Punctuation on parade

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Punctuation lesson for GED students.

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Punctuation on parade

  1. 1. Topics Apostrophes Colons Commas Dashes
  2. 2. What Is An Apostrophe?the punctuation mark used toindicate the omission of a letteror numberDefinition from Merriam-Webster Free Dictionary
  3. 3. Rule 1Use with contractionsEx.: She’s going to the market.Note: The apostrophe takes the place of the missingletter ‘i’.Source: GrammarBook.com
  4. 4. Rule 2aUse to show possession orownership.Ex.: Uncle Tom’s CabinSource: GrammarBook.com
  5. 5. Rule 2bAlthough names ending in s oran s sound are not required to have thesecond s added in possessive form, it ispreferred.Ex.: Mr. Jones’s clubsSource: GrammarBook.com
  6. 6. Rule 3Use the apostrophe where the noun thatshould follow is implied.Ex.: It was his turn, not Lily’s.Source: GrammarBook.com
  7. 7. Rule 4Do not use an apostrophe for the pluralform of a name.Ex.: We saw the Freemans at the zoo.Source: GrammarBook.com
  8. 8. Rule 5With a singular compound noun, showpossession with ‘s at the end of theword.Ex.: my sister-in-law’s dogSource: GrammarBook.com
  9. 9. Rule 6If the compound noun is plural, formthe plural first and then use theapostrophe.Ex.: My two sisters-in-law’s catsSource: GrammarBook.com
  10. 10. Rule 7Use the apostrophe and s after the second name onlyif two people possess the same item.Ex.: Sally and Todd’s home.Sally’s and Todd’s cats. (Indicates separateownership.)Sally and Todd’s cats. (Indicates joint ownership ofmore than one cat.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  11. 11. Rule 8NEVER use an ‘s with possessivepronouns as they already showpossession.Correct: The book is theirs, not yours.Incorrect: Sincerely your’sSource: GrammarBook.com
  12. 12. Rule 9The ONLY time and apostrophe is usedfor it is when it is a contraction for it isor it has.Ex.: It’s a beautiful day.It’s been a blast!Source: GrammarBook.com
  13. 13. Rule 10aThe plurals used for capital letters and numbers used asnouns are not formed with apostrophes.Ex.: She consulted with three M.D.s.BUTShe went to three M.D.s’ offices.She learned her ABCs.the 1990s not the 1990sthe 90s or the mid-70s not the 90s or the mid-70sShe learned her times tables for 6s and 7s.Source: GrammarBook.com
  14. 14. Rule 10bException: Use apostrophes with capital letters andnumbers when the meaning would be unclearotherwise.Ex.: Please dot your is.You dont mean is.Ted couldnt distinguish between his 6s and 0s.You need to use the apostrophe to indicate theplural of zero or it will look like the word Os.To beconsistent within a sentence, you would also usethe apostrophe to indicate the plural of 6s.Source: GrammarBook.com
  15. 15. Rule 11Use the possessive case in front of agerund (ing word).Ex.: Tom’s painting is fantastic.Source: GrammarBook.com
  16. 16. Rule 12If a gerund has a pronoun in front of it, usethe possessive form of that pronoun.Ex.: I appreciate your inviting me to dinner.I appreciated his working with me to resolvethe conflict.Source: GrammarBook.com
  17. 17. Knowledge CheckCorrectly place the apostrophe in the following:1. Cats tail2. The Joneses came by to visit today.3. Hes going to the store.4. Two childrens hats5. Mrs. Leess books6. That meal was hers, not Alexs.7. My two cousin-in-laws weddings8. Its going to be a fun time.9. The 1990s10. Please dot your is.
  18. 18. What Is A Colon?a punctuation mark consisting oftwo equally sized dots centered onthe same vertical lineDefinition from Merriam-Webster Free Dictionary
  19. 19. Rule 1Use the colon after a complete sentenceto introduce a list of items whenintroductory words such as namely, forexample, or that is do not appear.Ex.: Please memorize the followingwords: cat, key, ice, candy and zoo.Source: GrammarBook.com
  20. 20. Rule 2A colon should not precede a list unlessit follows a complete sentence.Ex.: I want an assistant who can (1) inputdata, (2) write reports, and (3) completetax forms.Source: GrammarBook.com
  21. 21. Rule 3aCapitalization and punctuation are optional when usingsingle words or phrases in bulleted form. If each bulletor numbered point is a complete sentence, capitalize thefirst word and end each sentence with proper endingpunctuation. The rule of thumb is to be consistent.Ex.: The following are requested:(a) Wool sweaters for possible cold weather.(b) Wet suits for snorkeling.(c) Introductions to the local dignitaries.ORThe following are requested:(a) wool sweaters for possible cold weather(b) wet suits for snorkeling(c) introductions to the local dignitariesSource: GrammarBook.com
  22. 22. Rule 3bNOTE: With lists, you may use periodsafter numbers and letters instead ofparentheses.Ex.: These are some of the pool rules:1. Do not run.2. If you see unsafe behavior, report it tothe lifeguard.3. Have fun!Source: GrammarBook.com
  23. 23. Rule 4aUse a colon instead of a semicolon between twosentences when the second sentence explains orillustrates the first sentence and no coordinatingconjunction is being used to connect thesentences.Ex.: I enjoy reading: novels by Kurt Vonnegut areamong my favorites.Source: GrammarBook.com
  24. 24. Rule 4bIf only one sentence follows the colon, do notcapitalize the first word of the newsentence. If two or more sentences followthe colon, capitalize the first word of eachsentence following.Ex.: Garlic is used in Italian cooking: It greatlyenhances the flavor of pasta dishes. It alsoenhances the flavor of eggplant.Source: GrammarBook.com
  25. 25. Rule 5Use the colon to introduce a direct quotation that is morethan three lines in length. Leave a blank line above andbelow the quoted material. Single space the longquotation. Quotation marks are not used.Ex.: The author of Touched, Jane Straus, wrote in the first chapter:Georgia went back to her bed and stared at the intricatepatterns of burned moth wings in the translucent glass of theoverhead light. Her father was in “hyper mode” again wherenothing could calm him down.He’d been talking nonstop for a week about remodelingprojects, following her around the house as she tried to escape hischatter. He was just about to crash, she knew.Source: GrammarBook.com
  26. 26. Rule 6Use the colon to follow the salutation ofa business letter even when addressingsomeone by his/her first name. Neveruse a semicolon after a salutation.Ex.:Dear Mr. Thomas:Source: GrammarBook.com
  27. 27. Knowledge CheckPlace the colon(s) correctly in the following:1. I want the following items butter, sugar,and flour.2. Garlic is used in Italian cooking. It greatlyenhances the flavor of pasta dishes. It alsoenhances the flavor of eggplant.3. Dear Ms. Rodriguez
  28. 28. What Is A Comma?A punctuation mark , usedespecially as a mark of separationwithin the sentence.Definition from Merriam-Webster Free Dictionary
  29. 29. Rule 1To avoid confusion, use commas to separatewords and word groups with a series of three ormore.Ex.: My $10 million estate is to be split among myhusband, daughter, son, and nephew. (Omittingthe comma after son would indicate that theson and nephew would have to split one-thirdof the estate.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  30. 30. Rule 2Use a comma to separate two adjectives whenthe word and can be inserted between them.Ex.: He is a strong, healthy man.We stayed at an expensive summerresort. (You would not say expensive andsummer resort, so no comma.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  31. 31. Rule 3Use a comma when an -ly adjective is used with otheradjectives.NOTE: To test whether an -ly word is an adjective, see ifit can be used alone with the noun. If it can, use thecomma.Ex.: Felix was a lonely, young boy.I get headaches in brightly lit rooms. (Brightly is not anadjective because it cannot be used alone with rooms;therefore, no comma is used between brightly and lit.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  32. 32. Rule 4Use commas before or surrounding the name ortitle of a person directly addressed.Ex.: Will you, Aisha, do that assignment forme?Yes, Doctor, I will.NOTE: Capitalize a title when directlyaddressing someone.Source: GrammarBook.com
  33. 33. Rule 5aUse a comma to separate the day of themonth from the year and after theyear.Ex.: Kathleen met her husband onDecember 5, 2003, in Mill Valley,California.Source: GrammarBook.com
  34. 34. Rule 5bIf any part of the date is omitted,leave out the comma.Ex.: They met in December 2003 inMill Valley.Source: GrammarBook.com
  35. 35. Rule 6Use a comma to separate the city from the state andafter the state in a document. If you use the two-letter capitalized form of a state in a document,you do not need a comma after the state.NOTE: With addresses on envelopes mailed via thepost office, do not use any punctuation.Ex.: I lived in San Francisco, California, for 20 years.I lived in San Francisco, CA for 20 years.Source: GrammarBook.com
  36. 36. Rule 7Use commas to surround degrees or titlesused with names. Commas are no longerrequired around Jr. and Sr. Commas neverset off II, III, and so forth.Ex.: Al Mooney, M.D., knew Sam Sunny Jr.and Charles Starr III.Source: GrammarBook.com
  37. 37. Rule 8Use commas to set off expressionsthat interrupt sentence flow.Ex.: I am, as you have probablynoticed, very nervous about this.Source: GrammarBook.com
  38. 38. Rule 9When starting a sentence with a weak clause, usea comma after it. Conversely, do not use acomma when the sentence starts with a strongclause followed by a weak clause.Ex.: If you are not sure about this, let me knownow.Let me know now if you are not sure about this.Source: GrammarBook.com
  39. 39. Rule 10Use a comma after phrases of more than three wordsthat begin a sentence. If the phrase has fewer thanthree words, the comma is optional.Ex.: On February 14 many couples give each othercandy or flowers.OROn February 14, many couples give each othercandy or flowersSource: GrammarBook.com
  40. 40. Rule 11If something or someone is sufficiently identified, thedescription following it is considered nonessential andshould be surrounded by commas.Ex.: Freddy, who has a limp, was in an autoaccident. (Freddy is named, so the description is notessential.)The boy who has a limp was in an auto accident. (Wedo not know which boy is being referred to withoutfurther description; therefore, no commas are used.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  41. 41. Rule 12Use a comma to separate two strong clausesjoined by a coordinating conjunction--and,or, but, for, nor. You can omit the comma ifthe clauses are both short.Ex.: I have painted the entire house, but he isstill working on sanding the doors. I paintand he writes.Source: GrammarBook.com
  42. 42. Rule 13Use the comma to separate twosentences if it will help avoidconfusion.Ex.: I chose the colors red and green,and blue was his first choice.Source: GrammarBook.com
  43. 43. Rule 14aA comma splice is an error caused by joining two strong clauseswith only a comma instead of separating the clauses with aconjunction, a semicolon, or a period.Incorrect: Time flies when we are having fun, we are always havingfun.Correct: Time flies when we are having fun; we are always havingfun.ORTime flies when we are having fun, and we are always havingfun. (Comma is optional because both strong clauses are short.)ORTime flies when we are having fun. We are always having fun.Source: GrammarBook.com
  44. 44. Rule 14bA run-on sentence, which is incorrect, is created by joining twostrong clauses without any punctuation.Incorrect: Time flies when we are having fun we are always havingfun.Correct: Time flies when we are having fun; we are always havingfun.ORTime flies when we are having fun, and we are always havingfun. (Comma is optional because both strong clauses are short.)ORTime flies when we are having fun. We are always having fun.Source: GrammarBook.com
  45. 45. Rule 15If the subject does not appear infront of the second verb, do not usea comma.Ex.: He thought quickly butstill did not answer correctly.Source: GrammarBook.com
  46. 46. Rule 16Use commas to introduce or interruptdirect quotations shorter than threelines.Ex.: He actually said, "I do not care.""Why," I asked, "do you always forget todo it?"Source: GrammarBook.com
  47. 47. Rule 17Use a comma to separate a statementfrom a question.Ex.: I can go, cant I?Source: GrammarBook.com
  48. 48. Rule 18Use a comma to separate contrastingparts of a sentence.Ex.: That is my money, not yours.Source: GrammarBook.com
  49. 49. Rule 19Use a comma when beginning sentenceswith introductory words suchas well, now, or yes.Ex.: Yes, I do need that report.Well, I never thought Id live to see theday…Source: GrammarBook.com
  50. 50. Rule 20Use commas surrounding words suchas therefore and however when they areused as interrupters.Ex.: I would, therefore, like a response.I would be happy, however, to volunteerfor the Red Cross.Source: GrammarBook.com
  51. 51. Rule 21Use either a comma or a semicolon beforeintroductory words such as namely, that is, i.e., forexample, e.g., or for instance when they are followedby a series of items. Use a comma after theintroductory word.Ex.: You may be required to bring many items, e.g.,sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.ORYou may be required to bring many items; e.g.,sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing.NOTE: i.e. means that is; e.g. means for exampleSource: GrammarBook.com
  52. 52. Knowledge CheckPlace the comma correctly in the following:1. My $10 million estate is to be split among myhusband daughter son and nephew.2. I took Angie the one with the freckles to the movielast night.3. You are I am sure telling the truth.4. I need sugar butter and eggs from the grocery store.5. She left Albany New York on January 18 of that year.6. She finished her work and then took a long lunch.
  53. 53. What Are Dashes?A punctuation mark, similar toa hyphen or minus sign butdiffering primarily in length andserving different functions.Definition from Wikipedia.org
  54. 54. En DashesRoughly the width of an n, is a little longer than ahyphen. It is used for periods of time when you mightotherwise use to.Ex.: The years 2001–2003January–JuneAlso used in place of a hyphen when combining opencompounds.Ex.: North Carolina–Virginia bordera high school–college conferenceSource: GrammarBook.com
  55. 55. Em DashesThe width of an m. Use sparingly in formal writing.Ex.: You are the friend—the only friend—who offered tohelp me.Never have I met such a lovely person—before you.I pay the bills—she has all the fun.(A semicolon would be used here in formal writing.)I need three items at the store—dog food, vegetarianchili, and cheddar cheese.(Remember, a colon would be used here in formalwriting.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  56. 56. Em Dashes Cont’d.In informal writing, may replace commas, semicolons,colons, and parentheses to indicate added emphasis,an interruption, or an abrupt change of thought.Ex.: My agreement with Fiona is clear—she teaches meFrench and I teach her German.(Again, a colon would work here in formal writing.)Please call my agent—Jessica Cohen—about hiring me.(Parentheses or commas would work just fine hereinstead of the dashes.)I wish you would—oh, never mind.(This shows an abrupt change in thought and warrantsan em dash.)Source: GrammarBook.com
  57. 57. Knowledge CheckPlease correctly place the dash(es) in thefollowing:1. The first day of school August 31 is notsomething I look forward to.2. There was only one person suited to the jobMr. Lee.3. Mr. Lee is suited to the job he has moreexperience than everybody else in thedepartment but he has been having somedifficulties at home recently, and wouldprobably not be available.

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