Life span chapter 7

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Life span chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood 6-11 Years-of-Age PowerPoints developed by Jenni Fauchier, Butchered by Professor Carney
  2. 2. Body Growth & Change  Slow, consistent growth – About 2 - 3” a yr  Gain 5 - 7 lbs. yr – Increases in size of Skeletal systems Muscular systems Size of body organs 6-11 Years-of-Age
  3. 3. Body Growth & Change  Brain – Brain volume Stabilizes end of late childhood – Significant changes continue Ex: Focus due to: – Activation of prefrontal cortex 6-11 Years-of-Age
  4. 4. Focal Activation Prefrontal Cortex  Synaptic pruning – Areas not being used Lose connections – Areas being used Increase in connections 6-11 Years-of-Age
  5. 5. Cognitive control
  6. 6. Motor Development  Middle/late childhood: – Smoother movement – Better coordination – Mastered skills source of pleasure – Boys better gross motor skills  Fine motor skills – Improvement due to increased myelination – Able to write script 6-11 Years-of-Age
  7. 7. Exercise  Research: – Exercise  Important in growth & development. 6-11 Years-of-Age
  8. 8. Children with Disabilities  Gov’t defines learning disabilities – Top of pg. 179 complete def.  3x’s more common in boys  Children excluded: – Severe emotional disorders – 2nd language background – Sensory disabilities  EX: Blind – Neurological deficits 6-11 Years-of-Age
  9. 9. What Are Prevalent Disabilities in Children? Who Are Children With Disabilities?  Elementary school – More sensitive about  “differentness”  @ 14% of U.S. children aged 3 - 21 – Receive special education / related services – 5.6% learning disabilities – 3.0% speech, language impairments – 1.1% mentally retarded – 0.9% emotional disturbance Ages 6 - 11
  10. 10. Children with Disabilities  Learning disabilities definition includes: – Significant difficulty in school-related area  Listening  Thinking  Reading  Writing  Spelling  Math – 80% of LD’s also have reading problems 6-11 Years-of-Age
  11. 11. Specific Disabilities  Dyslexia – Severe impairment in ability to read & spell  Common problem  Writing may be extremely slow & illegible  Spelling errors – Problem matching sounds & letters 6-11 Years-of-Age
  12. 12. Causes of Learning Disability  Nature: Genes – LDs run in families  Nurture: Environmental influences – How can this occur? 6-11 Years-of-Age
  13. 13. Causes of Learning Disability  Unlikely – Reside in 1, specific brain location  More likely – Due to problems such as:  Integrating information from multiple brain regions 6-11 Years-of-Age
  14. 14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  ADHD – Characteristics Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity Easily bored Impulsive – Do not think before acting  Can’t save a penny 6-11 Years-of-Age
  15. 15. Treatment of ADHD  Combination of – Stimulant medication  Ritalin or Adderall – Behavior management  Improves behavior better than either alone Exercise  Thoughts?  – Physicians too quick to prescribe stimulants for kids with milder forms of ADHD? – Bipolar Disorder R/O 6-11 Years-of-Age
  16. 16. Caring for Children Cognitive Development Theory Piaget 7 - 11 yrs. Concrete operational Logic applied, objective/rational interpretations; conservation, numbers, ideas, classifications
  17. 17. Piaget  Can reason logically – Must have a specific example – Has conservation – Can do in head what did on paper – Understand dad has other functions in life 6-11 Years-of-Age
  18. 18. Information Processing  Information-processing – How children process information about their world  Dramatic improvement (6-11) – Sustain & control attention improves 6-11 Years-of-Age
  19. 19. Memory  After age 7 – Short-term memory Not as much of increase as preschool period – Long-term memory Increases with age – Improvements reflect increased  Knowledge  Use of memory strategies 6-11 Years-of-Age
  20. 20. Thinking  Critical thinking – Thinking reflectively & productively – Evaluating evidence  Creative thinking – Think in novel & unusual ways – Unique solutions – May be creative in 1 area, not another 6-11 Years-of-Age
  21. 21. Creative Thinking  Guilford (1967) distinguished between: – Convergent thinking – Divergent thinking 6-11 Years-of-Age
  22. 22. Convergent thinking Divergent thinking 6-11 Years-of-Age
  23. 23. Intelligence  Intelligence – Ability to solve problems & to adapt & learn from experiences 6-11 Years-of-Age
  24. 24. Historic Assessments of Intelligence  Binet & Simon, France 1904 – Developed test  Purpose – Identify children unable to learn in school – Developed concept of mental age (MA)  An individual’s level of mental development relative to others 6-11 Years-of-Age
  25. 25. Wechsler Scales  Overall IQ – Verbal Comprehension Index – Working Memory Index – Processing Speed Index Determines weak & strong areas 6-11 Years-of-Age
  26. 26. Types of Intelligence:  Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of intelligence – 3 forms of Intelligence: 1. Analytical intelligence 2. Creative intelligence 3. Practical intelligence 6-11 Years-of-Age
  27. 27. Triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg Cont.  1. Analytical intelligence – Ability to: Analyze Judge Evaluate Compare Contrast 6-11 Years-of-Age
  28. 28. Triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg Cont.  2. Creative intelligence – Ability to: Create Design Invent Originate Imagine 6-11 Years-of-Age
  29. 29. Triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg Cont.  Practical intelligence – Ability to: Use Apply Implement Put ideas into practice 6-11 Years-of-Age
  30. 30. Triarchic theory of intelligence Sternberg Cont.  In school: – High analytic  Favored in conventional schooling – High creative  Not at top of class, do not conform to expectations – High practical  Do not relate well to demands of school  Often successful as adults 6-11 Years-of-Age
  31. 31. Types of Intelligence: Howard Gardner 8 types of intelligence, or “frames of mind” – verbal – mathematical – spatial – bodilykinesthetic – musical – interpersonal – intrapersonal – naturalist Everyone has all of these intelligences to varying degrees. Which are your strengths? 6-11 Years-of-Age
  32. 32. Interpreting Differences in IQ Scores Most researchers agree: –Genetics –Environment Interact to influence intelligence 6-11 Years-of-Age
  33. 33. Group Differences  IQ tests U.S. children – Score lower than white  African-American  Latinos  Why? – Biased tests? – Cultural differences? – What else? 6-11 Years-of-Age
  34. 34. Creating Culture-Fair Tests  Culture-fair tests – Intended to be free of cultural bias  2 types devised – 1. Items familiar to children from all socioeconomic & ethnic backgrounds  Or – Items that are familiar to the children – 2. No verbal questions 6-11 Years-of-Age
  35. 35. Using Intelligence Tests   Psychological tests are tools Avoid using information in negative ways – Avoid stereotyping & expectations – IQ NOT sole indicator of competence – Use caution in interpreting an overall IQ score 6-11 Years-of-Age

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