLURAL-ONLY NOUNS Some nouns do not have the Singular form. They exist only in the Plural form (registered in the dictionaries in the Plural form). These words denote: objects which consist of two parts: î÷êè - glasses, íîæíèöû - scissors, âåñû - scales, êà÷åëè - swings, âîðîòà - gate, áðþêè - trousers, äæèíñû - jeans, òðóñû - pants, êîëãîòêè - tights etc. collective actions: êàíèêóëû - school or university vacation, ïåðåãîâîðû - negotiations, âûáîðû - elections, ãàñòðîëè - tour (of artists), ïîõîðîíû - funeral, ïðîâîäû - farewell party, ïðÿòêè - hide and seak, ðîäû - childbirth etc. also the following words: äåíüãè - money, øàõìàòû - chess, ÷àñû - clock, watch, êóðàíòû - chimes, òèòðû - subtitles, êóäðè - curls, ñàíêè - sledge, îïèëêè - saw-dust, îáîè - wallpaper, äðîâà - firewood, ìåìóàðû - memoirs, ñ÷¸òû - abacus, àïëîäèñìåíòû - applause etc. Part 2 page 16
  20. 20. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova äóõè - perfume, ùè - cabbage-soup, ìàêàðîíû - spaghetti, êîíñåðâû - preserves, ñëèâêè - cream etc. ñóòêè - 24 hours period, ñóìåðêè - dusk, çàìîðîçêè - early frost The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. Some place names some mountains: Êàðïàòû, Àëüïû, Ãèìàëàè, Àíäû etc. some islands: Êóðèëû, Ãàâàéè, Êàíàðû, Áåðìóäû, Ôàðåðû etc. some countries: Ôèëèïïèíû, Íèäåðëàíäû, Ñîåäèí¸ííûå Øòàòû Àìåðèêè also òðîïèêè - tropics, äæóíãëè - jungle Ëóæíèêè, Ñîêîëüíèêè, and lot of other geographic names mainly denoting villages and towns on the territory of the former Soviet Union. PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE PLURAL All the plural nouns can be replaced by the personal pronoun îíè îíè they E.g. Ýòî ìîè äðóçüÿ. These are my friends. Ýòî ìîè êíèãè. These are my books. Îíè ñåé÷àñ æèâóò â Ëîíäîíå. They live in London now. Îíè íà ïîëêå. They are on the shelf. Part 2 page 17
  21. 21. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova THE AGREEMENT BETWEEN NOUNS AND CHARACTERIZING WORDS IN THE PLURAL The Plural of Adjectives Characterizing words also have the Plural form. All three Singular forms The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. - Masculine, Feminine and Neuter fall into one Plural form: Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural ûé, îé group, for example: Singular Plural M. íîâûé äîì - new house íîâûå äîìà - new houses F. íîâàÿ ìàøèíà - new car íîâûå ìàøèíû - new cars N. íîâîå ñëîâî - new word íîâûå ñëîâà - new words Singular Plural M. çîëîòîé áðàñëåò - golden bracelet çîëîòûå ìåäàëè F. çîëîòàÿ ìåäàëü - gold medal - gold medals N. çîëîòîå êîëüöî - golden ring Summing - up table M. F. N. Plural -ûé - àÿ - îå - ûå -îé - àÿ - îå - ûå íèé group, for example: M. ïîñëåäíèé óðîê - last lesson F. ïîñëåäíÿÿ ñòðàíèöà - last page N. ïîñëåäíåå ñëîâî - last word Plural ïîñëåäíèå óðîêè - last lessons Summing - up table ïîñëåäíèå ñòðàíèöû - last pages ïîñëåäíèå ñëîâà - last words M. F. N. Plural -íèé -íÿÿ -íåå -íèå Part 2 page 18
  22. 22. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova MIXED PLURAL ADJECTIVAL ENDINGS A big group of commonly used adjectives has the following peculiarities in the Plural formation: -ãèé, -êèé, -õèé, The adjectives with stems ending in ã, ê, õ The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. -ãîé, -êîé, -õîé have -èå Plural ending group (both spelt and pronounced), for example: strict expensive, dear M. ñòðîãèé Plural M. äîðîãîé Plural F. ñòðîãàÿ ñòðîãèå F. äîðîãàÿ äîðîãèå N. ñòðîãîå N. äîðîãîå Russian M. ðóññêèé Plural F. ðóññêàÿ ðóññêèå N. ðóññêîå sity, urban M. ãîðîäñêîé Plural F. ãîðîäñêàÿ ãîðîäñêèå quiet, calm N. ãîðîäñêîå M. òèõèé Plural F. òèõàÿ òèõèå bad, poor N. òèõîå M. ïëîõîé Plural F. ïëîõàÿ ïëîõèå N. ïëîõîå Summing - up table M. F. N. Pl. M. F. N. Pl. ãèé - ãàÿ - ãîå - ãèå ãîé - ãàÿ - ãîå - ãèå êèé - êàÿ - êîå - êèå êîé - êàÿ - êîå - êèå õèé - õàÿ - õîå - õèå õîé - õàÿ - õîå - õèå Part 2 page 19
  23. 23. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova -æèé, -øèé, -÷èé, The adjectives with stem in æ, ø, ÷, ù -ùèé, -æîé, -øîé have their Plural form spelt with -èå, group but pronounced -ûå, e.g.: The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. fresh M. ñâåæèå Plural big, large F. ñâåæàÿ ñâåæèå M. áîëüøîé Plural N. ñâåæåå F. áîëüøàÿ áîëüøèå N. áîëüøîå good, nice alien M. õîðîøèé Plural M. ÷óæîé Plural F. õîðîøàÿ õîðîøèå F. ÷óæàÿ ÷óæèå N. õîðîøåå N. ÷óæîå hot present, real, true, genuine M. ãîðÿ÷èé Plural M. íàñòîÿùèé Plural F. ãîðÿ÷àÿ ãîðÿ÷èå F. íàñòîÿùàÿ íàñòîÿùèå N. ãîðÿ÷åå N. íàñòîÿùåå Summing - up table M. F. N. Pl. M. F. N. Pl. æèé - æàÿ - æåå - æèå øîé - øàÿ - øîå - øèå æîé - æàÿ - æîå - æèå ÷èé - ÷àÿ - ÷åå - ÷èå øèé - øàÿ - øåå - øèå ùèé - ùàÿ - ùåå - ùèå Memorize Ñâåæèå ãîðÿ÷èå õîðîøèå áîëüøèå õðóñòÿùèå áóëî÷êè - fresh hot good big crunchy buns Part 2 page 20
  24. 24. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova The Possessive pronouns in the Plural my our M. ìîé Plural M. íàø Plural F. ìîÿ ìîè F. íàøà íàøè The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. N. ìî¸ N. íàøå ìîè êëþ÷è íàøè êëþ÷è - my keys - our keys your from «âû» your from «òû» M. âàø Plural M. òâîé Plural F. âàøà âàøè F. òâîÿ òâîè N. âàøå N. òâî¸ âàøè êëþ÷è òâîè êëþ÷è - your keys - your keys But his - åãî, her - å¸, their - èõ have only one form for all Genders and Numbers: åãî êëþ÷è - his keys, å¸ êëþ÷è - her keys, èõ êëþ÷è - their keys The Demonstrative pronouns in the Plural M. ýòîò Plural M. òîò Plural F. ýòà ýòè F. òà òå N. ýòî ýòè êëþ÷è N. òî òå êëþ÷è - these keys - those keys M. òàêîé Plural M. êàêîé Plural F. òàêàÿ òàêèå F. êàêàÿ êàêèå N. òàêîå N. êàêîå òàêèå êëþ÷è Êàêèå èäèîòû! - this kind of keys - What kind of idiots they are! M. òàêîé æå Plural F. òàêàÿ æå òàêèå æå N. òàêîå æå òàêèå æå êëþ÷è - same kind of keys Part 2 page 21
  25. 25. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar Eugenia Nekrasova M. ñàìûé äîðîãîé Plural F. ñàìàÿ äîðîãàÿ ñàìûå äîðîãèå ñàìûå äîðîãèå ìàãàçèíû N. ñàìîå äîðîãîå - most expensive shops The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns. M. òîò ñàìûé Plural F. òà ñàìàÿ òå ñàìûå òå ñàìûå êëþ÷è - same kind of keys N. òî ñàìîå The Interrogative Pronouns in the Plural What kind of? M. êàêîé? Plural What? F. êàêàÿ? êàêèå? Êàêèå ó âàñ ïëàíû? N. êàêîå? What are your plans? Whose? M. ÷åé? Plural F. ÷üÿ? ÷üè? ×üè ýòî êëþ÷è? N. ÷ü¸? Whose are these keys? îäíè - only, alone, a pair of ... M. îäèí hNotice! Plural F. îäíà îäíè îäíè î÷êè - one pair of glasses N. îäíî Òàì áûëè îäíè äåòè. 1 There were only children there. etc. The Plural of Other Characterizing Words - all, the whole M. âåñü Plural F. âñ¸ âñå âñå âåùè - all the things N. âñÿ âñå ëþäè - all the people M. ñàì Plural F. ñàìà ñàìè ...selves îíè ñàìè -they themselves N. ñàìî also ìíîãèå - many (people) íåêîòîðûå - some (people) Part 2 page 22
  26. 26. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Part 3 Eugenia Nekrasova The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival Words in the Singular In this part you will learn the main case forms (declension types) of nouns in the Singular adjectives and adjectival characterizing words in the Singular GENERAL OUTLINE OF THE CASE SYSTEM THE CASE SYSTEM AS THE RESULT OF THE GOVERNING PROCESS As mentioned in Part 1 there are two main types of relations between the words in a Russian sentence: the Agreement and the Governing. The Agreement in units was discussed in the first two Parts. Part 3 of the Grammar Book deals with the Governing. Words and units being put together to form a Russian sentence (to express some idea) are practically never equal. Some words (or simple constructions) govern other words causing changes in their endings. Various kinds of endings have been «pigeon-holed» or classified into the cases. The «governors» are mainly as follows: verbs with or without prepositions prepositions all quantitative words including cardinal numerals from 2 nouns in the qualifying combinations negative constructions impersonal constructions The «subordinates» of the governing process are mainly as follows: nouns units (characterizing words + nouns) personal pronouns interrogative, indefinite and negative pronouns, based on personal pronouns numerals, both cardinal and ordinal Part 3 page 23
  27. 27. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova There are 6 cases in Russian: 1. The Nominative 4. The Accusative 2. The Genitive 5. The Instrumental 3. The Dative 6.The Prepositional The Singular case endings of nouns and units (which are characterizing words + nouns), fall into two main groups: First group Second group Masculine & Neuter Feminine The Plural case endings of nouns and units form one group : N M F Plural Special attention has to be paid to the mosaic-like Genitive Plural endings of nouns. hNotice! Try to memorize the case endings in combinations with prepositions or verbs most typical for this case. Part 3 page 24
  28. 28. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova THE DECLENSION OF MASCULINE NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR All nouns are registered in the dictionaries in the Nominative case form. Hard-ending Masculine nouns All Masculine nouns, full first names and place names ending in a hard or hissing consonant decline on the following pattern: Nom. Ýòî Èâàí. Type Gen. Ó Èâàíà åñòü ñîáàêà. Ivan has a dog. Èâàí Dat. Íàäî ïîçâîíèòü Èâàíó. I have to call Ivan. óðîê Acc. =Gen. Ïåòåðáóðã ß çíàþ Èâàíà. I know Ivan. Instr. ß åäó ñ Èâàíîì. I go with Ivan. Prep. Ìû ãîâîðèëè îá Èâàíå. We spoke about Ivan. Mind that the case endings are attached to consonants but replace vowels, é and ü (soft sign). hNotice! Nom. óðîê - lesson Gen. ïîñëå óðîêà - after the lesson Dat. Îí íå ãîòîâ ê óðîêó. He is not ready for the lesson. Acc. =Nom. Îí ïðîïóñòèë óðîê. He missed (skipped) the lesson. Instr. ïåðåä óðîêîì - before the lesson Prep. íà óðîêå - at the lesson Nom. Ýòî Ïåòåðáóðã. Gen. Îí æèâ¸ò íåäàëåêî îò Ïåòåðáóðãà. He lives not far from Petersburg. Dat. Ìû ãóëÿëè ïî Ïåòåðáóðãó. We walked about Petersburg. Acc. =Nom. ß åäó â Ïåòåðáóðã. I am going to Petersburg. Instr. Ýòî ðÿäîì ñ Ïåòåðáóðãîì. It is close to Petersburg. Prep. Îí æèâ¸ò â Ïåòåðáóðãå. He lives in Petersburg. Part 3 page 25
  29. 29. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Soft-ending Masculine nouns The ending vowel can vary depending on the stem consonant. If a stem consonant is soft (ends in a soft sign) or ends in é, then a Masculine noun declines on the following pattern: Type Íèêîëàé ó÷èòåëü Nom. Ýòî Íèêîëàé. Gen. Áèëåòû ó Íèêîëàÿ. Nikolay has the tickets. Dat. Íàäî ïîçâîíèòü Íèêîëàþ. I have to call Nikolay. Acc. = Gen. ß çíàþ Íèêîëàÿ. I know Nikolay. Instr. ß åäó ñ Íèêîëàåì. I go with Nikolay. Prep. Ìû ãîâîðèëè î Íèêîëàå. We spoke about Nikolay. Nom. Ýòî ó÷èòåëü. Gen. Êíèãà ó ó÷èòåëÿ. The teacher has the book. Dat. Íàäî ïîçâîíèòü ó÷èòåëþ. I have to call the teacher. Acc.=Gen. ß âèäåë ó÷èòåëÿ. I saw the teacher. Instr. ß åäó ñ ó÷èòåëåì. I go with the teacher. Prep. Ìû ãîâîðèëè îá ó÷èòåëå. We spoke about the teacher. Part 3 page 26
  30. 30. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Nom. õîêêåé Gen. Ñåãîäíÿ íåò õîêêåÿ. There is no hockey today. Dat. ÷åìïèîíàò ìèðà ïî õîêêåþ - World hockey championship Acc. = Nom. Îí ëþáèò õîêêåé. - He is fond of hockey. Instr. Îí çàíèìàåòñÿ õîêêååì. He goes in for hockey. Prep. Îí ãîâîðèò òîëüêî î õîêêåå. He talks only of hockey. Summing-up table of hard and soft Masculine case endings «Hard» «Soft» Gen. à ÿ Èâàíà/Íèêîëàÿ Dat. ó þ Èâàíó/Íèêîëàþ Instr. îì åì Èâàíîì/Íèêîëàåì THE ACCUSATIVE OF MASCULINE NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR The Accusative of Masculine nouns does not have any special ending. Here Russians use the concept of Animacy and Inanimacy. Animate nouns, which are nouns denoting human beings and representatives of the animal world, take the form of the Genitive case. E.g. Ýòî Èâàí. - Nom. ß âèäåë Èâàíà. - Acc. Ýòî êðîêîäèë. - Nom. ß âèäåë êðîêîäèëà. - Acc. àÿ Part 3 page 27
  31. 31. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Inanimate nouns take the form of the Nominative case, so the Accusative of inanimate nouns does not differ from the dictionary form, for example: Nom. óðîê Acc. ß ïðîïóñòèë óðîê. Summing-up table of Masculine nouns and names in the Accusative Accusative of Accusative of Animates=Genitive Animates=Genitive ß âèäåë Èâàíà. ß ïðîïóñòèë óðîê. ß âèäåë Íèêîëàÿ. ß ëþáëþ õîêêåé. ß âèäåë êðîêîäèëà. ß åäó â Ïåòåðáóðã. ß âèäåë ó÷èòåëÿ. ß ëþáëþ äîæäü. Some special case endings of the Masculine nouns in the Singular There is a group of Masculine nouns denoting a place which take ˜/þ instead of e in the Prepositional Case. h Notice! Here are some of them: ïîë íà ïîë˜ - on the floor ãîä â 1985 ãîä˜ - in 1985 ñàä Ìû ñèäåëè â ñàä˜. We were sitting in the garden. ïîðò â ïîðò˜ - in the port àýðîïîðò â àýðîïîðò˜ - at the airport ëåñ Ìû ãóëÿëè â ëåñ˜. We walked in the forest. øêàô Ïàïêè â øêàô˜. The files are in the bookcase. ìîñò Íà ìîñò˜ ïðîáêà. There is a traffic jam on the bridge. Part 3 page 28
  32. 32. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Êðûì Ðàíüøå ÿ æèë â Êðûì˜. I lived before in the Crimea. óãîë Êîðîáêà ñòîèò â óãë˜. The box is in the corner. áåðåã Äîì ñòîÿë íà áåðåã˜. The house stood on the bank. àä â àä˜ - in hell ðàé â ðàþ - in paradise Some Masculine nouns ending in ö, ÷, ù, ø and æ take -eì ending instead of -oì when the ending is unstressed: ìóæ ñ ì˜æåì èíîñòðàíåö ñ èíîñòð‚íöåì Some Masculine nouns ending in ü (soft sign) take -¸ì ending in the Instrumental Case: äåíü Ñ äí¸ì ðîæäåíèÿ! Happy birthday! ñëîâàðü ñî ñëîâàð¸ì - with a dictionary THE DECLENSION OF NEUTER NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR The Neuter nouns have the same case endings as the Masculine nouns h Notice! Hard ending Neuter nouns Neuter nouns ending in î decline like the Masculine noun óðîê, for example: Nom. Âîò ‹çåðî. Here is the lake. Gen. Íàøà äà÷à íåäàëåêî îò îçåðà. Our summer cottage is not far from the lake. Dat. Ýòî äîðîãà ê ‹çåðó. This road goes to the lake. Acc. = Nom. ß èäó íà ‹çåðî. I am going to the lake. Instr. Íàøà äà÷à ðÿäîì ñ ‹çåðîì. Our summer cottage is close to the lake. Prep. Íàøà äà÷à íà ‹çåðå. Our summer cottage is on the lake. Part 3 page 29
  33. 33. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Neuter nouns ending in -å decline like the soft Masculine noun õîêêåé, for example: Nom. Âîò ìîðå. - Here is the sea. Gen. Îí æèâ¸ò íåäàëåêî îò ìîðÿ. He lives not far from the sea. Dat. Ýòî äîðîãà ê ìîðþ. This road goes to the sea. Acc. = Nom. ß ëþáëþ ìîðå. - I like sea. Instr. Îí æèâ¸ò ðÿäîì ñ ìîðåì. He lives close to the sea. Prep. Íàøà äà÷à íà ìîðå. Our summer cottage is on the sea. Nom. = Acc. = Prep. Nom. Ýòî Ïîäìîñêîâüå. - This is the Moscow region Gen. Âîò êàðòà Ïîäìîñêîâüÿ. Here is the map of the Moscow region. Dat. Îí ìíîãî åçäèò ïî Ïîäìîñêîâüþ. He travels a lot about the Moscow region. Acc. = Nom. Îí õîðîøî çíàåò Ïîäìîñêîâüå. He knows the Moscow region very well. Instr. Ýòîò ðàéîí ãðàíè÷èò ñ Ïîäìîñêîâüåì. This area borders the Moscow region. Prep. Îí æèâ¸ò â Ïîäìîñêîâüå. He lives in the Moscow region. Nom. = Acc. = Prep. Part 3 page 30
  34. 34. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Neuter nouns ending in -èå, like ðàñïèñàíèå decline like ìîðå, except for the Prepositional, for example: Nom. ðàñïèñàíèå - schedule, timetable Gen. íåò ðàñïèñàíèÿ - no schedule Dat. ïî ðàñïèñàíèþ - on schedule Acc. = Nom. ß âèäåë ðàñïèñàíèå - I saw the schedule Instr. ïðîáëåìû ñ ðàñïèñàíèåì - problems with the schedule h Notice! Prep. â ðàñïèñàíèè - in the schedule Several Neuter nouns, like âðåìÿ - time, èìÿ - first name, and some others, decline as follows: hNotice! Nom. âðåìÿ - time Gen. Ó Èâàíà íåò âðåìåí|è. Ivan has no time. Dat. ïëàòèòü ïî âðåìåí|è - to pay according to time Acc. = Nom. Îí òîëüêî ïîòåðÿë âðåìÿ. He only lost time. Instr. Ó Èâàíà âñåãäà ïðîáëåìû ñî âðåìåí|åì. Ivan is always short of time. Prep. Îí çàáûë î âðåìåí|è. He forgot about time. Part 3 page 31
  35. 35. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova THE DECLENSION OF FEMININE NOUNS IN THE SINGULAR Main types of endings Type Type Type Type Ìîñêâà Òàíÿ Ðîññèÿ ïëîùàäü Type Ìîñêâà Type Òàíÿ Gen. Âîò êàðòà Ìîñêâû. Nom. Ýòî Òàíÿ. Dat. Ìû ãóëÿëè ïî Ìîñêâå. Gen. Ó Òàíè íîâàÿ ìàøèíà. Acc. ß ïëîõî çíàþ Ìîñêâó. Dat. Íàäî ïîçâîíèòü Òàíå. Instr. Ìîé äðóã æèâ¸ò ïîä Ìîñêâîé. Acc. Âû çíàåòå Òàíþ? Prep.ß æèâó â Ìîñêâå. Instr. ß åäó ñ Òàíåé. Prep. Ìû ãîâîðèì î Òàíå. Gen. Âîò êàðòà Ðîññèè. Type Ðîññèÿ Here is the map of Russia. Dat. ß ìíîãî åçäèë ïî Ðîññèè. I travelled a lot about Russia. Acc. ß ïðèåõàë â Ðîññèþ ãîä íàçàä. I came to Russia a year ago. Instr. Ìû ïîäïèñàëè äîãîâîð ñ Ðîññèåé. We signed a treaty with Russia. Prep. ß ñåé÷àñ æèâó â Ðîññèè. Now I live in Russia. Type ïëîùàäü Type Type Type Type Ìîñêâà Ò àí ÿ Gen. îêîëî ïëîùàäè - Ðîññèÿ ïëîùàäü near the square Nom. -à -ÿ,-üÿ Dat. ïî ïëîùàäè - Nom. -ÿ -ü Gen. -û -è by the square Gen. -è -è Acc. Âû âèäèòå ïëîùàäü? D a t. -å -å D a t. -è -è Do you see the square? Acc. -ó -þ Instr. çà ïëîùàäüþ - Acc. -þ -ü Instr. -îé -åé/¸é behind the square Instr. -åé -üþ Prep. íà ïëîùàäè P r ep . -å -å - in the square P r ep . -è -è Part 3 page 32
  36. 36. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova There are 3 additional mixed types of Feminine noun case forms: Mixed types of endings Type Type Type êíèãà óëèöà Íàòàøà -ãà,-êà,-õà -öà -øà,-æà, -÷à,-ùà nouns nouns nouns Type Follows Type Ìîñêâà, êíèãà but in the Genitive Case -è is used instead of -û: êíèãà Äîì êíèãè, -ãà -ãè Type Follows Type Ìîñêâà, óëèöà but in the Instrumental Case -åé is used instead of -îé: óëèöà çà óëèöåé -öà -öåé Type Íàòàøà Follows Type Ìîñêâà, but has two irregularities: in the Genitive Case -è is spelt instead of -û: Íàòàøà ó Íàòàøè, -øà -øè in the Instrumental Case -åé is used instead of -îé: Íàòàøà ñ Íàòàøåé, -øà -øåé: Type «Natural Masculines» follows similar types of Feminine Nouns, for example: h Notice! ïàïà like Ìîñêâà, äåäóøêà like êíèãà Êîëÿ like Òàíÿ, Ñåð¸æà like Íàòàøà Part 3 page 33
  37. 37. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Summing-up table of the Masculine and Neuter noun declension in the Singular Hard declension Soft declension È âà í Íèêîëàé óðîê Nom. Nom. ó÷èòåëü Ïåòåðáóðã ìîðå îçåðî ðàñïèñàíèå È âà íà Íèêîëàÿ Gen. óðîêà Gen. ó÷èòåëÿ -à Ïåòåðáóðãà -ÿ ìîðÿ îçåðà ðàñïèñàíèÿ È âà íó Íèêîëàþ Dat. óðîêó Dat. ó÷èòåëþ -ó Ïåòåðáóðãó -þ ìîðþ îçåðó ðàñïèñàíèþ Hard declension Soft declension Anim.=Gen. Anim.=Gen. Inanim.=Nom. Inanim.=Nom. Èâàíà=Gen. Íèêîëàÿ=Gen. A cc. A cc. óðîê=Nom. ó÷èòåëÿ=Gen. Ïåòåðáóðã=Nom. ìîðå=Nom. îçåðî=Nom. ðàñïèñàíèå=Nom. È â à í îì Íèêîëàåì Instr. óðîêîì Instr. ó÷èòåëåì -îì Ï åòåðáóðãîì -åì ìîðåì îçåðîì ðàñïèñàíèåì È âà íå Íèêîëàå Prep. óðîêå Prep. ó÷èòåëå -å Ïåòåðáóðãå -å ìîðå îçåðå, but â ëåñó but ðàñïèñàíèè Part 3 page 34
  38. 38. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Summing-up table of the Feminine noun declension in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova Ìîñêâà, êíèãà, óëèöà, Ìîñêâó, êíèãó, Íàòàøà óëèöó, Íàòàøó Òàíÿ, Nom. Òàíþ, Ðîññèÿ, ïëîùàäü Acc. Ðîññèþ, ïëîùàäü ñòàòüÿ ñòàòüþ Ìîñêâû, óëèöû Ìîñêâîé, êíèãîé óëèöåé, Íàòàøåé, êíèãè, Íàòàøè, Instr. Gen. Òàíè, Ðîññèè, Òàíåé, Ðîññèåé, ïëîùàäüþ ñòàòü¸é ñòàòüè, ïëîùàäè Ìîñêâå, Òàíå, ñòàòüå, Ìîñêâå, êíèãå, óëèöå, Íàòàøå, êíèãå, óëèöå, Íàòàøå Òàíå, ñòàòüå Ðîññèè, Ðîññèè, ïëîùàäè Prep. ïëîùàäè Dat. Declension of the Feminine nouns ìàòü and äî÷ü Special case! Nom. ìàòü/äî÷ü hNotice! Gen. ó ìàòåðè/ó äî÷åðè Dat. ïîçâîíèòü ìàòåðè/äî÷åðè Acc. âñòðåòèòü ìàòü/äî÷ü= Nom. Instr. ãîâîðèòü ñ ìàòåðüþ/äî÷åðüþ Prep. ãîâîðèòü î ìàòåðè/äî÷åðè Part 3 page 35
  39. 39. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova ADJECTIVAL TYPE OF DECLENSION IN RUSSIAN The following categories of Russian words have the adjectival case forms: all types of adjectives possessive pronouns - ìîé, òâîé, íàø, âàø all demonstrative pronouns - ýòîò, òîò, òàêîé and other pronouns in combination with them interrogative/relative pronouns - êàêîé, ÷åé, êîòîðûé - which, who indefinite and negative pronouns based on êàêîé, ÷åé, êîòîðûé, íåêîòîðûå - only Plural possessive reflexive pronoun - ñâîé determinative pronouns - ñàìûé, âåñü - whole, êàæäûé - each, every all long participles - ñëîìàíûé, îïîçäàâøèé, îïàçäûâàþùèé etc. ordinal numerals - ïåðâûé - first, äâàäöàòü ïåðâûé - 21-st adjectival nouns - äåæóðíûé - person on duty, ìîðîæåíîå - ice- cream, íàáåðåæíàÿ - embankment etc. participial nouns - ðàíåíûé - a wounded person, ïðîõîæèé - a passer by etc. family names of adjectival origin - Äîñòîåâñêèé, Òîëñòàÿ etc. place names and names of subway, railroad stations, hotels etc. - Êîëîìåíñêîå (earlier village, now a part of Moscow), Æóêîâñêèé (town), Ëóãîâàÿ (station), Ñìîëåíñêàÿ (subway station), also Ïðèáàëòèéñêàÿ (hotel) etc. generalizing/replacing words - ýòî - this, that, âñ¸ - everything, âñå - everybody, everyone (only Plural), ìíîãèå - many (only Plural). Part 3 page 36
  40. 40. A Basic Modern Russian Grammar The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Singular Eugenia Nekrasova As for the declension types all the adjectives and adjectival words can be grouped as follows: Masculine and Neuter Singular adjectives Type Type Type íîâûé ïîñëåäíèé ðóñÀö

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