Psych learning

1,257 views

Published on

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,257
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
11
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Psych learning

  1. 1. LEARNING
  2. 2. What is Learning? • Learning: –The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior. (clearer than book) • Motivation: –Energizes & directs behavior • How does this affect learning? 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 2
  3. 3. Behaviorists • Look at how people respond to the things in their environment that affect them. • Don’t think it is important to study one’s – Inner needs – Thoughts – Feelings – Motives 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3
  4. 4. Associative Learning (Stimulus Response) • People learn to associate events – Lighting – Thunder • 2 types of Associative Learning – Classical Conditioning • Stimulus from environment > reflexive response from subject – Operant Conditioning • Behavior from subject > response from environment 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 4
  5. 5. Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning –Form of learning that occurs when 2 stimuli—a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus—that are paired (presented together) become associated with each other. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 5
  6. 6. Ivan Pavlov & Classical Conditioning • (1849-1936) • Russian physiologist • Studied digestion • Psychology hopeless as an independent science. • Noble prize 1904 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 6
  7. 7. Pavlov Cont. • Serendipity • Noticed dogs salivated before food presented • Sounded bell before feeding dogs • Dogs salivated at sound of bell whether food or not. • Ringing a bell alone would not ordinarily produce salivation. • Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in all species. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 7
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – Stimulus that automatically produces response without any previous training. • Meat – Naturally salivate when anticipate eating » Naturally & automatically elicit response • Lighter to your finger – Automatically pull away » Fire unconditioned stimulus » Stimulus > Response 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 8
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned response (UCR) – Reaction that is automatically produced when an unconditioned stimulus is presented. • Unlearned naturally occurring response – Dog • Unconditioned response was salivation – Lighting your finger • Unconditioned response pull away 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 9
  10. 10. Classical Conditioning • A neutral stimulus (NS) –Stimulus that, before conditioning, does not elicit a particular response. –Dog • Bell – Does not naturally & automatically produce a response 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 10
  11. 11. Classical Conditioning • Conditioned stimulus (CS) – Neutral stimulus that acquires ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus. – Dog • Paired sound of bell with meat – Tone no longer neutral stimulus » Conditioned stimulus 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 11
  12. 12. Classical Conditioning • Conditioned response (CR) – Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus; it is similar to the unconditioned response. – Several pairings of the NS and UCS during an acquisition phase lead to a situation in which the CS presented by itself elicits a CR. • Bell > Salivation • Wouldn’t naturally salivate at sound of bell 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 12
  13. 13. Classical Conditioning Cont. • Neurological change occurs before eating. • Dopamine in addicts – Released before get the drug in anticipation of receiving it. • Classical conditioning related to a spanking? 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 13
  14. 14. Classical Conditioning Cont. • Sound of a can opener • Fish swim fast when knock on the aquarium. • Taught the fish to have a physiological response to the tapping. • Learned tap = food • Consistent • Short time interval • * Conduct experiment on Crunch. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 14
  15. 15. Classical Conditioning in Humans 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 15
  16. 16. Classical Conditioning in Humans • Advertising using Classical Conditioning? – Taught to pair what with what? 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 16
  17. 17. Classical Conditioning • John Watson & Rosalie Rayner –Demonstrated • Emotions can be learned by classically conditioning – 9-month-old Little Albert to fear a white rat. • Every time Albert reached for rat – Struck steel bar 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 17
  18. 18. Classical Conditioning in Humans • Rosalie Rayner & John Watson (1920'S) • Conditioning Little Albert to fear white rat. • Not ethical by present-day standards. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 18
  19. 19. Classical Conditioning in Humans • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) • Loud noise – No learning • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – Rat • Unconditioned Response (UCR) • Fear (of loud noise) – No learning • Conditioned Response (CR) – Fear of rat 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 19
  20. 20. Little Albert Cont. • Generalized • Became frightened of –White animals –Stuffed animals –Fur coats –Santa Claus beards 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 20
  21. 21. Classical Conditioning in Humans • Discrimination – Ability to tell difference between similar stimuli. • Rat not the same as fur coat 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 21
  22. 22. Mary Cover Jones (1924) • 3 yr. Old Peter • Afraid of white rats • Placed cage at a distance • Gave child candy • Each day moved cage closer • Candy + white rat = pleasure • Rat conditioned stimulus for pleasure 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 22
  23. 23. Classical Conditioning • Optimum sequence for CS to precede the UCS (by about .50 second). • Stronger the UCS, stronger the conditioning. • More times the CS & UCS are presented together – Stronger the CR becomes • Steel bar hit every time you touch the rat • *Complete crunch experiment 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 23
  24. 24. Classical Conditioning Cont. Aversion Therapy • A type of Classical Conditioning technique for reducing or eliminating behavior by pairing the behavior with an unpleasant stimulus. – Antibuse – Squirrels hot pepper 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 24
  25. 25. Classical Conditioning Cont. • Extinction: Weakening of associations. • Dog door story –Open all the time –Open sometimes –Closed all the time –Behavior becomes extinct 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 25
  26. 26. Classical Conditioning • Extinction • General term for a reduction & eventual disappearance of a behavior • Process of getting rid of a conditioned response • Classical conditioning – Extinction occurs when repeated presentation of CS alone leads to a decrease in the strength of the CR. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 26
  27. 27. Classical Conditioning • Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 27
  28. 28. Spontaneous Recovery • Dog door – Dog stops checking – One day checks again – Extinction • Car – Battery dead – Stop checking – Check again – Extinction 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 28
  29. 29. Classical Conditioning • Fears, anxieties classically conditioned. • Phobia irrational fear of an activity, object, or situation that is out proportion to actual danger it poses. – Meaning? 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 29
  30. 30. Desensitization Therapy • Joseph Wolpe, 1973 • Fear of flying –Hierarchy of fear –Pair item with relaxation 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 30
  31. 31. Classical Conditioning • Taste-aversion learning refers to the development of a dislike or aversion to a flavor or food that has been paired with illness. • Garcia Effect 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 31
  32. 32. Operant Conditioning • Also known as instrumental conditioning, an organism operates on its environment to produce a change. • Teaches subjects to associate behaviors with their consequences – Subject acts first – Environment responds to the action • Classical Conditioning – Environment acts first by triggering or eliciting a response from subject 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 32
  33. 33. Operant Conditioning • Behaviors more likely to be repeated if they are followed by a reward or an incentive to do it again. • Less likely to be repeated if followed by a punishment. – Principles apply to both Operant & Classical Conditioning • Extinction • Generalization • Discrimination 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 33
  34. 34. Edward Thorndike • Studied behavior of animals – Placed them in a small chamber • Puzzle box 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 34
  35. 35. Thorndike's Puzzle Box • Did not know how to escape. • 1st cats explored restlessly, meowed. • Eventually stepped on the foot switch accidentally – Trap door opened. – On succeeding trials, they operated the switch faster. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 35
  36. 36. Edward Thorndike • Believed that when cat stumbled upon a behavior that produced a desirable effect – Created a link or associative bond between • Stimulus (in this case, being in the cage) • Response (stepping on the switch). – Later, in the same stimulus situation response occurred faster. • Thorndike’s Law of Effect – People are more likely to do things when the consequences feel good. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 36
  37. 37. Operant Conditioning • Example: –Training a dog to roll over. –How did you do it? –What steps did you take? 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 37
  38. 38. Shaping • Reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 38
  39. 39. Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner influenced by Thorndike, & John B. Watson’s behavioral view of psychology. • Watson – If we could understand how to • Predict • Control behavior – Would know all there was to know about psychology. • Skinner looked for the stimuli that control behavior. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 39
  40. 40. Skinner • Skinner box recorded – How fast – How often • Pressed the bar – Taught animals weird behaviors to get food • Reward • Used shaping – Operant Conditioning • Subject acts first • Reward from environment • If subject likes reward will probably repeat behavior 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 40
  41. 41. Operant Conditioning • Reinforcer – Event or stimulus that increases the frequency of the response that it follows. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 41
  42. 42. Reinforcers • Primary Reinforcers – Food – Hour extra sleep – Something that feels good & satisfying all by itself. • Secondary Reinforcers – Not satisfying all by themselves – Learn they are worth repeating a behavior • Money / Concert tickets – By themselves not fun » Buy fun stuff » See a show with the tickets 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 42
  43. 43. Reinforcers • Positive reinforcers – Gives subject something • More likely that a behavior will be repeated – Food – Money – Concert tickets – Praise • Presented after the target response occurs. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 43
  44. 44. Reinforcers • Negative reinforcers – Events or stimuli that are removed because a response has occurred. • Takes away something unpleasant – Example Skinner Box • Rat gets shock • Press bar to stop shock – Behavior reinforced when the pain of the current stops 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 44
  45. 45. Operant Conditioning • Punisher – Stimulus that produces a decrease in responding – May take the form of presentation of a stimulus or termination of a stimulus. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 45
  46. 46. Operant Conditioning • Punishment – Process of using a punisher to decrease response rate. • Punishment is not an especially effective means of altering behavior. – May repeat the behavior but not in the presence of the punisher – Sometimes creates fear & aggression – Doesn’t encourage desired behavior – RAT EXPERIMENT!!`````````````` 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 46
  47. 47. Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Latent learning occurs when learning has taken place, but is not demonstrated. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 47
  48. 48. Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Latent learning occurs when learning has taken place, but is not demonstrated. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 48
  49. 49. Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Observational learning (modeling) – Learning that occurs through watching & imitating the behaviors of others. • Parents • See person doing the behavior reinforced for the behavior – Gold & silver class watch teacher do what you have been trying to do easier. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 49
  50. 50. Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Keys to observational learning – Participant identifies with the person being observed. • Vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment. – Put ourselves in the other person’s place for a moment – Better able to imagine the effects of the reinforcer or punisher. • Brown eye, blue eye study 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 50
  51. 51. Cognitive and Social Perspectives On Learning • Attempts to influence behavior through observational learning occur every day (along with efforts based on classical conditioning). • Observational learning – Used to reduce or eliminate phobias. 07/08/15 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 51

×