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Understanding GAAR


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Published in: Economy & Finance, Business

Understanding GAAR

  1. 1. UnderstandingGeneral Anti-Avoidance Rules (GAAR)
  2. 2. There was discussion by the ShomeCommittee during the Union Budget in March, to put into practice GAARprovisions during this fiscal year. Now, GAAR implementation has beenpostponed until April 2013 and could be postponed until 2016-2017.
  3. 3. This has been done to shore up internationalinvestor sentiments. In this lesson we will re- visit GAAR (General Anti Avoidance Rules)that has become the center of discussion for many investors. We will also look at theproposed changes that hopefully would wardoff investor‟s mistrust that had set in after the announcement in the Union Budget.
  4. 4. So let us understand the reason why the government came outwith GAAR in the first place. Andthis we will do with an example.
  5. 5. Let‟s say a company has a policy to helpemployees reach home on time for a better work/life balance.It states, “Employees who stay beyond 20 kilometers from the office can leave 30 minutes early.”
  6. 6. Every office has people that bend the rulesin their favor. Some clever employees who had a second home more than 20 kms.away, decided to change their address so they could leave early every day.
  7. 7. A system implemented with a good intent was quickly abused.These acts are also witnessed on publicbuses where seats are reserved for the elderly but are taken by those who can very well stand and travel.
  8. 8. In this case, we have seen that even a law designed for a specific purpose can get undermined by elements that seekloopholes to create an unfair advantage for themselves.
  9. 9. GAAR is a simple rule which allows the Indian tax authorities to levy tax if the arrangement or transactions done are„impermissible avoidance arrangements.‟This simply means, a tax levied because the company had in the past avoidedpaying tax, citing a tax exempt provision which was not due to them.
  10. 10. Here are some tax avoidance policies thatthe government has formulated, subjected to certain conditions:-
  11. 11. 1. Companies should not be formed in a specific manner just for the sake of tax avoidance
  12. 12. 2. Companies should not collude with subsidiaries with the sole objective of avoiding taxes
  13. 13. The intent of GAAR is to ensure thatcompanies do business in letter as well asin spirit of the law.However, this law leaves a lot to bedesired and can be misused.
  14. 14. The provisions made under GAAR still do not have much clarity. And this may impact many companies.
  15. 15. GAAR has led to negative sentiments inthe environment. Foreign InstitutionalInvestors, for example, who were netbuyers in the initial months in 2012, turnedinto sellers as there is still uncertaintyabout their investments.
  16. 16. Also, there has been recent news thatinvestments through the Mauritius route willcome under the watchful eye of GAAR.Many foreign institutional investors routefunds through Mauritius in order to avoidpaying capital gains tax in India..
  17. 17. So, although the intent of the proposedlaw may be justified, the lack of clarity has hampered investor sentiments.
  18. 18. The fear that law enforcers canmisinterpret the law and penalizecompanies has impacted the economy byweakening investor sentiments.The government is aware of the situationand has acted with swiftness to allay thefears of the investors.
  19. 19. The Shome Committee, set up by PrimeMinister Manmohan Singh to address theconcerns of foreign investors on GAAR,has recommended the postponement ofthe controversial tax provision by threeyears to 2016-17. In effect, GAAR wouldapply from assessment year 2017-18.
  20. 20. The committee, headed by Parthasarathi Shome,has recommended that1) GAAR be applicable only if the monetary threshold of tax benefit is Rs. 3 cr & more2) Abolition of short term and long term capital gains tax for sale of listed securities for both resident and non-resident investors. However, a slight increase in Securities Transaction Tax to make good some of the short fall has been recommended.
  21. 21. He has also recommended that “GAARprovisions shall not apply to examine thegenuineness of the residency of an entityset up in Mauritius”. In other words, aslong as a Tax Residency Certificate fromMauritius exists, that is enough to overrideGAAR provisions.
  22. 22. The objective of this lesson is not to take a politicalposition on GAAR. The idea was to bring conceptual clarity about this widely covered subject in media. There may be many aspects of GAAR that havebeen deliberately left out so that the focus remainson conceptual understanding only while leaving out the fine print.
  23. 23. Hope this story has clarified GAAR Please give us your feedback at
  24. 24. Disclaimer The views expressed in these lessons are for information purposes only and do not construe to be of any investment, legal or taxation advice. They are not indicative of future market trends, nor is Tata Asset Management Ltd. attempting to predict the same. Reprinting any part of this presentation will be at your own risk and Tata Asset Management Ltd. will not be liable for the consequences of any such action.Mutual Fund investments are subject to market risks, read all schemerelated documents carefully.