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Dante e la sua  Divina Commedia Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita… Appunti per la 2mB – Fmgiugliano 1/12/09
La vita di Dante <ul><li>1265 nasce a Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>1295 sposa Gemma Donati, 3 figli </li></ul><ul><li>Parteci...
Storia e vita politica  ai tempi di Dante <ul><li>A Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>La vita turbolenta dei comuni </li></ul><ul>...
La Divina Commedia <ul><li>Viaggio immaginario nell’oltretomba </li></ul><ul><li>Rispecchia le conoscenze geografiche e sc...
Lingua e titolo <ul><li>Dante la chiama solo “Comedia” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ha un inizio  drammatico </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Significati “nascosti” <ul><li>Opera complessa e ricca di simboli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significati esoterici (salvezza!) ...
Le guide del viaggio <ul><li>Le tre guide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgilio  – (inferno/purgatorio)  la ragione </li></ul></...
La concezione del mondo antico <ul><li>Tolomeo : Astronomo greco, II sec. d.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Terra  = sfera immobile a...
 
Il viaggio <ul><li>Anno santo 1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Da Gerusalemme </li></ul><ul><li>La selva oscura  </li></ul><ul><li>L...
Inferno <ul><li>La selva oscura, le porte dell’Inferno </li></ul><ul><li>nel Vestibolo: ignavi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nemme...
Personaggi famosi all’Inferno! <ul><li>http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_%28Divina_Commedia%29 </li></ul><ul><li>Elena,...
La Pena del contrappasso <ul><ul><li>Tipica Concezione medievale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La pena corrisponde </li></ul>...
Inferno
Purgatorio <ul><li>Usciti dall’inferno: una spiaggia e un monte </li></ul><ul><li>È un luogo di passaggio, più sereno </li...
Purgatorio
Paradiso <ul><li>È diviso in 9 sfere celesti – lo guida s.Bernardo </li></ul><ul><li>i primi 7 cieli : un pianeta e una vi...
Paradiso
Fortuna del poema <ul><li>Dal punto di vista linguistico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importanza del volgare </li></ul></ul><ul><...
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Autori1300 Dante - Divina Commedia

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appunti di letteratura italiana su Dante Alighieri: la sua vita e l'opera princiaple, la Divina Commedia

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Autori1300 Dante - Divina Commedia

  1. 1. Dante e la sua Divina Commedia Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita… Appunti per la 2mB – Fmgiugliano 1/12/09
  2. 2. La vita di Dante <ul><li>1265 nasce a Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>1295 sposa Gemma Donati, 3 figli </li></ul><ul><li>Partecipa attivamente alla vita politica fiorentina </li></ul><ul><li>Cariche pubbliche: consiglio dei 100, priore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nel gruppo dei Guelfi / bianchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vuole contrastare le ingerenze del Papa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intanto scrive le sue opere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Vita Nova”, “Convivio” “De vulgari eloquentia…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1302 viene esiliato da Firenze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accusa di corruzione, multa salata, pena di morte… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attività politiche e di ambasciatore, vari spostamenti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nelle corti del centro e nord Italia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1321 muore presso Ravenna </li></ul>
  3. 3. Storia e vita politica ai tempi di Dante <ul><li>A Firenze </li></ul><ul><li>La vita turbolenta dei comuni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotte tra guelfi e ghibellini (x imperatore) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vittoria dei Guelfi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divisione tra Bianchi e Neri (che volevano l’intervento papale nella politica) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1290 prevalgono i Bianchi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1302 vincono i Neri </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esilio di Dante </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In Italia / Europa </li></ul><ul><li>Ghibellini-Guelfi </li></ul><ul><li>Papa Bonifacio VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Il 1° Anno Santo </li></ul><ul><li>Peste nel 1348 </li></ul>
  4. 4. La Divina Commedia <ul><li>Viaggio immaginario nell’oltretomba </li></ul><ul><li>Rispecchia le conoscenze geografiche e scientifiche del tempo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concezione Tolemaica, politica… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>I tre luoghi dell’aldilà </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferno; creato dalla caduta di Lucifero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purgatorio; isola, 7 cornici (vizi capitali) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradiso: 9 cieli… </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Lingua e titolo <ul><li>Dante la chiama solo “Comedia” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ha un inizio drammatico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E un finale lieto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scritta in volgare, una lingua “intermedia” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tra quello alto e sublime della tragedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E quello basso, umile, per le commedie </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Divina”, viene aggiunto da Boccaccio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Per la materia religiosa e la sua perfezione </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Significati “nascosti” <ul><li>Opera complessa e ricca di simboli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significati esoterici (salvezza!) e magici </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Il Numero 3 regna ovunque! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terzine composte da endecasillabi (11x 3 …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 cantiche, 33 canti ciascuna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 regni, 3 guide, 3 categorie di peccatori, 9 cerchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riferimenti magici e religiosi (la Trinità!) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Le guide del viaggio <ul><li>Le tre guide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgilio – (inferno/purgatorio) la ragione </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>un pagano, considerato profeta, esperto di viaggi dell’oltretomba (ne parla nell’Eneide) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modello della perfezione “umana” e filosofica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beatrice (dalla fine del purgatorio) – la fede </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>La donna amata da Dante, traguardo spirituale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modello di elevazione a Dio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>San Bernardo (in paradiso…) – la carità </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fondatore dei Cistercensi, Mistico, ammiratore della Madonna… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. La concezione del mondo antico <ul><li>Tolomeo : Astronomo greco, II sec. d.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Terra = sfera immobile al centro dell’ universo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Circondata da 1 sfera d’aria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E 1 sfera di fuoco (vi nascono i fulmini) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poi 9 sfere celesti </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quindi l’Empireo, involucro che contiene tutto </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terra: divisa in 2 emisferi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boreale (Borea, leggendaria), terre emerse abitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limiti: fiume Gange e le Colonne d’Ercole (Gibilterra) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gerusalemme è al centro del mondo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australe , solo acque… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dante vi colloca l’isola del Purgatorio </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Il viaggio <ul><li>Anno santo 1300 </li></ul><ul><li>Da Gerusalemme </li></ul><ul><li>La selva oscura </li></ul><ul><li>L’inferno </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lucifero </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Il monte del Purgatorio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>purificazione </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paradiso terrestre </li></ul><ul><li>Sfere celesti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradiso </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empireo </li></ul><ul><li>… Dio ! </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inferno <ul><li>La selva oscura, le porte dell’Inferno </li></ul><ul><li>nel Vestibolo: ignavi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nemmeno il diavolo li vuole! Restano “fuori” (rif. Biblico al “tiepido”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Il Fiume Acheronte è il confine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Si viene traghettati da Caronte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poi il Limbo (non battezzati: problema teologico) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nove cerchi: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incontinenti, violenti, fraudolenti (3 !) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nel punto più basso Dante mette i Traditori </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Giuda -> Gesù) Bruto e Cassio -> Cesare …3! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potere spirituale e temporale </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Personaggi famosi all’Inferno! <ul><li>http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_%28Divina_Commedia%29 </li></ul><ul><li>Elena, Achille e Paride </li></ul><ul><li>Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>Ulisse </li></ul><ul><li>Conte Ugolino </li></ul><ul><li>Maometto… </li></ul><ul><li>Papi e arcivescovi… </li></ul>
  12. 13. La Pena del contrappasso <ul><ul><li>Tipica Concezione medievale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La pena corrisponde </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Per analogia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O per contrasto </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Al peccato commesso: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Es: gli ignavi che in vita non hanno fatto niente, pigri e indolenti… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adesso devono rincorrere una bandiera insulsa! E sono tormentati senza posa </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Inferno
  14. 15. Purgatorio <ul><li>Usciti dall’inferno: una spiaggia e un monte </li></ul><ul><li>È un luogo di passaggio, più sereno </li></ul><ul><li>Si “recuperano”, con la penitenza, le virtù che non si sono praticate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sempre seguendo la regola del contrappasso: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ogni anima che viene liberata… canto di festa! </li></ul><ul><li>In cima c’è il Paradiso terrestre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piante e fiori che non appassiscono mai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgilio lascia il posto a Beatrice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Una strana processione… la Chiesa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dante non rinuncia a spiegare le sue idee religiose… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Purgatorio
  16. 17. Paradiso <ul><li>È diviso in 9 sfere celesti – lo guida s.Bernardo </li></ul><ul><li>i primi 7 cieli : un pianeta e una virtù </li></ul><ul><li>8 cielo: le stelle fisse (che sembrano immobili) </li></ul><ul><li>9 cielo: è il “primo mobile” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trasmette il movimento a tutte le sfere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oltre c’è l’Empireo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutti i beati risiedono insieme e lodano Dio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formando una “candida rosa” intorno… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All’amor che move il sole e l’altre stelle. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Paradiso
  18. 19. Fortuna del poema <ul><li>Dal punto di vista linguistico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importanza del volgare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diventerà la lingua “italiana” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspetto religioso/filosofico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rispecchia la teologia cattolica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>È un esempio di dottrina chiara e ricca </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aspetti politici </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equilibrio tra i 2 poteri </li></ul></ul>

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