Mortality and Immortality
How do humans explore our
mortality through art and
architecture?
From ancient times to the present, the living make
both tombs and commemorative art to serve
various purposes:
→to express...
9.4 Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt.
From left, Menkaure, c. 2525–2475
BCE; Khafre, c. 2575–2525 BCE;
Khufu, c. 2600–2550 BCE.
9.7 Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-
Bahri, Egypt, c. 490–1460 BCE.
This funerary temple was a
monument to the grea...
Dias de Los MuertosDias de Los Muertos
Days of the Dead
A social traditionsocial tradition, is the
Day of the DeadDay of t...
 Evidence indicates that pre-Columbian
people participated in festivals dedicated to
the dead many centuries ago.
In Mexi...
Ancient Goddess of the Dead: Mictlantecuhtl
In privateprivate homes, altars honor the
deceased, with incense, pictures of the
dead and their favorite foods.
Families may spend the night at the
graveyard, decorating the gravesites,
burning many candles.
• Many crafts are
created during
this holiday,
including food.
• Such as this
traditional sugar
skull decorated
with icing...
In publicpublic, marketplaces are sites for
parades and celebrations.
José Guadalupe Posada
[Mexican Engraver, 1852-1913]
Political Printmaking
This artist used the skeletal figure with
politi...
Gran fandango y francachela de todas las calaveras
(Happy dance and wild party of all the skeletons)
Broadside
Type metal ...
Funeral Complex of ShiFuneral Complex of Shi
HuangdiHuangdi one of the most extensive
tombs ever constructed.
In 1974, peasants digging a well
uncovered a buried army of 6,000
life-size clay soldiers guarding the
afterlife palace co...
MEMORIALS
• What is a memorial?
• What is it expected to represent about
memory, death, loss and time?
• Is it a lesson fr...
• Contemplate examples of both public and personal
memorials you have seen or heard about in terms of
their designs and in...
WASHINGTON, DC Korean War Memorial
Korean War Memorial
WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Designed by artist Maya Lin
Jan Scruggs, Founder and President, Vietnam Memorial ...
WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial
The Vietnam Veterans
Memorial Fund decided to
have only art professionals
on the ...
WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial
The mission statement drafted
by the Vietnam Veterans
Memorial Fund consisted of ...
WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial
I chose black granite in order to
make the surface reflective and
peaceful. I nev...
911 Memorial
The 9/11 Memorial was dedicated on September 11,
2011 the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks in a
ceremony ...
SHANKSVILLE, PA Temporary Memorial
In the weeks and months following the crash of Flight 93 in a field near
Shanksville, P...
911 Memorial Renderings
The 9/11 Memorial is located at the site of the former World Trade
Center complex, and occupies ap...
Pentagon Memorial
The Pentagon Memorial is designed so and individuals are welcome in the
Memorial each day but guided tou...
911 Museum
The National September 11 Memorial Museum serves as the country's principal
institution concerned with explorin...
The Museum displays artifacts associated
with the events of 9/11, while presenting
stories of loss and recovery.
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
Chapter9 mortalityand immortality
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Chapter9 mortalityand immortality

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How do we contemplate death and what comes after in art and architecture?

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Chapter9 mortalityand immortality

  1. 1. Mortality and Immortality How do humans explore our mortality through art and architecture?
  2. 2. From ancient times to the present, the living make both tombs and commemorative art to serve various purposes: →to express the cultures’ ideas and values about death and the afterlife →to closely tie religion to ritual burials →to promote political and social intentions →to visually establish power →to guarantee honor, fame and/or glory.
  3. 3. 9.4 Great Pyramids, Gizeh, Egypt. From left, Menkaure, c. 2525–2475 BCE; Khafre, c. 2575–2525 BCE; Khufu, c. 2600–2550 BCE.
  4. 4. 9.7 Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el- Bahri, Egypt, c. 490–1460 BCE. This funerary temple was a monument to the greatness of Egypt’s woman pharaoh. When high-ranking Egyptians began to hide tombs in hillsides, the funerary temples were enlarged and emphasized. The Mortuary Temple of HatshepsutMortuary Temple of Hatshepsut shows this development. The temple housed 200 statues of her, painted reliefs showing her divine birth, coronation, military victories, and other exploits. After death, Hatshepsut’s portraits were defaced, records of her rule obscured. They were rediscovered in the 19th C.
  5. 5. Dias de Los MuertosDias de Los Muertos Days of the Dead A social traditionsocial tradition, is the Day of the DeadDay of the Dead, celebrated in Mexico and parts of the United States.
  6. 6.  Evidence indicates that pre-Columbian people participated in festivals dedicated to the dead many centuries ago. In Mexico, a synthesis of pre-Columbian beliefs and European ideas occurred with the coming of the Spanish.
  7. 7. Ancient Goddess of the Dead: Mictlantecuhtl
  8. 8. In privateprivate homes, altars honor the deceased, with incense, pictures of the dead and their favorite foods.
  9. 9. Families may spend the night at the graveyard, decorating the gravesites, burning many candles.
  10. 10. • Many crafts are created during this holiday, including food. • Such as this traditional sugar skull decorated with icing with a place to put your name.
  11. 11. In publicpublic, marketplaces are sites for parades and celebrations.
  12. 12. José Guadalupe Posada [Mexican Engraver, 1852-1913] Political Printmaking This artist used the skeletal figure with political satire to make commentary on the divide of social and economic classes.
  13. 13. Gran fandango y francachela de todas las calaveras (Happy dance and wild party of all the skeletons) Broadside Type metal engraving Calaveras performing the rituals and pleasures of everyday, mocking the pretensions and vanity of life.
  14. 14. Funeral Complex of ShiFuneral Complex of Shi HuangdiHuangdi one of the most extensive tombs ever constructed.
  15. 15. In 1974, peasants digging a well uncovered a buried army of 6,000 life-size clay soldiers guarding the afterlife palace complex. The torsos are hollow, the legs are solid. The bodies are standardized: →frontal →stiff →anatomically simplified →But each distinctly different Funeral Complex of Shi HuangdiFuneral Complex of Shi Huangdi
  16. 16. MEMORIALS • What is a memorial? • What is it expected to represent about memory, death, loss and time? • Is it a lesson from the past, or a warning in the present?
  17. 17. • Contemplate examples of both public and personal memorials you have seen or heard about in terms of their designs and intentions: • whether they are meant to be permanent or temporary • whether they are created by professional architects or designers or the product of non-professional individuals or groups • whether they evoke ideas of grief, celebration or community.
  18. 18. WASHINGTON, DC Korean War Memorial Korean War Memorial
  19. 19. WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial Designed by artist Maya Lin Jan Scruggs, Founder and President, Vietnam Memorial Fund Dedicated on November 13, 1982, The Vietnam Veterans Memorial stands in the Constitution Gardens at the National Mall in Washington D.C. Two long black polished granite walls are inscribed with the names of the 58,000+ killed during the war. The memorial was conceived by its designer, Maya Lin, as a place of healing and contemplation. Vietnam Veterans Memorial
  20. 20. WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund decided to have only art professionals on the selection jury. These are the entry panels, simple pastel drawings by Maya Lin who was an architectural student at the time. Her simple yet meaningful design won the votes of the selection jury.
  21. 21. WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial The mission statement drafted by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund consisted of 4 simple points: • Design must include all 57,000+ names of soldiers missing or killed • Design must be apolitical • Design must be harmonious with site • Design must facilitate a healing process
  22. 22. WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial I chose black granite in order to make the surface reflective and peaceful. I never looked at the memorial as a wall, an object, but as an edge to the earth, an opened side. The mirrored effect would double the size of the park, creating two worlds, one we are a part of and one we cannot enter. The two walls were positioned so that one pointed to the Lincoln Memorial and the other pointed to the Washington Monument. By linking these two strong symbols for the country, I wanted to create a unity between the nation’s past and present. Maya Lin, Designer of Memorial
  23. 23. 911 Memorial The 9/11 Memorial was dedicated on September 11, 2011 the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks in a ceremony for victims’ families.
  24. 24. SHANKSVILLE, PA Temporary Memorial In the weeks and months following the crash of Flight 93 in a field near Shanksville, PA, a variety of personal, spontaneous remembrances were left near the crash site. This temporary memorial site has served as a gathering place for families and others seeking to mourn and remember those lost.
  25. 25. 911 Memorial Renderings The 9/11 Memorial is located at the site of the former World Trade Center complex, and occupies approximately half of the 16-acre site. The 9/11 Memorial features two enormous waterfalls and reflecting pools, each about an acre in size, set within the footprints of the twin towers.
  26. 26. Pentagon Memorial The Pentagon Memorial is designed so and individuals are welcome in the Memorial each day but guided tours are not offered; the Memorial is meant to be experienced on a more personal level. that the nation may remember and reflect on the events that occurred on September 11, 2001.
  27. 27. 911 Museum The National September 11 Memorial Museum serves as the country's principal institution concerned with exploring the implications of the events of 9/11, documenting the impact of those events and exploring 9/11's continuing significance.
  28. 28. The Museum displays artifacts associated with the events of 9/11, while presenting stories of loss and recovery.

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