Introduction to orthodontics

Nov. 20, 2019

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Introduction to orthodontics

  1. Introduction to orthodontics Under supervision of Prof .Dr : Maher Fouda
  2.  What is orthodontics ?  Orthodontics is that specific area of the dental profession that has responsibility to study and supervision of the growth and development of the dentition and its related anatomical structures from birth to dental maturity.
  3.  It includes all preventive and corrective procedures of dental irregularities requiring the repositioning of teeth by functional and mechanical means to establish normal occlusion and pleasing facial contours.
  4.  Branches of orthodontics The art and science of orthodontic can be divided into three categories based on the nature and time of intervention into:-  Preventive orthodontics.  Interceptive orthodontics.  Corrective orthodontics
  5. Preventive orthodontics Definition : It is the action taken to preserve the integrity of what appears to be normal occlusion at a specific time.
  6. • The preventive measures may include : Caires control, anatomical dental restoration, space maintenance, transitory oral habit correction, genetic and congenital anomalies, and supervising exfoliation of deciduous teeth.
  7. Interceptive orthodontics Definition : It is that phase of the science and art of orthodontics , employed to recognize and eliminate potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.
  8. Corrective orthodontics Definition : corrective orthodontics recognizes the existence of malocclusion and the need for employing certain technical procedures to reduce or eliminate the problem and attendant sequelae . These procedure may be mechanical, functional or surgical in nature.
  9.  Aims of orthodontic treatment 1. Functional efficiency . 2. Structural balance . 3. Esthetic harmony . 4. prevention speech defect . 5. Correction of mouth breathing . 6. Caries prevention .
  10. 7. Periodontal disease prevention . 8. Prevent trauma to anterior teeth . 9. Prevention of risk of follicular cyst . 10. Prevention of risk of root resorption . 11. Prevention of complication of prosthetic treatment . 12. Prevention and management of TMJD
  11. Functional efficiency Patients with anterior open bites and those with markedly increased or reverse overjets often complain of difficulty with eating , especially when incising food. This patient has a severe anterior open bite with contact only on the molars
  12. The orthodontic treatment should increase the efficiency of functions performed by the stomatognathic system.
  13. Structural balance The treatment should maintain a balance between teeth, surrounding soft tissue envelop and the associated skeletal structures . The correction of one should not be detrimental to the health of another.
  14. Esthetic harmony Aesthetic standereds cannot be rigidly formulated and not all irrigularities of the teeth are aesthetically unsatisfactory. what is acceptable deponds on the attitude of the patient himself and on the community in which he lives.
  15. Facial appearance can be very important to an individual s well being , self image and success in society. child with a Class II division 1 malocclusion and very poor aesthetic appearance Same child after orthodontic treatment
  16. The orthodontic treatment should increase overall esthetic appeal of the individual.
  17. Psychological well being Malocclusion that adversely affects the appearance of person leads to psychological disturbances. Thus treatment of malocclusion in such patients helps in improving the mental well being and confidence.
  18. Prevention speech defects The connection between various speech defects and malocclusions is of some practical importance , for example if a patient cannot attain contact between the incisors anteriorally , this may contribute to the production of a lisp
  19. Correction of mouth breathing Mouth breathing has been attributed as a possible etiologic factor for malocclusion . The mode of respiration influences the posture of the jaw , the tongue and to lesser extent the head which alter the oro-facial equilibrium thereby leading to malocclusion.
  20. Caries prevention Malalignment of teeth makes oral hygiene maintenance a difficult task, thereby increasing the risk of caries. The orthodontic reduce this risk by correction of mallocclusion.
  21. Periodontal disease prevention Malocclusion associated with poor oral hygiene is a frequent cause of periodontal diseases .
  22. Crowding lead to one or more teeth being squeezed buccally or lingually out of there investing bone, resulting in reduction of priodontal support.
  23. Also in class III malocclusion where the lower incisors in cross bite are pushed labially, leading to gingival receccion.
  24. Traumatic over bites also lead to increased loss of periodontal support. traumatic anterior occlusion is displacing the lower right central incisor labially and there is an associated dehiscence The same patient but the cross bite has been corrected with a removable appliance and there has been an improvement in the gingival condition
  25. This malocclusion has an extremely deep bite which can be associated with potential periodontal problems The same patient but not in occlusion. The deep bite has resulted in labial stripping of the periodontium on the lower right central incisor
  26. Prevent trauma to anterior teeth The risk of trauma to upper incisors increases with the size of overjet . Teeth that are severely proclined are at high risk of injury especially during play or by accidental fall. Class II Division 1 with an increased overjet. The anterior teeth are at risk of potential trauma
  27. Prevention of risk of follicular cysts In the cases of unerupted tooth there is a risk of formation of follicular cyst . This possibility can be eliminated by exposing the tooth and moving it forwards.
  28. Prevention of risk of root resorption In the cases of unerupted tooth there is a risk of resorption of the roots of adjacent teeth. For example, unerupted canine may cause resorption of roots of lateral and perhaps central.
  29. Prevention of complication of prosthetic treatment Certain forms of malocclusion present difficult problems in the design of prostheses. In these cases orthodontic treatment may be indicated . Crowding in anterior segment, lingual occlusion of upper teeth, scissors bite can all present special difficulties in prosthetic treatment and justify orthodontic treatment.
  30. Prevention and management of Tempromandibular joint disfunction syndrome Malocclusion associated with prematurities and deep bite are believed to be a cause of TMJ problems such as pain and dysfunction. Also, in the cases with bruxism
  31.  Scope of orthodontics 1. Moving teeth. 2. Orthopedic change. 3. Altering the soft tissue envelop.
  32. Moving teeth Moving teeth without any deleterious effects into more ideal locations is what everyone always associates this field with.
  33. Orthopedic change Using functional appliances and the latest orthognathic techniques, it is possible to move entire jaws into more favorable positions.
  34. Altering the soft tissue envelop The orthodontist can help retain or restrain the soft tissues and or bring about a change in them by altering the position of the teeth or the jaws.