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  1. 1. e-book: Platform or Program Government For Executive Branch Federal (Livro E-BOOK Plataforma... = tradução experimental para Inglês) 06/05/2013 14:18 PLATFORM OR PROGRAM GOVERNMENT FOR EXECUTIVE BRANCH FEDERAL. Author: Teacher: Leandro Porto Almeida.
  2. 2. Presentation: The participation of every citizen in the process of evolving civil and cultural state of Brazil involves an understanding of collaboration: the development of civic and political consolidation of existing in this nation. Given the very character of capacity of each citizen: while interested in relating their condition sociocivil the goal of relating to life and everyday life of this nation, the interest of this will be possible, the establishment of a policy, a government etc.. Taking into account the very peculiar mode of reasoning and the purpose of exercising the right to democracy, freedom of thought and expression and cultural context: seeking to collaborate with civil prospecting, you can develop (individually) a profile or transposition textual politics, in theory the implementation of a Government Program, a targeted political mandate. So be discerned a work schedule: towards an issue objectively determiner of the future consolidation of civil and cultural state of Brazil and the lives of all citizens. The prospect of a work platform focuses on complete freedom of expression and thought solidification: in which, prior to the exercise of the mandate, the platform will lead to a political ideology and an application in this case. Consolidating will thus compromise my
  3. 3. moral and intellectual person: the author of this political platform, with the ideals described herein and disclosed to the homeland of Brazil. Thus, I can collaborate: the continuing character of the structure in one direction teoricopolítica; driving in the country and its history in time. The condition of Brazil historicopolítica demonstrates: the need for a dynamic structure organicopolítica, efficient and to maintain a policy popular. Therefore, the implementation of a government program to be analyzed, discussed, questioned and discerned as a guiding framework politicocultural. Our story should be widely and maintain a safe procedure for developing teoricopolítica. You will need, at a demonstration candidate through a government program, the direction of policy and perpetuation of the state. Effectively, the exchange establishes the mandate: the change of reality and citizens intelectoesclarecidos observation of changes organicopolíticas, able to change the civics, culture and even society in Brazil. The amplitude of this Government Program search: by Provisional Measure Power or Decree broad change in consolidation civil, cultural and social development. Governmental actions under this
  4. 4. Government Program are: a contribution to the country of the author and his possible candidacy; establishes the will to exercise political momentum in favor of Brazil. Preface: The consolidation civil, cultural and social this nation, which includes an overview: the organization sociocivil characterized a large economic model generator of wealth, industrial, commercial and merchant who depend on civil and political order to its development. In politics, it will be operating the Constitution and ensure the processing flow of civil, commercial, industrial, economic, cultural, etc.. direct allocations of state and govern the operation of the order tax benefits and guarantees able to evolve the structure of this nation state. The government will always be assigned important responsibilities, such as: the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves; discern country growth civil, mercantile, intraeconômico, industrial, etc. as well as the increase in industrial production, export capacity and consumption and also create opportunities for all. Cover, so the government important sectors, such as the generation of new jobs in both the private as well as in oportunização contracts or work
  5. 5. state and still in the consolidation of new sectors of state participation, autosustentáveis in agreement with a new nationalization: for example, in the sector of natural gas, bioenergy or even of railroads, provided this platform, etc.. The civil and cultural evolution of this nation observes a gap: the five thousand, five hundred sixty-four municipalities in Brazil (5564) can be observed: in almost all secular problems, eg, begging or famine, illiteracy, prostitution, poor education, inadequate income per capita, crimes, massacres, poverty, lack of opportunities, inadequate roads, pollution, floods, drought, famine, neglect or truancy, poor remuneration of staff education and public safety, corruption, economic stagnation, environmental damage, infanticide, pedophilia, there are drug addicts, etc.. The Government of the Republic (multiple inheritance) shared the care of these issues with the states and municipalities. He assured the government the functioning of structuring civil, social and organicopolíticas though admittedly holder weaknesses as those mentioned above. This Government Program, the Federal Executive may keep the hope that a change in the country, it is possible from the implantation (implantation of Political Platform, if applicable) and securing the solidification of will and exerted political proposal by the author of this platform or program of government in Brazil.
  6. 6. Through this Programme for Government, it is possible to predict the emergence of a new civilian model, formalization and gradual advancement of commercial and financial structuring. However, there are also changes educacionaisculturais able to create a procedure for rapid rise in educational, scientific, technological and knowledge, as well as, with respect to changes in the role of the state (greater state responsibility). Platform or program of government to the executive branch Federal: The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil provides: through the provisions of the electoral process that the presidential succession order to compete partidariopolítica therefore the election rules. The federal executive branch controls the Ministerial Institutions and thus becomes the governing body; sanctions laws, ordering the political system and establishes partnership with the Federal Legislature, running subordinations ministries able to put into practice the federal policy. Thus, the processing of Decree Law and the Provisional Measures consolidate power will also through
  7. 7. institutions ministerial theoretically determined through political platform. Tariff of Organicopolítica Ministerial Institutionalization: 1 - Ministry of Land Reforms. 2 - Ministry of Fundraising. 3 - Agriculture and Livestock Ministry. 4 - Ministry of Municipal Health. 5 - Ministry of Municipal Education. 6 - Ministry of Municipal Security. 7 - Ministry of Finance. 8 - Ministry of Planning.
  8. 8. 9 - Ministry of Development. 10 - Ministry of Culture and Leisure. 11 - Ministry of Sport, Sport and Leisure. 12 - Ministry of Tax Inspection. 13 - Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums. 14 - Ministry of Federal Institutionalization of the Fourth Estate: Oversight of the Budget and Agency praetor (or Power of Opinion). 15 - Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 16 - Ministry of Private Fundraising. 17 - Ministry of Science and Technology. 18 - Ministry of Marine and Shipbuilding. 19 - Ministry of Aeronautics and Aerospace Industry. 20 - Department of the Army and the International Training. 21 - Ministry of Justice and the Prison System Reviews.
  9. 9. 22 - Ministry of Pensions and Pensions. 23 - Ministry of Defense. 24 - Ministry Oceanológico. 25 - Ministry of the Environment. 26 - Ministry of Space Exploration. 27 - Ministry of Social Welfare. 28 - Ministry of Labour and Employment. 29 - Ministry of Tourism. 30 - Ministry of Mines and Energy. 31 - Ministry of Democracy. Adjuntas Secretariats of the Presidency Republic:
  10. 10. 1 - Department of Tenure, of smallholdings and Latifundios. 2 - Federal Bureau of Lands for Settlements. 3 - Department of Lands to Benefit Indigenous (Indian lands) or Preservation. 4 - Department of Health Exams 5 - Department of Geriatric Psychology and Nursing Homes. 6 - Secretariat for Coordinating Teacher cooperativisation. 7 - Department of federalization of School Accountability. 8 - Department of Essential Services and Contracts. 9 - Department of Politics and Relations between Four Powers. 10 - Department of Public Transportation. 11 - Department of Public Safety and Private.
  11. 11. 12 - Department of Roads and the Federal Transit Standards. 13 - Secretariat of the Fourth Estate Agency and praetor. 1 - Ministry of Land Reforms: The Ministry of Land Reforms establishes the strengthening of land ownership to the holder of the deed or legal ownership of rural property. This ministry carries out the study of the expropriation indemnification to unproductive or even in debt with the Union (the current three federal branches), providing for the acquisition by the State for this very high value on economic structuring. This ministry will establish a cataloging of land: planting; pastures; hinterlands; ecological parks; mineral deposits; plants (coal); wastelands, etc.. The damages the soil unproductive. The process of land reform is consistent with the final issue of invasions, as it enables the provision of land on the planet, the
  12. 12. formation of a peasantry (in providing financing scheme), as provided in the policy agenda of the Federal Bureau of Lands for Settlements. The government seeks to ensure the generation of foreign exchange (gains) agricultural and livestock for the domestic market and the balance in the trade balance with the export as well as for the preservation of the soil of the country and creating opportunities for new farmers. 2 - Ministry of Fundraising: List of resources; 2.1 - Water Resources. 2.2 - Features of mineral exploration. 2.3 - Features of animal exploitation.
  13. 13. 2.4 - Resource exploitation vegetable (renewable). 2.5 - Features setting public machine, the cutting and downsizing state privileges. 2.6 - Resources taxing states and municipalities. 2.7 - Features of government investments in the financial and stock. 2.8 - Resource capture the development of partnerships intraeconômico (Investors). 2.9 - Features of local tax revenue. 2.10 - Resource net collection of state enterprises. 2.11 - Features collection of the banking system (IOF). 2.12 - Features collection of customs. 2.13 - Features of foreclosures.
  14. 14. 2.14 - Funds from international agreements. 2.15 - taxable at Union Resources (property taxes, etc.).. 2.16 - Resource extraction national and international natural gas. 2.1 - Water Resources: Water resources of Brazil are likely to provide a wide power generation captured in waterfalls, in artificially constructed hydroelectric plants. The power capacity of the country can structure a great possibility for growth civil. The construction and maintenance of hydroelectric power, with due observation of the environmental impact generated the possibility of the sale and distribution of electricity, capable of consolidating a civil and economic empowerment in all regions of the country. Brazil contains a vast hydroelectric potential, oportunização responsible for the generation of jobs and even the taking of industrial and mercantile wealth. Increasing and strengthening the energy potential, and encourage various economic sectors such as industry, trade, supply of
  15. 15. electricity to the population, will also develop, for example, tourism, construction, etc.. The resources of water (or water), besides representing features of hydropower generation, are also available; storage of drinking water in water resources for irrigation water in the storage of rainwater (rainwater) ; on water resources of water from aquifers (underground) and the funds raised in waters plurifluviais of commodification and tourism (resources of river routes), etc.. 2.2 - Features of mineral exploration: Brazil is the world's largest producer of bauxite (aluminum), is responsible for a large collection of minerals, eg, cassiterite (iron), manganese (steel), etc.. Also, holds a huge industrial park, capable of benefiting minerals, has a rich soil and great possibilities of exploitation of the subsoil. The fundraising mineral exploration, this political platform also includes the exploitation of state land. This operation should be performed by the institutionalization of a public company, which will be created in order to develop Brazil, agility and give power to the Federal
  16. 16. Government, in addition to generating jobs and get financial foreign exchange (gains). Thus, through political platform appointed the creation of a large state-owned enterprise. So provisionally called the Brazil Steel capable of capturing mineral resources for processing, for training of the proposed works on this political platform, also for the domestic and export markets. In this political platform: foresaw infrastructure works (I've listed below in the Ministry of Development), capable of altering the structure civilly civil country such as: changes in roads, construction of bridges and elevated roads, walkways, public buildings and also in the development of a railroad (the construction of a bullet train), in partnership with the Federal Government's private sector. The development of the structuring of a public company for fundraising minerals should also assist the State in the construction of houses for the Federal Vilas (structured in the Ministry of Planning and Development Ministry, and also appear as a responsibility of the Ministry of Well Social Welfare).
  17. 17. 2.3 - Features farm animals (livestock and oil): Oil is the object of a great ideological and political debate. Since the decade of consolidation of state company Petrobras in 1950 as oil became a major engine of economic structuring. Based on extraction and production of fuel (gasoline), this segment has boosted the development, consumption, collection and today there is the possibility to export (through the discovery of a huge deposit in the ocean layer called pre-salt) . The state company Petrobras guarantees a profit of seven billion dollars a month to the public coffers, more than 11.5% of the revenue of the Federal Government, which is currently sixty billion dollars (a month). The discovery of oilfield Atlantic Ocean (in inland waters) layer called pre-salt will bring to Brazil the collection, the shortterm (within four years): seven billion dollars per month and over period (the period of eight to twelve years) a tripling of the amount collected today. The resources of animal exploitation (mainly from animal oil, oil), are responsible for the accumulation of foreign currency financial (profit) to the country. Thus, we must keep a controlling stake
  18. 18. in state-owned Petrobras, develop the newly created state Petrosal (responsible for the extraction of oil from the Atlantic Ocean, in the area called pre-salt) and the enrichment terms views the state of Brazil. The environmental factor is generating a serious government enterprise, thus the use of oil must be combined to reduce the emission of pollutants (hereinafter developed at the Ministry of the Environment) for that, so we can use the benefits of oil without causing a degradation environment. Still, the features of animal exploitation are also existing in livestock (further detailed in the Ministry Agriculture and Livestock). 2.4 - Resource exploitation vegetable (sources renewable):
  19. 19. Sugar cane, agriculture, extraction of cellulose, rubber, production of medicines, teas, plants, etc.. represent plant resources. The plant resources represent sustainable development. The exploitation of plants can ensure the livelihood of many families in perpetuity, observed that this care as environmental preservation, for example, reforestation, etc.. The plant resources, cited above should have a direction to capture and exploit renewable, without harm to the environment. Thus, there maintaining a constant source of operating the product as, for example, alcohol, biofuel, paper, rubber, etc.. in view of the immediate need for mass consumption. Thus, exploration vegetable should get a big boost, helping the development of agriculture and extractive in renewable and autosustentáves. 2.5 - Features setting public machine, the downsizing government and cutting
  20. 20. privileges: In the globalized world, in this digital age, it is simple that the Federal Government is to promote a cutting spending in order, so the ease of adjusting the political system to technological innovations, the internet. In Brazil, the expense of politicians with locomotion, travel, lodging and so on. generate costs that currently are unnecessary, given the existence of the Internet, videoconferencing, fax the same simile, among other mechanisms able to integrate politicians throughout Brazil. The resources to be saved by the country, with regard to digital inclusion in the political system, the machine make public a mechanism constantly downsizing, a government mechanism for dynamic and better suited to the digital age. The political system of the digital age should be modern, efficient, contain no privileges and excel by downsizing. Throughout Brazil, we have 5,564 municipalities, 27 State Chambers, and the National Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate), and 5564 Prefectures, 27 State Governments and the Federal Government. In the Legislature, there is the presence of political, (the representative) and their advisors, while the executive
  21. 21. branch there, the boss of this power, the vice president, the secretaries, or ministers and even the so-called positions of trust. The resources of the public setting of the machine, the state downsizing and cutting privileges, seek to integrate the political economy of public money. For Brazil, this new collection will represent a gain of prestige to the political class, an interest in this class to economy of resources, for the history of Brazil, in a setting that digital inclusion has the people closest to politicians, etc.. Thus, it is simple to decrease these costs makes possible a speed of communication between the base and the political policy. The costs of the current political system are exorbitant and realize more than thirty billion reais (R $ 30,000,000,000.00) per year. Digital inclusion brings instantaneously the political constituency, streamlines the contact between the political party, the people and their representatives and thus alters the historical necessity of the existence of state-paid travel. The travel must be authorized in need of character, of importance to the State. 2.6 - Resources taxing states and
  22. 22. municipalities: The federal government picks up seven (7) Taxes: II (Import Tax), IE (Export Tax) IR (Income Tax); IPI (Excise Tax) IOF (Tax on Financial Operations), ITR ( Rural Land Tax), IGF (Wealth Tax; authorized by the Constitution, but not created). In states are collected over three (3) taxes, beyond the seven (7) collected directly by the federal machine: ITDMC (Tax Transmission and donation of goods and rights: Cause Deaths); ICMS (Tax on Circulation of Goods and on the provision of services); IPVA (Property Tax Motor Vehicle). In addition, municipalities are charged over three (3) taxes: property tax (property tax and Territorial Urbano); ITBI (Tax on Transfer of Real Property) and ISS (Service Tax: not included in the area of VAT). Among these taxes are still taxes, for example: PIS / PASEP (Social Integration Program and Training of Civil Servants Asset); CPMF (extinct), etc.. In Brazil, it is possible to note that taxes suffer the ripple effect. It is still possible to differentiate, taxes that are withheld in the Federal Government and others that are transferred to states and municipalities.
  23. 23. In a broad sense, tax collection and tax should provide increased revenue through gradual formalization of the emerging sectors of the economy. And this should relieve the tax burden on sectors that charging interferes negatively civil and social development. Increased revenue through gradual formalization of the segments sociocomerciais of Brazil, makes it possible to structure a tax model in which the needs of the state are met (developed further in the Ministry of Finance). The gradual formalization of sociocomerciais sectors such as: informal communities; irregular trades; same industries or sectors of products and services, if effected will have a follow-up order organicofinanceira (the government), in lending, incentives, etc. . In this order, it is possible to develop a formalized way of Brazil, properly structured to civility, more dynamic and effective. The gradual formalization of all sectors of Brazil's economy will thus bring compensation to the taxpayer, to the country and also strengthen market relations.
  24. 24. 2.7 - Features of government investment in financial market and stock: The banking system, as well as the stock market is a huge business field to the Government of the Republic. In this sector, there is the establishment of foreign exchange market (profits). Through the state banking system is possible, for example, borrow money, finance assets, capture (get) money to reemprestá it, etc.. as well: it is possible to intervene in the stock market, given the existence of the administrative machinery of capital (the amount of money that the government has to intervene). Brazil has a large banking and state banks give a high profit public coffers, the order of four billion dollars per month. The Ministry of Fundraising theoretically established through this political platform that provides financial and stock market consolidate free or flexible accumulation of capital, but are integrated into the economy as important mechanisms economicocivis development of the State.
  25. 25. The extent of use of banking services and the creation of mechanisms for raising funds (in Brazil and abroad) or investments to the country are factors to increase earnings this service sector financeiroeconômicos. 2.8 - Resources to capture partnerships development intraeconômico (Investors): Are in this political platform solidification of the will of the author in observing, effectively sociocivil the development of the nation as to encourage changes in the policy aimed at building a path to Brazil, where the arrival of companies and investors become this country, a country of opportunity and civil and social ascension. In Political Platform, predicted political empowerment for the organization of a Plan Establishment of New Companies (set forth in the Department of Private Fundraising). In this plan, I considered the
  26. 26. private sector as a partner the Federal Government in employment generation, development of civil, revenue generation, etc.. The features capture the development of partnerships intraeconômico concern of intention on the part of the Federal Government (through this Policy Platform), to attract investment to Brazil. Thus, besides offering incentives to investors (big business in the world), to settle in Brazil, the Federal Government intends to consolidate the existence of a federal law that ensures ownership of capital assets (property, these companies) to business investors, even with the alternation of governments (the elections). Large companies in Brazil, can not be expropriated for a period of five to ten decades, since part of the borrowing program of the Federal Government partnerships with the private sector. This assignment policy to capitalism realizes that: many large companies can establish themselves in Brazil, investing a capital because this capital investment will be respected as a partnership of private enterprise with the Federal Government. 2.9 - Features collection of municipalities:
  27. 27. The federal authorities represent a source of revenue through the collection of fees, taxes and service charges. Daily values are collected Protocol, issuance of certificates, records etc and procedural fees. and country (Brazil), has the right to collecting these values. 2.10 - Resource tax collection, tax and net income of SOEs: SOEs are responsible for generating jobs and profits in Brazil. However, in the history of our country witnessed numerous cases of fraud, losses, strikes, mismanagement and also part of the same abuses as functional, for example, the existence of ghost workers (people who do not work but receive salaries), etc.. The state of liberal ideals released several sectors of government inaction, given the amount of problems and damages that could be perceived in some areas, over a few decades. Economic liberalization, post-felling of the Berlin Wall (the break in communism), created an economic neoliberalism in Brazil and
  28. 28. boosted thus capitalism to exacerbate income, flexible accumulation (or free) from the capital. But here in Brazil privatization no longer a need state. Neoliberalism in Brazil, you can not sell the entire public patrimony. The country has a balanced economy, is to generate foreign exchange (gains) with state-owned companies and this public property is very important for maintaining a thriving nation. The net profit of the SOEs, comes to add to the tax collection and fiscal Brazil. Thus, it is up to the government to direct you to the Ministry of Fundraising. 2.11 - Features of the collection system banking (IOF - CPMF): The CPMF (extinct) and the IOF tax taxes are charged only to those who perform banking transactions. The value of daily movements in the country's banking system led to the insight that: a
  29. 29. high value is deposited and withdrawn and thus should be subject to a charge. To keep functioning banking system will require that the state provides security and civil order. It will also need: that is readily available to banks, telecommunication, the Judiciary, the Legislature and the Executive Branch even somehow. This whole banking system coexists with Republic, moves billions of dollars every day, thus requiring the existence of a broad state support. Thus, it became necessary collection of daily financial transactions (IOF; Financial Transactions Tax) or even charging (extinct) on each financial transaction (CPMF; charged in each currency movement). The Ministry of Fundraising will find on the taxation of the banking system, a mechanism to collect and control the flow of money. You well supported by society: values of flexible accumulation (free) fully taxable and subject to recovery. 2.12 - Features collection of customs:
  30. 30. The international airports, Customs (land borders), port taxation (the taxes for the importation of products, etc.)., Beyond the control of foreign capital in Brazil, represent important mechanisms for tax collection and border control. The resources of customs revenues represent amounts journals to develop fundraising. 2.13 - Features of foreclosures: The judiciary determines daily charging through the judicial sentences of amounts related to lawsuits filed by the Union (the three powers). Thus, there is the receipt of taxes owed to the Republic; debts of the financial system, real estate, etc.. and the State: fulfills the duty to manage and administer. The Ministry of Fundraising is the "Resources of the Judicial Executions" a periodic income to combat tax evasion and recovery of taxable values.
  31. 31. 2.14 - Features international agreements: International agreements (unilateral) designed resources, social programs, environmental and civil development in Brazil. Then the country receive different amounts of money, even in rich countries or organizations to combat drug trafficking, illiteracy, hunger, famine and beggary or even environmental preservation or development calendar. The features of these unilateral agreements should be for the Ministry of Social Welfare, the Ministry of Environment, etc.. The funds raised will be directed to international agreements: the character of civil and human incentive mainly to combat human degeneration (men and women), that the international community, is to drive donations, help or resources available. It will be up to Brazil capture them and make them available to the population in the most deprived areas, mainly provided by the Ministry of Social Welfare.
  32. 32. 2.15 - taxable resources to the Union (the three powers): The fiscal and tax collection of the country consists of a large amount of taxes. Moreover, there double taxation or even tri-or multi-taxation Taxation. The multitributações are a factor to deteriorate the purchasing power of consumers. In Brazil there are, for example, the tax industry, the IPI, where the manufacturer usually pays 15% of the product value in taxes;'s transport taxes (aggregates the sale of fuels, which are charged 53% tax for fuel);'s taxes on the sale of goods (ICMS) in the average value of 20% of the sale of these products, there is still the commercial tax (COFINS, permits, state license, Social Security Company, etc.).. Thus, one can see that the factor of double taxation, taxation tri-or multi- -Taxation is a factor weakening the purchasing power of taxpayers. The net tax in Brazil is very large.
  33. 33. In this political platform, created a mechanism to mitigate this charge to underprivileged layers sociopopulacionais. In the Ministry of Social Welfare, provisions below, there is the creation of a National Registry for Needy Families. The preparation of the National Register of Needy Families aims to: stimulate a reduction in the percentage of taxes for the less affluent. Thus, the gain in purchasing power, the turnover tends to increase and thus beyond the Brazilians can buy more, the state will raise also. These changes and modifications will be able to generate benefits to disadvantaged sections, to develop other sectors of the economy and promote a rise sociocivil planning to Brazil. Thus, the Ministry of Fundraising should promote restructuring: to benefit the underprivileged layers sociopopulacionais. You should also consider: taxes in certain cases lead to the loss in purchasing power and thus affect the most disadvantaged. Probably the amounts collected in taxes will be the same, but the society: will hold thus a greater purchasing power and consumption. This factor will boost the economy of Brazil.
  34. 34. 2.16 - Resource extraction and international national natural gas: Natural gas, as well as oil and minerals are exhaustible sources of energy. The extraction of natural gas in other countries cooperate with a process of national soil protection where the extraction international (exerted by the state company Petrobras) exercises a boost industrial neighboring countries (where there is gas extraction from the Brazilian state, as For example, in Cuba or Bolivia). Bilateral agreements in Brazil, for the extraction of natural gas international develop the economy of these countries, carry currencies (profits) to Brazil as well as possible a protection gas extraction in the country. The Ministry of Fundraising will focus on: encouraging the international and domestic extraction of natural gas. The exploration of Brazil's own soil, should be seen as a factor to develop the economy, generate benefits to the nation, industries, etc..
  35. 35. The fundraising extraction national and international natural gas comprises; development potential of this important collection. 3 - Agriculture and Livestock Ministry: The agriculture and also, livestock contribute to the development industry, urban, rural, commercial, industrial, social, commercial and community in Brazil. The industrialization of the harvest and slaughter animals and the marketing of derivatives of these sectors of the economy, eg, oil, flour, food, milk, meat, leather are the benefits of living men (men and women) with nature and the animal world. The potential agricultural and livestock (animal husbandry, cattle, poultry, etc.)., Formulate a parameter: that the country is a major partner in the global fight against hunger. The production capacity and export agriculture makes Brazil one of the world's largest producers, alongside the United States, China, India, Canada and Russia once considered the proportions territorial and climatic factors favorable.
  36. 36. The Agriculture and Livestock Ministry will develop scientific research and training involved in such program. This ministry will maintain research centers grain, soil, climate, fertilization animal, as well as the genetic alteration incentive qualification vegetable. There should also, through an increase in provisions ministerial sanitary standards that will certainly raise the quality of the food and also the gains from trade and exports. The support of agriculture and domestic livestock, although dependent on the private sector will suffer government interference in the plantation sector, production, storage, sale, industrialization and export. Besides the monitoring of government in these sectors will be the agropastoral production incentive, with lending, funding and support tecnicocientífico. 4 - Ministry of Municipal Health: The Ministry of Health should promote Municipal: changes in hospitals in Brazil. These changes run: This Ordinance hospitals,
  37. 37. with the selection of patients to health screenings, overcrowding and delays in care. Thus, the ordinance (or entrance hall) of a hospital should be modified to fit the new model of care. Patient selection, created through this political platform provides the distinction between case patients. There should be a selection among patients: suspected of having contracted viruses or infections; those who have pain and physical problems and even those who have injuries or need urgent care. This selection provides patients: still a distinction between these patients and patients awaiting health screenings (being that they should be in a system of emergency care). The reform of the ordinance of hospitals, it is a point observed by this political platform. So, too: we must consider the problem of lack of beds in hospital beds, as well as the problem of hospital overcrowding. Through the Ministry of Municipal Health, the Ministry of Planning (provided below) and the Ministry of Development (also provided below) the Federal Government should make this aspect, called Architecture Sanitary a requirement to hospitals. The Federal Government should provide loans and financing through monetary
  38. 38. system (banks; BNDS, Bank of Brazil and Caixa Federal): lines of credit for the change of care in hospitals. There will also state investment and the creation of partnerships to build infirmaries, hospitals (public and semi-public too) and even the system of computerization of care. Changes in public health care also alter completing the registration at the hospital: while this should be left to a reading scanned aiming thus greater agility in health care, avoiding the queues and crowds. Besides the changes in the industry to attract patients, this platform provides a policy adequacy hospital sector of health screenings. The changes in the sector of health examinations seek the realization of a structure (hospital machines) public and exclusive use of the public health system. The patient is awaiting a health check should be: thus promptly answered. This structure (and machines) hospital for health examinations shall be administered by the Ministry of Health and the Municipal Health Secretariat of the State. There will be: Also, monitoring of the Ministry of Municipal Health; computerized so as to hospitalizations, surgeries and health treatments.
  39. 39. It is possible to foresee a better quality of life for patients, employees and even doctors insured and all, in this country: one way or another are integrated to this public health system. This health system (public) need: absolutely change, qualification in care and proper administration of the fragility of sick people. 5 - Ministry of Municipal Education: Education discerns a broad discussion of changes and seeking an improvement to the education system. The structural character of the nation's schools demonstrates: that there is a large structure, but there are difficulties and impossibilities students to professionals, plus a spray of school accountability from the government. In Brazil, the Basic Education (teaching 1st to 4th grades) is the responsibility of municipalities. The elementary school (from 5th to 9th grades) and high school (called second degree) are the responsibility of the states.
  40. 40. The approach of new ways to cover the educational system: a new systematization (the incorporation of a new education system). In this new systematization: Basic Education, Elementary Education, Secondary Education and Technical Education (high school level) and still Nãotradicional Education (the Supplementary Education), the Open School, etc.. therefore, the entire educational system, should become also a responsibility of the Federal Government. In Political Platform, created the federalization of public education. Thus, the operation of this great school structure will make it possible to standardize education, monitoring of the Federal Government to students and education professionals. To take care of education across the country will have to implement an educational system in which states and municipalities participate as coorganizadores the education system, school structure, feeding the students, teacher training, etc.. The student will join the Federal System of Public Education. Among the changes in the public education system: operational changes (operating) and structural (modifications) are, as important as the changes in responsibility over the education system. In these operational changes are: the creation of the Effective Student Meal Valley; Program cooperativisation Teacher and School
  41. 41. cooperativisation; Program Effectiveness of Aid Diploma; Computerisation Programme of School Attendance and changes Structural maintenance of schools (and school structure), the states and municipalities in partnership with the Federal Government. In the Valley Program Effective Student Meal, students of Basic Education registered may receive monthly amount of $ 60.00 (sixty dollars), while the elementary school students and high school registrations will receive a monthly amount of $ 110 , 00 (one hundred and ten dollars). To register: and receive the benefit of the Vale Meal, students must meet the following requirements; family income less than $ 700.00 (seven hundred dollars), to obtain (possibility) of full receipt Valley Meal and R $ 1,400.00 (one thousand four hundred dollars) for the possibility of receiving partial benefit. Thus, students who enrolled: get 85% attendance (and if not repeating the same series) and is, the only child registered will be entitled to receive the benefit school (repeaters and other students enrolled children the possibility of receiving this benefit is 60% of the values mentioned above. On the Effective Program Aid Diploma: Students who are part of the Program for Effective Meal Valley Student will receive more value in a portion of timely payments by the Federal Government as a reward for graduation. This value will be paid Aid diploma: the
  42. 42. graduation of Basic Education, Elementary School and Middle School, plus the Supplementary Education and Open School. The teacher cooperativisation elencada above: Starts the possibility of establishing a Cooperative Education. This cooperative, teachers are graduates of employment contracts for a period of ten (10) years. In cooperative education, the Federal Government will fund a study of students in public schools. Thus, the government will pay the amount of $ 50.00 (fifty dollars) per student to the cooperative. This system, the provision of educational services match: a new way of working with education professionals. The cooperativisation is an experimental model of public education. The cooperativisation teacher (the one described above) and logistical innovations are cooperativisation school to the education system. In cooperativisation school, the school becomes a company can thus act in the economic world with sales, promotions, events, for example, in addition to producing and marketing products. The Programme for Computerisation of School Attendance: will provide a digital reading device, iris or fingerprint of the student to enter and exit the school. This computerized system allows proof of school attendance.
  43. 43. The operational and structural changes in the Public Education System: incorporate the Federal Government, the responsibility of administering this system. There will be no change in hiring professionals, the percentages budget for education in the states (at first), but it will be up to the Federal Government administration and incorporation of these educational programs. The Federal Government's investment in education: has the forecast from the merger of six billion (R $ 6,000,000,000.00) per month from the actual educational system. There will thus start a new Management Education in the country. 6 - Ministry of Municipal Security: The Ministry of Municipal Security provides: a professional qualification in that the police officer should be, properly equipped for the job of serving the public, in case of request for service of public safety and in compliance with the orders of the police command, also in compliance warrants the Judiciary, in firefighting, rescue, surveillance of roads and highways, etc.. The police should be trained and have adequate remuneration.
  44. 44. The creation of the Ministry of Municipal Security makes integrated Military Police to the Federal Government. The command of this police will be: the position of the State Governments, except in case of convening the National Security Force. The National Security Force will be: the allocation of fifty percent (50%) of the actual state of one (or even several states); summoned by the Defence Council (constitutional provisions), in which this percentage of the state police will be subordinate to Command of the Defence Council. Changes in create public safety: beyond the institutionalization of the Ministry of Municipal Security; alterations in the structure of the State Police. These changes create: the Military Police and Special Incentive Education of Police. The Private Military Police will: a military institution coordinated by the State Governments, in a system of monthly subscription. This system allows: there is an effective service to the subscribers of public safety, thus relieving the Military Police Service. The system allows signatures: the development of a logistics to military police, in which she could aim to profit and expand, because of the commercial enterprise security semipublic (a logistics state). The processing of the exemption of public safety (through the institutionalization of Private Military Police) will be: the provision of a
  45. 45. more effective, since the service to subscribers for the Military Police will be private. The Incentive of Police Education part listed above: will ensure, that military officers may attend college with incentives from the Federal Government. Among the incentives: the educational background of the military police, are creating the university quota system for the military police, the automatic provision (if entering university) of the Federal Credit Education, the percentage of 50 to 70% of tuition fees (subject to approval by lodging a guarantor) and a scholarship at the rate of 10% of tuition fees. 7 - Ministry of Finance: The support of a government order popular (democratic): depends on the administration of accounts and government spending, rather than the tax collection and tax and also their administrative capacity, able to come to list priorities and economically states and municipalities. The management plan of the Federal Government to implement this Policy Platform provides: fundraising, through the
  46. 46. Ministry of Fundraising and monetary management of public administration (government estamental: established) through the Ministry of Finance. The Ministry of Finance will monitor public spending: check the increase in revenues (expected by the implementation of this policy platform); stemmed from emancipations Civisdistritais das Favelas (provided below) and formalization of economic, in addition to managing the monetary system of the country (the Banks, Financial, etc..) even intervene economically (or administratively) in any sector of the Republic (as it carries out the scope executivoministerial). Maintaining the current economic model, consolidation of capitalism and free state interference in private property: it provides tax revenues through tax collection, tax, rates and contributions existing and also the institutionalization of a new tax. This new tax, according to global trends with respect: the super, financial accumulation. The Tax Million (or super tax, financial accumulation) should be set at 2.5% of the value that exceeds one million dollars ($ 1,000,000.00). The collection of this tax: give up, a time that is found in the financial market and this amount will be directed to a trust fund to combat social inequalities. The performance of the Federal Government in the economic factor to be discerned social, civil and financial well-organic.
  47. 47. Thus, the priority in the economic area, in addition to governing the country will enrich social, civil and gains to the Government of the Republic. The economic ordering the Executive Branch provides: monitoring the layers sociopopulacionais; capacity civilmercantil class integrated economic market, as well as the physical and legal, commercial and industrial in Brazil. This monitoring will seek to: develop sociocivis all spheres of the country, thus giving priority layers sociopopulacionais disadvantaged. Public finances: be discerned, in a schedule accompanying layers sociopopulacionais. Sociocivis needs: to develop the most disadvantaged, will have priority in political actions. The federal government will head: the structuring of a political practice; development priorities, listed in Political Platform. Among the priorities are: • The development of the political agenda of the Ministry of Education Hall. • The development of the political agenda of the Ministry of Health Municipal.
  48. 48. • The development of the political agenda of the Ministry of Municipal Security. • The development of the political agenda of the Ministry of Social Welfare. • The development of the Program of Public Works, appointed at the Ministry of Development. • The development of the political agenda of the Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums. • Development of the Political Platform. The political actions of the Ministry of Finance will: seek freedom in trade and transact; Brazil's economy to a safe path. In this way, there should be a consolidation trend economicosocial, civil, mercantile and expanding the economic structure of the Republic of Brazil. 8 - Ministry of Planning:
  49. 49. The four-year plan of government of the Federal Executive provides: a political timeline for implementing the Platform Policy. The Ministry of Planning will create: a framework for the implementation of teoricopolítica Political Platform. Thus, the political actions will be outlined with: the ministry of its powers and the Ministry of Planning, who will perform the procedure and theoretical work to implement the Interim Measures Act and Decrees of the Federal Executive and also the Sanctioning of Laws passed by the Legislature. Thus, in addition to planning for the implementation of the Platform Policy: Ministry of Planning act, in the area of resource allocation (for all Ministries and Departments). Thus, they are listed as priority actions and competence of the Ministry of Planning, as well as the home ministry program here called, the following: • Structuring the Law School (Law Decree) that institutionalizes: Valley Student Meal Needy and changes in school structure and teacher pay gazetted in hiring teachers, etc.. • Structuring the Public Health Act (Decree), which requires changes in the structure of private hospitals, creating the Sanitary Architecture; institutionalizing Exam Ready, etc..
  50. 50. • Structuring of Public Security Act (Decree) establishing: Private Military Police, Military Police to assist in a system of signatures; Incentive Education Military Police, etc.. • Structuring of the Social Welfare Law (Decree Law) that creates: Cities retaliates (twenty-seven cities retaliates) to needy people; Geriatric City, the Federal Vilas for the settlement of families benefiting from the Land Acquisition Program, the Federal Riparian Villages, the Cephalus (brain) Community for Indian villages and poor communities; Public Aid to buy medicines perpetual use for people registered at the Ministry of Health Promotion and Municipal Social Assistance in all cities, etc.. • Structuring: Program Duplication, or Pavement rehabilitation of Federal Roads (Provisional Power); structuring of Mobile Asphalt plants (five plants); Regionalization of the Resources of IPVA with cadenciamento works (hereinafter referred to the Ministry of development) etc.. • Structuring of self-government (emancipation) to the slums of large (Provisional Power): the institutionalization of the Executive and Legislative Councils (as designated in the Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums), etc.. • Structuring the Political Platform and all laws passed by the Legislature and assented to by the Federal Executive.
  51. 51. 9 - Ministry of Development: The development of four-year rule, the Federal Executive involves: besides trigger, priorities teoricopolíticas; listed in the Ministry of Planning, all the items in the Political Platform. Of course, of paramount importance to life of all Brazilians. Thus, besides the main points of the platform to be developed such as: Education, Health, Public Safety, Social Welfare, Road Conditions and in the Slums of emancipations Large, the development of federal policy will also promote: Generation of Jobs , Reducing Taxes on Poor People; Expansion and Guarantee Free Higher Education; Employer Policy Valuation of Work (the search for better wages: as specified in the Ministry of Labour and Employment); Conducting Procurement; Creating Opportunities Sociocivis , Housing, Culture, sanitation (drinking water, sewage and electricity), etc.. The Ministry of Development, (this, provisions of this Policy Platform) organicopolítico forward development priority (as part listed above) these factors:
  52. 52. • Public Education: The education of the country will suffer despadronização the current structure. Thus, the Federal Government will be responsible for the entire public education system in the country: the Basic Education, Elementary Education, Secondary Education and Higher Education, Technical Education Vocational beyond the State. There is thus a new standardization of education in the country. In this new educational model, the changes will be incorporated in the Ministry of Education arranged as Municipal: for example, the creation of Vale Meal Needy Student, Teacher cooperativization (optional) Scanning Frequency School, etc.. The schools of Brazil will be: a fulcrum of the Federal Government in income distribution, as well as an institution capable of ensuring the inclusion sociocivil to millions of people across the country. • Public Health: Public health will suffer in Brazil: structural changes in health architecture (the ordinances of the private hospitals, wards and hospital premises) where; elencará selection of patients in a nursing job, a pre-judgment to the waiting time. So be pre-discerned the following cases: viruses, infections, patients with pain; injured; fractured; wounded; patients with pre-diagnosis; pregnant, escorts, etc..
  53. 53. The ward will create a selective elimination; contact between patients and their various pathologies. Besides creating the ordinance and selective adaptations in the hospital structure, there will be forwarding: the use of equipment unique to the Unified Health System (or even called New SUS); creating care in a system Ready Examination. The Federal Government will provide a loan system: the area of health, so that, the member hospitals meet the requirements, the architecture of fitness health. There will also be a scan of care and investments of public and private sector in the construction of new hospitals (public or semi-public). • Public Safety: The institutional changes in the Military Police: realize an enterprise logistics and incentives for educational training of military police. Also, provide better working conditions and create a National Security Force Military Police (as designated in the Ministry of Municipal Security). The creation of the Ministry of Municipal Security aims: to approach the federal government of public safety in the states.
  54. 54. Development of Private Military Police (in a system of signatures) aims to empower the military police: a performance of enterprise logistics (making profits), thus becoming a State Company. Consequently, there will be an exemption Military Police Service. The Ministry of Development will serve: the incorporation of the ministerial staff of the Ministry of Municipal Security to all states and municipalities in Brazil. Thus, this ministry will ensure that all changes in public security in the states are consolidated. There will be available: university quotas for professionals in the Military Police in the States and, to a system oportunização Educational Credit for Military Police (automatic, after the analysis of credit and creditors: guarantors) and a scholarship 10% of tuition fees, as provided in the Schedule of the Ministry of Municipal Security. The Ministry of Municipal Public Security: will also enable the Law of Public Safety Instrumentation (as provided by the Ministry of Municipal Security); designated, then at the Ministry of Social Welfare. This Legislation Public Safety Instrumentation: aims to overcome mechanisms of repression used by public safety for decades in Brazil. Through the provision of this Law of Public Safety Instrumentation: The Federal Government will seek an approach, antiviolenta by the police, the defenseless citizen and protesters in general. The Safety Instrumentation: extinguishes the history of Brazil: mechanisms such
  55. 55. as: the nightstick; lethal ammunition (in the case of approaches or operations dispersal of protesters); electroshock and any action of the military police beating population. The Federal Government: will ensure the consolidation of new mechanisms for policing such as: the use of pepper spray; filming of operations; existence of a Command Negotiations between the military police and citizens, and between citizens and the Federal Government (through the institutionalization of TVPresidência Security and the Ministry of Municipal). • Welfare: Social Welfare is: a mechanism politicosocial, Social Assistance. The Ministry of Development: assist the Ministry of Social Welfare Tariff Policy in fulfilling this ministry. Thus, priority will be: the creation of cities retaliates Program for needy people. In this program, there will be: the development of a state infrastructure, care for those in need, families, young people, adults, children and seniors. The structure of the program retaliates cities (27 cities), include: pavilions to house needy people (homeless); pavilions for teaching activities; health care (and detoxification); pavilions for selection of people assisted (ill, disabled, elderly entitled to retirement, etc.).
  56. 56. structuring Federal Vilas (one in each city retaliates Program), with the construction of affordable housing (at the end of the program retaliates). Still, there should be: civil infrastructure (private enterprise), suitable for people (who complete the initial phase of the program retaliates: passing the pavilions, previously cited) to the Rehabilitation Program of Life. In these cities the Rehabilitation Program of Life (the fight back) will be the provision of: agricultural labor, livestock, plant extraction of (renewable and self-sustainable) and the institutionalization of a cooperative manufacturing the items mentioned above (for the domestic industry and foreign: candy, tea, trade in herbs, vegetables, slaughter animal, grain, etc.).. The Program retaliates: will have investments of the Federal Government, in every state of the Republic, but the character observes: creating opportunity for a new life, the needy and make Vila Federal (or retaliates city) a city that should become self-sustaining. The Ministry of Development: will work in partnership with the Ministry of Social Welfare, in order to capture the country, people in poverty. Thus, this ministry will help: the rehabilitation of all Brazilians who owns livelihood difficulties and wish to join the program retaliates. Thus, the Federal Government: will promote rehabilitation (in the program integrate people) living conditions, work state,
  57. 57. cooperativizado; study, job training, housing and civil structure, the twenty-seven states. An estimate: the existence of people in poverty or misery in Brazil, realizes that approximately one hundred and ninety thousand people (190,000) are in this situation and that, at least over one hundred and ninety thousand people (190,000 +) are verging this situation. The retaliates Program: will be structured: for the care of approximately fifty thousand (50,000) per year and in four years, the Federal Government will oportunizado a new life for nearly two hundred thousand (200,000). Besides retaliates Program, the Ministry of Development: will assist the Ministry of Social Welfare, in creating: Vilas Federal Settlements and the formation of a peasantry (landless). These people will be chosen by the Federal Government for the acquisition system (funding) of land. This ministry (title): structure will also, in conjunction with the Ministry of Social Welfare: Federal Riparian Villages for poor communities near the rivers of Brazil and training; Cephalus the Republican (the brain), for monitoring different poor communities (in social assistance system) and even indigenous as well; slum small, etc..
  58. 58. • Road conditions: the regionalization of resources IPVA, the municipalities of license plate and the allocation of resources to recovery, replication and the paving of roads and highways (in the municipality of vehicle license plate) will benefit the civic development of state of Brazil, making the modern road system. In addition, the instrumentation of a National Recovery, Replication and Federal Roads Paving (hereinafter provided): count with the help of five (5) Mobile Asphalt Plants (one for each region of Brazil), with funding from the Steel Brazil (state owned company, established this Policy Platform) and Petrobras; venture beyond the Ministry of Development, the careful implementation of this program. The federal roads in the country: will undergo a comprehensive study for duplication, reform and paving. Thus, through this program (the National Recovery, Replication and Paving Roads Feds: provided, along with the Secretariat of Federal Roads and Traffic Rules): can pave or recover a huge amount of miles in each state country, on the order of about three hundred kilometers (300 miles) per state for four years, for a total of eight thousand kilometers (8000 miles) in four years. The current conditions of federal roads in the country: will undergo a makeover. Thus, the trend will end the toll and use the government's partnership with entrepreneurs (which holds the concession of some stretches of these roads); state in other areas such as: maintenance of
  59. 59. road stretches (difficult to maintain Federal Government), or even in new sectors, in which the government will seek partnerships (cited below in the Ministry of Private Fundraising). • Slum emancipations Large Scale: The Ministry of Development: assist the Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums in dealing with structuring a municipal government; strictly closer to these communities. Thus, after a schedule: made by the Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital and the Ministry of Planning, and the Executive and Legislative councils ('s own micro city) and Cephalus Community (the organ of interaction between the community and the Federal Government), the Ministry of Development will hold a Public Works Program. This Program Public Works, will find: containment works to landslides and floods; opening of streets (with expropriation of some areas), to consolidate a program of urban planning, sanitation (electricity, water and sewage ) in slums; structuring of City Hall and the City Council these micro towns (favelas emancipated, pursuant to Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums), etc.. The emancipation of the slums of medium and large towns or cities to micro, respectively is a device of the present Constitution. The Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums: the enactment of this act "extension republican", with increasing number of cities and consolidating autogovernos, these communities (favelas).
  60. 60. • Generation of Jobs: The employment generation in the country: through this Policy Platform will begin in state incentive to micro and small enterprises. Micro and Small Enterprises: micro and small enterprises, will compose a Business Growth Program (as provided in the Ministry of Finance). In this program, there will be: monitoring of corporate accounting, a management (conducted by the Ministry of Development, this title) and the possibility of growth with job creation. The Federal Government: will expand the network management business called SEBRAE: create digitized monitoring (through the Internet: the small and micro enterprises that use SEBRAE) and enable business expansion, aiming to generate jobs, etc.. In contrast, there is the incentive of the federal government: to midsize businesses, as well as, the maintenance and establishment of large companies. Midsize Companies, Establishment and Maintenance of Large Companies: Midsize companies receive incentives from the Federal Government. There will be: the availability of credit, for the purchase of machinery; reforms; purchase of vehicles, etc.. aiming to generate jobs.
  61. 61. Large companies will be encouraged to: business diversification, the increase of commercial activities with the state monitoring and the development of its activities in other regions of the country. Thereby promoting: a oportunização paid work and even job creation to the entire nation. In addition to these incentives for companies: there will be a deformalization labor rights (changes in consolidation Labor Legislation: CLT). Thus, a percentage will be created, to be discussed in labor. This percentage of recovery: in labor, establish that, after refined, the amount owed (in wages) by the employer, the compensation of labor rights may not exceed 30% of the amount to which the employee would be entitled (in wages due or paid inappropriately). That is, for example, if a worker or worker: failed to receive a thousand dollars per month ($ 1,000.00), for a time, the amount to be claimed in addition to the above amount, not to exceed thirty percent ( 30%) of this value. This change in Labour Legislation: will hold a prognosis to the employer, the value that it may be due to each employee and thus, contribute to the generation of jobs across the country. With this change there: the expectation of generation, two million jobs.
  62. 62. The Ministry of Development: will work together with the Ministry of Labour, to generate two million five hundred thousand jobs per year in Brazil. So, after a political mandate (four years), have been generated ten million jobs. There will be incentives from the Federal Government: the search for their first job, this incentive will nurture the engagement of young people, aged 16 to 21 years, with the easing of the Consolidation of Labour Legislation. This flexibility: provides that the employee and the employer, have a reduction in labor taxation, on the order of 20 to 40% (depending on age and educational level of workers or workers) for six months (after the first six months of work: as set forth in the Ministry of Labour and Employment). From this perspective, the discount percentage will be established between: young age and high school. For example, workers (or workers) and sixteen high school: may obtain (for himself and for businesses), a percentage discount, taxes on labor laws to all the forty percent of benefits in this collection (as established in the Ministry of Labour and Employment). The incentives for job creation also refers to the creation of jobs in the state, the people with any level of schooling. Thus, there will be the creation of jobs state in all states of Brazil.
  63. 63. The Federal Government: will make available, Temporary Work Contracts, to carry out the proposed works on the Political Platform. In Political Platform a large percentage of works: take effect by the Federal Government, under the regime of temporary hiring professionals. There will also be the adoption of special laws: to generate jobs, such as; Legislation Intensification for Tourism (with a view to generating employment); Legislation for the formalization of Culture (with a view to creating jobs) and still , the formation of Cooperatives Working in informal sectors (in all states of Brazil), as set forth in the Ministry of Labour and Employment, etc.. • Reducing Taxes on Poor People: the Ministry of Development: act as a partner of the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Social Welfare, the consolidation, a National Register of need (as provided in these ministries); well as the availability of equipment (machines, to buy), for the realization of purchases with the reduced tax (as provided in the Ministry of Social Welfare). • Expansion of Higher Education Guarantee and Free: Ministry of Development: will work on expanding campuses (in conjunction with
  64. 64. the Ministry of Municipal Education). Thus, there will be an extension of Federal Universities: the cities in which there are no free higher education courses, namely: the oportunização this higher education system, the demand for vacancies. Still act, the Ministry of Development: In conjunction with the Ministry of Education Hall, for creating new and modern Federal Universities, in all regions of Brazil. • Employer Policy Valuation of Work: The Ministry of Development will work jointly with the Ministry of Labour and Employment, also in implementing a policy of Employer Appreciation of Labor. Thus, there will be (as set forth in the Ministry of Labour and Employment): implementation of a device, recovery work discerned as follows: A - Preparation of National Wage Floor: every position and every labor function: thus, through the composition of an Executive Board (composed: according willing, in the Ministry of Labour and Employment, by broad sectors of public and private sector in the country) , will be discerned, the minimum amount to be paid to the working class. The Executive Board (composed: the labor union, the Ministry of Labour and Employment, the Labour Courts; representation by the
  65. 65. employer and the Federal Executive Branch): employer will determine the amount of remuneration appropriate to the reality of bosses and employees across the country. B - The value of wages and employment contracts: will undergo a change, with reference to the level of study and age of the employees. Thus, the higher: the degree of study (2O or 3O degrees, for example), or age (over 36 or 45 years, for example), will focus: on wages, a wage increase of valuing work , with percentages of 10 to 20% percent, to add to the wage employer. C - The National Floor Salary: will be subject to the factors and adjustments should, be readjusted so pulverized (variously to each category). These adjustment factors (set forth below in the Ministry of Labour and Employment): are usually the CPI and inflation (measured by the Federal Government: through the Ministry of Finance). • Implementation of Public Procurement: The Tendering public: will meet the demand of jobs in the state. Public procurement: the increase will help administrativoestatal, from, the ultra popular activities of the Federal Government from this Policy Platform (due to a better performance for the Federal Government).
  66. 66. • Creating Opportunities Sociocivis: This item Tariff Ministerial Development Ministry: concerns, the development of civil and social strata; micro and small enterprises, state institutions, etc.. Generate opportunities sociocivis is: make poor people more financially balanced, is to train young people and adults in public education (universities or through programs of aid to education), the Primary Education in Elementary Education in Secondary Schools (in Teaching Technical Vocational) and even in Higher Education and is also, to promote access to digital inclusion, culture, housing, work, etc.. More than that, generate opportunities sociocivis:'s micro and small entrepreneurs become effective competitors in the market economy, generating employment and foreign exchange (gains) for the whole country. Creating opportunities is also: establish the rule of Brazil in informal sectors, create jobs and cooperativizados same state, etc.. Thus, through the provisions of this Policy Platform and the public (through the transmission of TVPresidência: to be created for the account of political institutionalization: the Platform Policy): We may discuss and discern ideologies that create more opportunities for different sectors of the republic. • Housing: The housing sector: should continue to provide funding, through public banks (existing) and denote changes in acquisition and
  67. 67. construction of homes financed, the retired civil servants and thus making it more responsive housing sector, connected to the monetary system. There will still be the priority of building affordable housing in all states. The slogan of the construction of one million houses in four years, can continue to exist and will become, a goal of the Federal Government. • Culture: There will be the creation of cooperatives for informal sectors: among them, will be, the area of culture (as designated ahead, the Ministry of Culture and Recreation). It will also be the responsibility of the Ministry of Development: implementing a political ideology, capable of developing the culture (as designated by the Ministry of Culture and Recreation). • Sanitation: Drinking Water: The essential service of providing drinking water: reason is the appreciation of political discussion, since water is a very essential to the health of the population. Besides the water distribution network: the water storage system via tanks; in places of difficult access (to the water distribution network), will be an important aid mechanism for supplying water.
  68. 68. Sewage: Also as drinking water: sewage uptake is an important mechanism in combating health problems; tract in the population. The sewerage system in Brazil: a study must go through in order: to make the storage sites (sewer), known as sewage treatment plants. There will therefore: investments in sewage treatment: essential to human survival, and even the preservation of the environment. These investments are part of a Health Responsibility Policy of the Federal Government. Electric Light: The Federal Government: will encourage increased electrical potential of the country. Thus, with the construction of hydropower investments: you can: ensure that more people can have electricity and more companies, industries and etc.. can act in the country. The increase of the energy potential in the country: will bring improvements in distribution and price per kilowatt, besides facilitating the sale of electricity to neighboring countries, where there is demand. The social tariff: the electricity supply will be maintained and adequate; layers to sociopopulacionais disadvantaged. The energy industry: generated by burning natural gas: Program will integrate a Power Supply Industrial; thus also helping increase the energy potential in the country.
  69. 69. 10 - Ministry of Culture and Recreation: The culture of the country is ethnically divided (and even became acculturated: a mixture of various cultures) through the process of history, the people of Brazil. The different forms of ethnic culture: will be listed by the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Culture and Leisure thus: 1 - Culture Folk Dances. 2 - Historical Culture. 3 - Culture micro regional (crafts; peculiar religiosity; etnocultura; indigenous culture, etc). 4 - Culture Theatre. 5 - Culture Arts.
  70. 70. 6 - Musical Culture. 7 - Literary Culture. 8 - Intellectual Culture (news, media, etc.).. 9 - Educational Culture (training school, general education, etc.).. 10 - Culture Circus. 11 - Culture Language. 12 - Film Culture. 13 - Political Culture, etc.. The country's culture: often at the mercy of the formal fiscal and tax. Furthermore, in a large majority of cases: with professionals without unionization, civil or benefits, for example, labor rights, etc.. The Federal Government, through the Ministry of Culture and Recreation and the Ministry of Labour and Employment, will encourage: the formation of Cooperatives Culture. These cooperatives: fulfill the role of formalizing and making companies or self-employed (or independent), people connected to the area of culture.
  71. 71. Thus, it is possible: the creation of jobs in the area of culture, and an accompanying Federal Government; cooperatives. The formalization of culture: it is a mechanism for job creation and stimulation, the cultural expansion in Brazil. 11 - Ministry of Sports, Sports and Recreation: The Ministry of Sports, Sports and Recreation: will act as a mechanism of political control, supervision and incentives, this political agenda. Thus, the ministry cited above: will assist administratively, sports clubs, large, medium and small. Along with the state and municipal tax and the IRS: this ministry will be working to promote the sport, the sport and also the leisure communities. Thus, you can: seek a formal tax, plus employment generation and development, this sector (the sports industry and sports) in the country.
  72. 72. 12 - Ministry of Tax Inspection: The Ministry of Tax Inspection: assist the Ministry of Finance in the surveillance of taxes owed to the Union (three branches) and even the Ministry of Fundraising; responsible for paying tax and tax. This ministry will act: at the conference and in the supervision of values taken by the Ministry of Fundraising and transferred to the Ministry of Finance. So there will be fundraising (Ministry of Fundraising) and determination of the Ministry of Tax Inspection: In addition, the performance of the Ministry of Finance. The tax inspection: aims to create a mechanism in multiple collections and thus, work in favor of increased revenues, creating a better expectation for Brazil. Brazil currently collects approximately sixty-one billion reais (R $ 61,000,000,000.00) per month. With this new collection system (the creation of two ministries: the Ministry of Fundraising and the Ministry of Tax Inspection): there may be a significant increase in this collection, in the order of 2.5 to 5% of the value quoted above. In a government (with the rise of political sociocivil): increase the collection means to administer a nation richer, have
  73. 73. greater ability to finance companies (small, medium or large, with loans). Also, finance (loan): micro, as microcredit available. Still, investing in priority areas of Political Platform: public education, public health, public safety, social welfare (social programs: how, for example, retorts); road conditions; emancipation of large slums, etc.. 13 - Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums: Emancipated politically, large slums in Brazil: this is the objective of the creation of this ministry, this Political Platform. Making a large favela: a micro city (with the existence of a mayor and aldermen: political representatives, democratically elected, through the electoral process); establish the country, a political mechanism for expanding the structuring of the Republic of Brazil ( creating a selfgovernment to these communities). Thus, through political emancipation (the act of making a community a city): The Ministry of Emancipation Civildistrital Slums,
  74. 74. forward the consolidation of a self-government; layers to sociopopulacionais disadvantaged. Self-government: irregular communities (favelas), with a large population, will bring a beginning to formalize economic (these communities). The development of Micro Organic Laws of municipalities (these to emancipate themselves): sociopopulacionais needs of these layers, and adjust the flow administrative (to formalize economic and political) of the micro city to the State Government and the Federal Government), establish autogovernos communities; said, disadvantaged. Formalizing Community and civil: the locations with: irregular housing, commerce, manufacturing industries, etc.. slums: entail benefits and tax collection to the micro city; proportionality in the purchasing power of these communities. The composition of a class politics within these communities themselves; constitutes an advance cultural politics, a way to make these communities and formalized with political power. The ability to make micro slum cities: with municipal political power and economic formalization will generate jobs. There will: work in the executive and the legislature, municipal, besides the formation of a civil service and even industrial and commercial development generated by formalizing economic; generators of wealth.
  75. 75. The development of socio-political emancipation of slums: soon will bring: structuring sectors essential to a municipality, for example, the sector of education, health, etc.. Changing government: the slums, micro cities soon will promote: eg, building a school, a health clinic, or a hospital, and even the installation of a power substation, a treatment plant water; develop these communities and will assist the State and the Federal Government, to encourage growth sociocivil. A place more developed economically and civilly becomes: best handled by government; tract, the creation of an educational system that, for example, determine the existence of a vocational course (public education), a university (higher education ); investments in health, etc.. The current situation of the slums: makes it very difficult to enter a government policy, which affects its development, so it is always easier if there is a self-government, a municipality and a city council. Thus, the development of these communities will be forgotten. The cities that have these big slums (over thirty thousand inhabitants): observe their emancipation (through Plebiscites Emancipation) and will become, the mother city, or even the city progenitor of micro city.
  76. 76. With the beginning of self-government, these communities: the area or zone of territorial micro city will have: a law municipal (city emancipated) and subject, the State Constitution and the Constitution of the Republic, being so desonerada the organic law of the city progenitor (the mother city). The emancipation of slums, micro cities, will be able to bring the rule: order; benefits; formalization; peace and development. 14 - Ministry of Institutionalization of the Fourth Estate Federal: The Power of the Budget and Audit Agency praetor (the Power of review): The introduction of a fourth power (Power 4O), the Republican State: cause the insertion of a power not elective, unpaid and exemplary moved; molds to one constitutional democracy. Through the creation of the Federal Fourth Power: The Power of Opinion; budget decisions will be subject to the assessment election.
  77. 77. The creation of the Federal Power Room (same state or city): provides for the insertion of the other Budget Oversight Powers Federal Institutional (the current three powers, or the Union). Thus, we are expanding democratic public accountability on the performance of the government budget and political representation. The performance of this new Federal Power: begins with the creation of the Ministry of Federal Institutionalization of the Fourth Estate: The Power of the Budget and Audit Agency praetor, the Power of view. This ministry will seek, through transmission of TVPresidência, the internet (or even the phone): capture, the population of opinions regarding the Amendments to the Budget. The opinion of the nation: it will give through Plebiscites Scanned (through the mechanisms of media and communication), in which voters opinarão on the decisions of the Federal Budget. Every year there will be capturing opinions; respect to budgets. Thus, you can know the Political Power voter opinion regarding the Federal Budget. The political system will fit the consideration to public opinion regarding the sanctioning of the Budget Law. The importance of electoral opinion: the Budget Law, represents the consolidation perpetual, an audit policy in the country (Brazil) and a political cultural advancement; exercimento to
  78. 78. democracy. Thus, the scope of the perpetual creation of a new power: the Union intercedes, the development of democracy, making the Budget Act subject to public opinion. By contrast, the budget oversight: the creation of the praetor, will intercede; together to judicial decisions (in a review of the Judiciary). The Agency praetor: is elective representation: the Federal Fourth Estate (described above), unpaid, but existing in all States of the Federation (across the country). Thus, able to opine about: Criminal Justice decisions (as designated by the clerk of the Fourth Estate Institutionalization Federal disposed below). The Agency praetor: will act lay, judicial decisions and these decisions will make new judgments (thus have to: be a new sentencing). It will be built (in the federal capital: Brasilia): a plenary action for the Fourth Estate and so will be instituted, and the Power of the Budget and Audit Agency praetor (known as the Power of the Fourth Estate or Opinion Corporate Federal). 15 - Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
  79. 79. Capitalism (liberalsocialista): Political Platform that determines the continuation of an economic role model; existing in the country, this Proclamation of the Republic. However, makes Brazil a country with social policy (socialism) genuine. Implementation: a socialist policy, adjacent to the capitalist and liberal economic model, changes the role of the federal government in dealing with the public. The adoption of a socialist policy, this Policy Platform: made the state required to maintain social programs such as: Program retaliates (provisions of Ministry of Social Welfare), the implementation of land reforms (under Ministry of Reforms Earth), the formation of the National Registry of Persons Deprived (quoted in Ministry of Development), the creation of the Valley and Meal Assistance Diploma of poor student and all other ideologies and policies developed in this program of government (in which society , occurred within a context of equality). A socialist policy adjacent to liberal capitalism: it has, in this political platform: slums, to emancipated micro cities; poor communities, administered by Cephalus Republican; remote villages, assisted by institutionalizing a politically Federal Vila; patients served by implementing an Architecture Health and Examination System
  80. 80. Ready (as designated earlier in the ministries of relevance of these issues), people who rely on medicines perpetual use, assisted by aid to buy medicines, etc.. Socialism implemented this policy to Brazil Platform: attended, to all people, who depend on state support, in one way or another. Thus created, mechanisms of social mobility: the young and adults (adult and adult) and seeks to develop the country, not only with political and financial investment business, but bringing the small, medium and long-term gains of the population (thus making the country: richer and decreasing inequalities that exist in our capitalism). Ensure liberal capitalism (in a cast liberalsocialista): in our republic, is the ideology of the Federal Government in the course of building our history in the world. Brazil will defend: the existence of democracies, the existence of capitalisms similar to ours (liberalsocialista of ideology) of capitalisms aimed at generating wealth, oppression and socialism without democracy and economic liberalization. Foreign Policy in Brazil: we need to defend: the existence of a Global Plan for Social Development (provided below), a Policy Support to World Poverty (also provided in this ministerial staff) and a system of cooperation among nations, tract wars (which: we must condemn and consider the result of greed and political disagreement).
  81. 81. The role of Brazil in the international arena is a huge nation, the fifth largest in the world in area and the sixth richest, the world economy. So we have: representing small nations, with regard to: consolidation of political freedom, civil and social development; detriment, the oppression and chaos sociocivil and still press oppressing nations, to consolidate peace on the planet. Our Republic: should act in pursuit of social and civil development: nations affected by inequality, war or political oppression and also, to consolidate political freedom and democracy wherever opine on the international scene. We must also act: the consolidation of agreements and treaties of peace and cooperation between nations on the planet. I submit, then: the development of the Global Plan for Social Development and Policy Support to World Poverty. Through these political ideologies: we (through the UN: UN) to establish an intervention in poor nations and holding sociocivis inequalities (eg, Somalia and Sudan: countries in poverty, civil war, oppression and political tyranny and military) and change the politics of these nations. Thus, changing them: a socialization of the population (the governments: governments should head to socialism); creating equality between social classes, development and support of global poverty.
  82. 82. The diplomatic policy of Brazil: on the international stage, it will seek an end to political oppression, hunger, human degeneration, underdevelopment and inequality sociocivis. At the World Social Development Plan: that we propose goals; rich nations and even the United Nations (UN), to be fulfilled in favor of nations where there is underdevelopment sociocivil. Thus, for example, the economic intervention, the provision of social development policies and civil and even uniformity or equality between social classes. On this last point (equality between layers sociopopulacionais): the most disadvantaged: they should become a policy priority while; wealthier social classes, a system should be developed to capture taxes consistent with the reality of their nations ( in countries with a lot of poverty, we must defend: a system for efficient and fair taxation). Development: a Global Plan for Social Development should seek; suit underdeveloped economies, the egalitarian (the social). The intervention of an international policy: in economically underdeveloped nations, will be able, to change the reality of poverty and underdevelopment (these nations). The defense of a Policy Support of World Poverty: can intervene on behalf of poor people, needy and destitute around the
  83. 83. world. Bolster global poverty is: socialism and streamline hold capitalisms generators poverty. The international relations of Brazil: also seek to develop the nation itself. We will seek partnerships in the private and state in order to attract investment, develop industry and civility in the country. We will deal with friendship, all the nations of the earth: and deepen our relationships with international American countries. Thus, we will act with policies: development sociocivil; hunger and social inequality and seek to promote peace among nations. The aspirations of the Federal Government: in the area of international relations, will be a maturation of issues humanopolíticas; socioeconomic and yet also the development of a global environmental responsibility. We have interest: the preservation of the environment, the inclusion of reforestation and sustainable development policies, the role of humanity to nature and the planet. 16 - Ministry of Private Fundraising:
  84. 84. The Ministry of Private Fundraising seek: investors into the country. Thus, there will be: by the Federal Executive, the implementation of a Corporate Guarantee Policy. This Warranty Policy Corporate Republic of Brazil will ensure that: even through the succession election of executive and legislative powers, the possession of goods and means of production, stay unchanged partner companies to the government. For a period of five to ten decades (according to: the agenda of the Ministry of Funding: Funding Resources Development Partnership Intraeconômico): it will ensure the ownership of assets and means of production, through the Establishment Plan of New Companies (provisions of Ministry of Fundraising, as described above), even with the alternation of political mandates, in which the federal government becomes a partner of large companies. The Ministry of Private Fundraising: will seek investors for the establishment of industries and businesses, thus creating jobs and helping to increase tax collection and tax. Thus, this ministry will seek to: assist in the development of important sectors of the country such as: the construction of hospitals parastatals, private prison infrastructure; river routes of tourism, airports, seaports and even river; alternative systems of electricity generation (eg, stations wind power generation and solar); universities, private schools and technical education, etc..
  85. 85. This ministry: seek help, especially with the rise in GDP (Gross Domestic Product); therefore work on increasing the amount of business and wealth creation; responsible for the growth of the country. That is, so there will be more jobs, more capital (money), most currencies (profits) to the country; higher industrial production, greater trade flows and higher tax revenues and tax. The enrichment of the economy: by raising private funds, will assist in empreendendorismo Federal Government, the change in the characteristics of underdevelopment of the country itself. The possibility to change this national underdevelopment (the existence of communities of poor and underdeveloped societies), from private equity investments, are numerous. The security created by the Plan Establishment of New Companies (international warranty; five to ten decades, Business Partner of the Government): establishes the invulnerability of the capital asset. Thus, it will be costly to Brazil: nationalize the means of production (to implement communism: in which the means of production are the administration's political class), because the agreements between the Federal Government and the private sector, do not allow investments to be nationalized during the stipulated period. The creation of the Plan Establishment of New Companies: aims to attract a massive capital investments in international; give
  86. 86. guarantees perpetuation of these entrepreneurial companies in Brazil, generating jobs, civil and social development, increasing tax revenues and tax and raise GDP growth ( Gross Domestic Product) of the country, the level of 8% per annum and even dreamed to 10% (per annum). The private fundraising: civil will boost growth and social development, create ascension, the countless families and generate opportunities for all. 17 - Ministry of Science and Technology: The Ministry of Science and Technology: will assist in advancing scientific and technical industries and the labor market (creating jobs), besides also collaborate with the institutions of the Republic of Brazil. This ministry: will encourage civilian sectors such as: schools teaching normal (public or private) and technical education; universities (federal or private) companies; public hospitals, etc.
  87. 87. The contribution of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Brazil: is the sense of providing technologies to all segments of civil and social even, for example, the development of industries, the labor market, the functioning of the state or even society. Science and technology: will find alternatives to social sectors such as; sectors linked to transit, to floods, droughts, famine and human development (through the humanities, biological, legal, etc.).. The promotion of scientific research in universities: is of paramount importance for the development of science and technology and will suffer, changes in its institutionalization. Thus, students enrolled in science and technology: vacancies may play in the development of projects of Scientific Research and Technology. Through the institutionalization: a democratic way, the choice of researchers; these students (cited above) may be part, for a period of time (usually for one semester) of a Program of Scientific and Technological. The choice of the researchers will be discerned, the Ministry of Science and Technology. The Undergraduate Research: public schools, develop a system of awards to the best projects. Thus, be assured, that scientific research contributes to the school calendar and social evolution. The value of the Scholarship for Scientific Research and Technology (lasting six months) and the Undergraduate Research
  88. 88. Awards: will be based on the minimum wage. These grants or awards: will vary between; half the minimum wage and the minimum wage (in the case of grants for Scientific Research, this will be the monthly and in the case of Awards, this is the full value of the awards). The amount of scholarships or Technological and Scientific Research Awards for Undergraduate Research: will be set according to the amount and importance of the projects and calls fairs (school) science. The Ministry of Science and Technology will use as a parameter, the need and applicability of the projects. There will also, investment incorporation of technical courses and upper-level courses (in a joint operation with the Ministry of Municipal Education), to specific areas of mechatronics and information systems. In addition, this ministry will help: the digitization of public education and public health, as established in the Ministries of Education and the Ministry of Municipal Municipal Health respectively. The joint action of the Ministry of Science and Technology, the ministries mentioned above: will streamline the implementation work of the Political Platform in these sectors. The Ministry of Science and Technology (title) will act on all ministerial institutions, regarding the functioning of these institutions and develop partnership programs (with all ministries) with the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defence.
  89. 89. 18 - Ministry of the Navy and Marine: The Ministry of the Navy and Marine: develop a comprehensive prognosis defense and military operation in Brazil. The institution ministerial Navy of Brazil and Marine: aspirations is responsible for national security and also the security, to the spheres of governmental politics. This ministerial institution (title): includes the existence of departments such as: the Port Authority and Coast Guard, as well as having the state naval fleet (fighting ships, aircraft carriers, submarines, etc.). The merger of the shipbuilding industry will cover a naval fleet renewal. The Navy of Brazil: militarily will be administered by the Ministry of the Navy and Marine; well as their secretaries (previously cited): the Port, Coast Guard, etc.. It will be built yet: the creation of the Maritime Guard, with the allocation to supervise the area called Brazilian Territorial Sea, where the platforms are extracting oil and natural gas.
  90. 90. Investments of the Ministry of the Navy and Marine: the military segments (cited above), called the Navy of Brazil, the Port Authority: Coast Guard and Maritime Guard, fulfilled, the role of this institution become ministerial military, a defense mechanism territorial autonomous and efficient, capable of defending civil and political sovereignty in the territory of the country. The military shipbuilding industry: it will be able to build, reform and even the marketing of ships. Thus, the Navy of Brazil: will capture the form of conscription and procurement, for entry into the military career: young men (and women) and adults (men and women) to ensure the functioning of large military institution . If female enlistment is optional. In partnership with the private sector, the Ministry of the Navy and Marine: System will undertake a Research and Maritime Expeditions (polar research) through the globe and even the entire coastline of the country. There will be: also concern about job creation and combating civilian, floods and mudslides; existing in Brazil.
  91. 91. 19 - Ministry of Aeronautics and Aerospace Industry: The Ministry of Aeronautics and Aerospace Industry: will control military sectors; called: Brazilian Air Force; COMAR (1, 2, 3, 4,5 and 6); CONDACTA (s); CINDACTA and even the paramilitary institution, created this Political Platform, the COMAAC (Commercial Air Command Agency). Also, be subordinated to the Ministry of Aeronautics and Aerospace Industry: A state industry, fighter planes and aircraft surveillance and air operations (Tucano aircraft). This ministry (title): control, in whole aviation in the country, as well as COMAR s (Regional Air Commands). Control so this ministry (title): six (6) COMAR s (air bases); villages and seek military, being established in all major airports in the country. There will be changes: in air control of the country, the military and civilian operation (for use of airspace by the state and commercial aviation). The institutionalization of COMAAC (Commercial Air Command Agency) will provide that, the flight control, established by CONDACTA (Centre National Aeronautics Defense and Air Traffic Control) and even by CINDACTA (Center for Integrated Defense Aeronautics and Traffic Control Air) and airport control towers, are