Premise and fallacy2

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Items that affect propaganda and how we see it

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Premise and fallacy2

  1. 1. Premise, Fallacy, Bias, and Stereotyping Techniques used within propaganda to help influence your decisions
  2. 2. What is premise? <ul><li>A statement that is ASSUMED to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Most premises are accepted as true without having to have proof </li></ul><ul><li>Premise statements are taken for granted to be true beforehand (the seller tells you something in advance that you either cannot or do not check </li></ul>
  3. 3. What can go wrong with having a premise that is ASSUMED? <ul><li>This leads to what is known as a fallacy </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a fallacy? <ul><li>A fallacy is a misconception based on one or more faulty premise </li></ul><ul><li>These types of arguments can take advantage of a person's emotions, make people give in more to an authority figure, and can be hard to recognize </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Fallacies <ul><li>Fallacies of Distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacies of Motive </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacies of Changing the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacies of Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacies that miss the point </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fallacies of Distraction <ul><li>False Dilemma (compare to oversimplification) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only two options are given when others are available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You're either for me or against me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every person is either good or evil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Argument from Ignorance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because you cannot prove something is false, it must be true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Since you cannot prove ghosts do not exist, they must </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fred said he is smarter than Jill, but did not prove it, so it must be false </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fallacies of Distraction <ul><li>Slippery slope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A series of more and more undesirable events takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You should not gamble. Once you start gambling, yo will find it hard to stop and lose all your money, your home, and your family. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Complex Question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>two unrelated points are joined together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do you support freedom and the right to bear arms? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fallacies of Motive <ul><li>Appeal to force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are told that unpleasant consequences will occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If you want to keep your grade in this class, you better make sure to fail Mr. Wright's class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal to Pity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are told of the pitiful state of the object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercials for poor, disadvantaged children </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fallacies of Motive <ul><li>Prejudicial language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses loaded terms to make you favor the idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any reasonable person would agree that teacher pay is way too low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal to Popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because a statement is widely accepted is thought to be true </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone knows the Colts are going to win the Superbowl, so you might as well support them </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Fallacies that change the subject <ul><li>Attacking the person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something about the person or their life is attacked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appeal to authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using an expert to back your opinion (can be dangerous because not all experts agree) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This can also be known as hearsay when the &quot;expert&quot; is not truly an expert </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fallacies that change the subject <ul><li>Anonymous authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does not mention the name of the expert or company that provided the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>My sources tell me that Mr. Smithdeal will give you an A if you sing in class. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumor has it that Mr. Little, our new principal, is really mean. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Fallacy of Ambiguity <ul><li>Equivocation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The same word is used with two different meanings to confuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There was a sign that said &quot;Fine for parking&quot;, so I figured it was okay (fine = okay) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dual sentence meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sentence is written so that two meanings could be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Last night I shot a burglar in my pajamas. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Fallacy of Ambiguity <ul><li>Accent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is placed on a word to make it seem like a different meaning than what is intended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It would be illegal to give away FREE CIGARETTES to children. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You really look pretty TODAY. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fallacies that miss the point <ul><li>Straw man </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person will choose a weak concept to defend as opposed to defending one that is strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If asked about the war in Iraq, a person demonstrating straw man fallacy would briefly discuss it but then try to refocus on something that is related to the war, but not closely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This creates an easy argument for the person to win </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Fallacy that Misses the point <ul><li>Untestabilty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A theory given to explain something cannot be tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I won the lottery because of my psychic abilities (If this is true, you should be able to win again.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Bias and Stereotyping <ul><li>A stereotype is an exaggerated belief, image or distorted truth about a person or group — a generalization that allows for little or no individual differences or social variation. Stereotypes are based on images in mass media </li></ul><ul><li>A prejudice is an opinion, prejudgment or attitude about a group or its individual members. </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudices are often accompanied by ignorance, fear or hatred. </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination is behavior that treats people unequally because of their group memberships. </li></ul><ul><li>Bias uses all the above to show favortism or partiality </li></ul>

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