Psych perception

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Psych perception

  1. 1. PerceptionPerception
  2. 2. PerceptionPerception • To survive, must be able to perform 3 interrelated activities:To survive, must be able to perform 3 interrelated activities: – 1. Sensing stimuli1. Sensing stimuli – 2. Processing stimuli (interpreting)2. Processing stimuli (interpreting) – 3. Responding to stimuli (brain sends message to muscles)3. Responding to stimuli (brain sends message to muscles) • Ex: Traffic lightEx: Traffic light – 1. Sensing stimuli1. Sensing stimuli • See red lightSee red light – 2. Professing stimuli2. Professing stimuli • Red means stopRed means stop – 3. Responding to stimuli3. Responding to stimuli • Putting foot on brakePutting foot on brake Copyright © Prentice Hall 2007 2-2
  3. 3. PerceptionPerception • The process of organizing andThe process of organizing and making sense of sensorymaking sense of sensory information.information.
  4. 4. PerceptionPerception • Vision our most important sensoryVision our most important sensory process?process? • About 80% of the information weAbout 80% of the information we receive about the world reaches usreceive about the world reaches us through vision.through vision. • We don’t have the top of the line eyeWe don’t have the top of the line eye evolutionary speaking.evolutionary speaking. – Antelope has 8 x’s magnification in it’sAntelope has 8 x’s magnification in it’s lens.lens.
  5. 5. PerceptionPerception • Visual perception is extremelyVisual perception is extremely complicated.complicated. • Either pick a partner and look at theirEither pick a partner and look at their eye as we continue or look into a mirror.eye as we continue or look into a mirror. • This simple clip made for childrenThis simple clip made for children simplifies and clarifies the workings ofsimplifies and clarifies the workings of the eyes.the eyes. http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysyhttp://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysy stems/eyes/stems/eyes/
  6. 6. ProcessProcess • CorneaCornea • IrisIris • PupilPupil • LensLens • RetinaRetina
  7. 7. Sclera or the White PartSclera or the White Part • White part of theWhite part of the eyeball is theeyeball is the sclera (sklair-uh).sclera (sklair-uh). • Made of a toughMade of a tough material.material. • Covers most of theCovers most of the eyeball.eyeball.
  8. 8. Sclera or the White PartSclera or the White Part • Think of theThink of the sclera as yoursclera as your eyeball's outereyeball's outer coat.coat.
  9. 9. CorneaCornea • Transparent dome.Transparent dome. • In front of theIn front of the colored part of thecolored part of the eye.eye. • Helps the eye focusHelps the eye focus as light makes itsas light makes its way through.way through.
  10. 10. CorneaCornea • Made of clear tissue.Made of clear tissue. • Like a windshield the itLike a windshield the it gives your eye a cleargives your eye a clear window to view thewindow to view the world.world. • No blood supply &No blood supply & easily transplanted.easily transplanted. • Shown is an artificialShown is an artificial cornea but can comecornea but can come from a cadaver.from a cadaver.
  11. 11. IrisIris • Behind the cornea:Behind the cornea: – IrisIris – PupilPupil – Anterior chamberAnterior chamber • Iris the colorful partIris the colorful part of the eyeof the eye
  12. 12. Iris Cont.Iris Cont. • Muscles attachedMuscles attached to it change itsto it change its shape.shape. • Controls howControls how much light goesmuch light goes through the pupilthrough the pupil – Shutter on aShutter on a cameracamera
  13. 13. PupilPupil • Black circle inBlack circle in the center of thethe center of the IrisIris • It is an openingIt is an opening in the Iris.in the Iris. • Lets light enterLets light enter the eye.the eye.
  14. 14. PupilPupil • When we say, “Your Pupil is dilated”, whatWhen we say, “Your Pupil is dilated”, what are we really saying?are we really saying? – Your Iris is expanding or contracting to let inYour Iris is expanding or contracting to let in more or less light.more or less light.
  15. 15. Drug Overdose of UnconsciousDrug Overdose of Unconscious PersonPerson • Doctors can tell beforeDoctors can tell before a toxicology report thata toxicology report that someone has had a drugsomeone has had a drug overdose.overdose. • Narrow pinpoint pupilNarrow pinpoint pupil
  16. 16. Anterior ChamberAnterior Chamber • Space between theSpace between the cornea & Iriscornea & Iris • Filled with aFilled with a transparent fluidtransparent fluid – Nourishes theNourishes the eyeeye – Keeps it healthyKeeps it healthy
  17. 17. LensLens • Works like theWorks like the lens of a movielens of a movie projectorprojector • You see a streamYou see a stream of light comingof light coming from thefrom the projection boothprojection booth
  18. 18. LensLens • Light goes through aLight goes through a lens, which islens, which is focusing the imagesfocusing the images onto the screen, soonto the screen, so you can see the movieyou can see the movie clearly.clearly. • In the eye's case, theIn the eye's case, the film screen is yourfilm screen is your retina.retina.
  19. 19. Ciliary MuscleCiliary Muscle • The lens isThe lens is suspended bysuspended by fibersfibers • These fibers areThese fibers are attached to theattached to the ciliary muscle.ciliary muscle. • It changes theIt changes the shape of the lensshape of the lens
  20. 20. Ciliary Muscle Cont.Ciliary Muscle Cont. • It changes theIt changes the shape of the lensshape of the lens • Process calledProcess called • AccommodationAccommodation
  21. 21. Ciliary Muscle Cont.Ciliary Muscle Cont. • When you look atWhen you look at things up close,things up close, the lens becomesthe lens becomes thicker to focusthicker to focus the correct imagethe correct image onto the retina.onto the retina. • When you lookWhen you look at things farat things far away, the lensaway, the lens becomes thinner.becomes thinner.
  22. 22. Vitreous Body (vih-tree-us)Vitreous Body (vih-tree-us) • Biggest part of the eyeBiggest part of the eye • Sits behind the lensSits behind the lens Forms 2/3 of the eye'sForms 2/3 of the eye's volumevolume • Gives the eye its shape,Gives the eye its shape, keeps the retina inkeeps the retina in place.place. • Filled with a clear,Filled with a clear, jelly-like material but isjelly-like material but is 99% water99% water
  23. 23. Vitreous Body Cont.Vitreous Body Cont. • Toy eyeballs areToy eyeballs are sometimes squishysometimes squishy because they're made tobecause they're made to feel like they're filledfeel like they're filled with vitreous humor.with vitreous humor. • Light passes throughLight passes through the lensthe lens • It shines straightIt shines straight through the vitreousthrough the vitreous humor to the back ofhumor to the back of the eye.the eye.
  24. 24. RetinaRetina • Film that light hits.Film that light hits. • The beginning of ourThe beginning of our perception of light.perception of light. • Very back of the eyeVery back of the eye • It holds all theIt holds all the receptors for vision.receptors for vision.
  25. 25. RetinaRetina • Takes the light theTakes the light the eye receives andeye receives and changes it intochanges it into nerve signals sonerve signals so the brain canthe brain can understand whatunderstand what the eye is seeing.the eye is seeing.
  26. 26. DeathDeath • When someone dies they get retinal bloodWhen someone dies they get retinal blood columns called “boxcars”. They look like acolumns called “boxcars”. They look like a little train.little train. • This is why the doctor shines a light intoThis is why the doctor shines a light into someone's eye to see if they are still alive.someone's eye to see if they are still alive. • If dead the pupil will not contract and alsoIf dead the pupil will not contract and also he/she will see the boxcars.he/she will see the boxcars. • Pupil dilates at death, shine light in there isPupil dilates at death, shine light in there is no reflex.no reflex.
  27. 27. Light Hitting The RetinaLight Hitting The Retina
  28. 28. Sensory CodingSensory Coding • Activation of retinalActivation of retinal cells by light resultscells by light results in action potentialsin action potentials that travel alongthat travel along neurons that projectneurons that project to the occipital cortexto the occipital cortex
  29. 29. Rods and ConesRods and Cones • Retina uses cells toRetina uses cells to process light.process light. • In each eye:In each eye: – RodsRods • 120 million120 million • PhotoreceptorsPhotoreceptors – ConesCones • 7 million7 million • Color receptorsColor receptors
  30. 30. RodsRods • Name: shapedName: shaped like a column.like a column. • See in black,See in black, white, & shadeswhite, & shades of grayof gray
  31. 31. Rods Cont.Rods Cont. • Notice that we may think we are seeingNotice that we may think we are seeing color because we expect something to becolor because we expect something to be a certain color.a certain color. • Tell us shape & movement of somethingTell us shape & movement of something • Rods are super-sensitiveRods are super-sensitive • Allow us to see in the dark for survival.Allow us to see in the dark for survival.
  32. 32. Periferal VisonPeriferal Vison • Periferal field rods increase. Hunters knowPeriferal field rods increase. Hunters know in dark settings to not look directly at yourin dark settings to not look directly at your prey, better dark vision. I have personallyprey, better dark vision. I have personally seen this with deers. They look at yourseen this with deers. They look at your sideways.sideways.
  33. 33. ConesCones • Color receptorsColor receptors • SenseSense colorcolor • Need more lightNeed more light than rods to workthan rods to work wellwell • Work best in normalWork best in normal or bright lightor bright light • Retina has 3 types ofRetina has 3 types of cones.cones.
  34. 34. Cones Cont.Cones Cont. • The retina has 3The retina has 3 types of cones.types of cones. • Each cone type isEach cone type is sensitive to one ofsensitive to one of three differentthree different colors — red, green,colors — red, green, or blue — to helpor blue — to help you see differentyou see different ranges of color.ranges of color.
  35. 35. Cones Cont.Cones Cont. • Together, theseTogether, these cones can sensecones can sense combinations ofcombinations of light waves thatlight waves that enable our eyes toenable our eyes to see millions ofsee millions of colors.colors.
  36. 36. Feature DetectorsFeature Detectors • Nerve cells that pick up specific featuresNerve cells that pick up specific features – MovementMovement – ShapeShape – DepthDepth
  37. 37. Optic NerveOptic Nerve • Messenger in back eye.Messenger in back eye. • Rods & cones of retinaRods & cones of retina – Change colors & shapes into millions of nerveChange colors & shapes into millions of nerve messages.messages. • Optic nerve carries those messages from eyeOptic nerve carries those messages from eye > brain> brain • Optic nerve serves as a high-speed telephoneOptic nerve serves as a high-speed telephone line connecting eye > brain.line connecting eye > brain.
  38. 38. Optic NerveOptic Nerve • When you see an image,When you see an image, your eye "telephones"your eye "telephones" your brain with ayour brain with a report on what you arereport on what you are seeing so the brain canseeing so the brain can translate that reporttranslate that report into "car," “person," orinto "car," “person," or “Big Mac," or whatever“Big Mac," or whatever the case may be.the case may be.
  39. 39. Optic NerveOptic Nerve • Put an x on the wall and a dot on a card, closePut an x on the wall and a dot on a card, close one eye, and the dot will disappear at yourone eye, and the dot will disappear at your blind spot.blind spot. • Blind spotBlind spot – Where the Optic Nerve pierces the retinaWhere the Optic Nerve pierces the retina • No receptor cells to pick up imagesNo receptor cells to pick up images • Brain fills in the blankBrain fills in the blank
  40. 40. Eye TattooingEye Tattooing • Some people have started gettingSome people have started getting tattoos on their eyeballs. And we'retattoos on their eyeballs. And we're not talking about permanentnot talking about permanent makeup or anything else on themakeup or anything else on the outsideoutside of the eye -- we're talkingof the eye -- we're talking ink injected right into the cornea.ink injected right into the cornea.
  41. 41. Eye Tattooing Cont.Eye Tattooing Cont. • Corneal tattooing is dangerous for aCorneal tattooing is dangerous for a number of reasons, because in additionnumber of reasons, because in addition to the usual risks the cornea versionto the usual risks the cornea version can include infection, perforation,can include infection, perforation, hemorrhage, scarring, and blindness. Ithemorrhage, scarring, and blindness. It started as a means of repairing eyestarted as a means of repairing eye damage and covering scarring, but it'sdamage and covering scarring, but it's becoming a more and more popularbecoming a more and more popular cosmetic procedure.cosmetic procedure.
  42. 42. Eye Tattooing Cont.Eye Tattooing Cont. • IfIf you worry about regretting that yin-you worry about regretting that yin- yang symbol on your ankle, just thinkyang symbol on your ankle, just think how you'll feel with kaleidoscope eyes.how you'll feel with kaleidoscope eyes. • So would you let a tattoo artist stick aSo would you let a tattoo artist stick a needle in your eye? Talk about regret!needle in your eye? Talk about regret!

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