Life span chapter 9

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Life span chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Butchered by Professor Carney
  2. 2. Challenges What were some challenges you had during this time period? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  3. 3. Adolescence Transitional period  Continuity & discontinuity with childhood Time of:     Evaluation Decision making Commitment Finding a place in the world 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  4. 4. Adolescence Interaction of:     Genetics Biology Environment Social factors Relationships with parents changes.  Example? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  5. 5. Today’s Adolescent Temptations   Drug use Sexual activity What sources? Given adequate opportunities & support to become competent adults  Why? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  6. 6. Puberty Puberty  Rapid physical maturation Hormonal Bodily changes  Most noticeable changes Signs of sexual maturation Increases Height  Weight  10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  7. 7. Puberty Puberty Most important marker of beginning of adolescence  Ends before adolescence ends  10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  8. 8. Weight & Height The Growth Spurt Girls  Early adolescence Outweigh boys Tall or taller than boys  Mean age growth spurt at 9 yrs. Boys  Mean age growth spurt 11 yrs. 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  9. 9. 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  10. 10. Hormonal Change Puberty interaction of:    Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Gonads Particularly important   Testes Ovaries 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  11. 11. Hormonal Change Hypothalamus  Monitors eating & sex Pituitary gland   Growth Regulates other glands Gonads   Testes male Ovaries female 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  12. 12. Male Gonads: Testis 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  13. 13. Hormones: Male Gonads: Testosterone  Hormone associated with development of: Genitals Increase in height Change in voice 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Hormones: Female Ovaries  2 groups of female sex hormones produced in ovaries Estrogen Progesterone 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  16. 16. Hormones: Female Estradiol type of estrogen  Hormone associated with development of: Breast Uterus & vagina Skeletal Distribution of fat  hips, legs, & breast 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  17. 17. Hormones: Female & Male Testosterone & estradiol  Present in both sexes 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  18. 18. Hormones Behavior Sexual activity Moods Affect Hormones Suppress or activate Stress Exercise Eating patterns 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  19. 19. Age of Puberty Boys  10-13 ½ Girls  9-15 Affect puberty’s timing & makeup    Nutrition Health Other environmental factors? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  20. 20. Study 2010 1,000 Girls in 3 American Cities 7-year-olds developing breasts:   10% of white girls 25% of African-American girls 5 % 10 years ago Rise in early puberty linked to:    Rise in obesity in U.S. children Environment Genetics Concerns of breast cancers in these girls later 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  21. 21. Gender Differences in Body Image Adolescents preoccupied with their bodies Develop images of what their bodies are like Girls   less happy with their bodies more negative body images 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  22. 22. Gender Differences in Body Image Boys  More satisfied with their body probably due to muscle mass increases 73% of adolescents healthy selfimage 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  23. 23. Early and Late Maturation Mature earlier or later perceive selves differently  In what ways? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  24. 24. Early & Late Maturation Early maturation increases vulnerability to problems  More likely to: Smoke Drink Depressed Eating disorder Earlier independence from their parents Older friends Date Earlier sexual experiences 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  25. 25. Brain Development Significant Structural Changes Corpus callosum  Thickens Improves ability to process information Corpus callosum connects hemispheres 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  26. 26. Developing Sexual Identity Learning to manage sexual feelings     Sexual arousal Attraction Developing intimacy Regulate sexual behavior To avoid undesirable consequences Sexual identity  Indication of sexual orientation Activities Interests 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  27. 27. Gay & Lesbian Some      Struggle with same sex attraction Mid to late adolescence recognize gay or lesbian Date heterosexually Don’t date at all Bi-sexual attractions 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  28. 28. Timing Beginning of sexual initiation varies by:    Country Gender Socioeconomic characteristics Why? What factors are involved? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  29. 29. Timing 1st intercourse by 17  Females Mali = 72% U.S. = 47% Tanzania = 45%  Males Jamaica = 76% U.S. = 64% Brazil = 63% 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  30. 30. Timing Many early adolescents not emotionally prepared to handle sexual experiences  Why? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  31. 31. Timing Early sexual activity is linked with:  Risky behaviors Drug use Delinquency School-related problems Low parental monitoring linked to:    Early sexual activity More sexual partners Less likelihood of condom use 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  32. 32. Contraceptive Use Contraceptives, many:    Don't use Don’t use consistently Younger adolescents Less likely to use contraceptives 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  33. 33. Adolescent Pregnancy U.S.  1 of highest adolescent pregnancy & childbearing rates in industrialized world Recent declines   Increased contraceptive use Fear of sexually transmitted infections AIDS 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  34. 34. 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  35. 35. Health Risks for Adolescent & Baby More often infants:    Low birth weight Neurological problems Illness More often moms:   Drop out of school Even if resume education Never catch up economically  Risk for rapid subsequent pregnancy 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  36. 36. Characteristics of Adolescent Mothers Low-SES backgrounds Poor students before pregnant Some mothers   Do well in school Have positive outcomes 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  37. 37. Sleep Patterns 9 – 10 hrs best @ 1/2 of adolescents > than 8 hrs sleep  Results in: More tired or sleepy Cranky Irritable Falling asleep in school Depressed mood Drinking caffeinated beverages 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  38. 38. Leading Causes of Death in Adolescence 3 leading causes of death in adolescence    Accidents Homicide Suicide More ½ deaths ages 10 - 19 due to accidents  Most involve motor vehicles 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  39. 39. Leading Causes of Death in Adolescence Homicide  2nd leading cause of death Suicide rate has tripled since 1950s  Why? 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  40. 40. Substance Use & Abuse Drug use declined in U.S. Sizeable declines in alcohol use Main source for prescription painkillers  Parents or of friends’ parents medicine cabinets 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  41. 41. Role of Parents and Peers Drinking alcohol before 14 relates to becoming alcohol-dependent Reduce drug use & alcohol use    Positive relationships with parents Positive relationships with others Fewer friends who use substances 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  42. 42. Adolescent Egocentrism Adolescent egocentrism  Heightened self-consciousness of adolescents Imaginary audience  Always watched Personal fable    Unique Invincibility or invulnerability Linked to risky behaviors Smoking Drinking Delinquency 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age
  43. 43. Information Processing Executive functioning improvement  Higher-order cognitive activities Reasoning Making decisions Monitoring thinking critically Monitoring one’s cognitive progress Improvements in executive functioning permit:  More effective learning  Making decisions  Better critical thinking 10-12 to 18-22 Years-of-Age

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