Life span chapter 4

1,691 views

Published on

0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,691
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
124
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Life span chapter 4

  1. 1. Emotions? • Why do we have emotions?
  2. 2. Development of Emotions and Personality in Infancy Emotional Development • Emotion: • • • Feeling (affect) of importance (meaning) Complex & varies in intensity +&• Mad • Happy • Effects behaviors • How? Chapter 4 2
  3. 3. Classifying Emotions • Positive emotions • • • • Happiness Joy Love Enthusiasm • Negative emotions • • • • Anxiety Anger Guilt Sadness
  4. 4. Biological, Environmental, & Cross-Cultural Issues of Emotion • Emotions are influenced by • Biology • We all smile • Blind children
  5. 5. Biological, Environmental, & CrossCultural Issues of Emotion • Influenced by • Experiences • Culture • One’s perceptions • Dog walks in the door • Examples?
  6. 6. Biological, Environmental, & Cross-Cultural Issues of Emotion • Facial expressions of basic emotions • Same across cultures • Display rules • When, where, & how emotions should be expressed • Not culturally universal • Examples?
  7. 7. Biological, Environmental, & Cross-Cultural Issues of Emotion • East Asian infants • Display emotion • Less frequently • Less intensive
  8. 8. Emotional Expression & Social Relationships • Interaction with parent • Parent shows emotion • Baby reacts • Baby shows emotion • Parent reacts Chapter 7 8
  9. 9. Emotional Expression & Social Relationships • 1st emotional expressions when reacting with parents • 2 emotional expressions • 1. Crying • 2. Smiling Chapter 4 9
  10. 10. Emotional Expression & Social Relationships • 1. Crying • 1. Basic: • • • 2. Angry: • • Like basic with more excess air forced through vocal chords 3. Pain: • Chapter 4 Rhythmic Hunger cry louder, high pitched, sudden, longer 10
  11. 11. Should Parents Respond to an Infant’s Cries? • Yes! • Parents should soothe a crying infant, especially in 1st year • Helps infants develop • Sense of trust • Secure attachment to caregiver
  12. 12. Emotional Expression & Social Relationships • Smiling • New social skill • 2 types • 1. Reflexive: • • Natural Occurs at 1 mo. • 2. Social: • • Chapter 4 Response to external stimuli 4 – 6 weeks (about 1 ½ mo.'s) 12
  13. 13. Development of Emotions and Personality in Infancy Fear • Fear: Earliest emotion • Appears @ 6 mo.’s • Abused, neglected infants • Shows much earlier • Stranger anxiety: • Intense, 9 - 12 mo.'s Chapter 4 13
  14. 14. Frequency of Stranger Anxiety • Less fearful • • • • Child strangers Friendly, outgoing, smiling strangers Familiar settings Feel secure • Mom’s lap
  15. 15. Development of Emotions and Personality in Infancy Fear • Separation protest: • • • Crying when caregiver leaves Begins @ 7-8 mo.'s Peaks at 15 mo.'s • What does this tell you? Chapter 4 15
  16. 16. Fear • Social referencing • Reading emotional cues in others to determine how to act • Adults enter a party? • End of 1st year • Parent’s facial expression influences exploration of an unfamiliar environment • Mom has a “no” or “yes” look • Improves 2nd year
  17. 17. Dealing with Emotions • 1st yr. develop • Can control emotions: • intensity • duration • Self-soothing • From early infancy • Babies suck thumbs to self-soothe • At 2 • May say things to themselves to self-soothe
  18. 18. Soothing • Caregivers’ actions influence infant’s regulation of emotions • Prevention • Soothe infant before they get into an intense, agitated, uncontrolled state • Later infancy • They direct their attention or distract themselves to reduce arousal
  19. 19. Development of Emotions and Personality in Infancy Temperament • Chess & Thomas: 3 basic types • Easy child: • Positive mood, easily adapts • Difficult child: • Resists change, shows irregular behaviors, reacts negatively (cries) • Slow-to-warm child: • Low mood intensity, low activity level, somewhat negative Chapter 7 20
  20. 20. Chess & Thomas’ Classification 1. Easy child: • Generally positive mood • Quickly establishes regular routines • Adapts easily to new experiences
  21. 21. Chess & Thomas’ Classification • 2. Difficult child: • • • • Reacts negatively Cries frequently Irregular daily routines Slow to accept change • 3. Slow-to-warm-up child: • • • Low activity level Somewhat negative Displays low intensity of mood.
  22. 22. Chess & Thomas’ Classification • Longitudinal investigation • • • • • 40% classified as Easy 10% Difficult 15% Slow to warm up 35% did not fit any of patterns Researchers found these 3 basic temperaments moderately stable across childhood years. • Adulthood? • Your experience?
  23. 23. Gender, Culture, & Temperament • Parents have different reactions to temperament, depending on sex of baby? • Dependent in part on culture? • Is temperament reinforced?
  24. 24. Rouge Test • Lewis & Brooks-Gunn • • • • • • Rouge on infants nose Put in front of mirror Does infant touch nose? Indication of consciousness 18-24 months Usually is a slow process
  25. 25. Rouge Test
  26. 26. Self-Recognition • Self-recognition @ 18 months • Being attentive & positive toward one’s image in mirror • Ability to recognize one’s physical features • This is me • 2nd year
  27. 27. Attachment • Attachment • Close emotional bond between 2 people. • Freud • Infants become attached to person or object that provides oral satisfaction
  28. 28. Harry Harlow
  29. 29. Harry Harlow • Monkeys removed from mothers at birth • 2 surrogate moms • Wire & food • Cloth & warmth • Conclusion • Feeding is not the crucial element in attachment (Freud) but contact comfort is also important.
  30. 30. Class Exercise • Newsletter for infancy • The Big Debate
  31. 31. The Big Debate • Discuss your feelings regarding placing children in child care. • Were you placed in child care? What was it like? • How did you feel about it? • How do you feel about your parents’ decision to place you there? • If you are a parent, have you done the same with your child(ren)? Why? • What are the benefits? • Do you have any concerns about doing so?
  32. 32. • • • • How are they responding? What is the most difficult part? Are there any other alternatives? If you do not have children, do you think you will rely on child care in order for you to be able to work? Why or why not? • What information presented in the text makes you feel comfortable with the idea of placing children in child care? What information concerns you about it?
  33. 33. • What do you think will be the overall effect on society of new generations of children growing up in child-care environments? • If you find them problematic, what might the solution be to accommodate the needs of both the children the parents?

×