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  1. 1. Punctuation<br />Apostrophes, Quotation Marks, & Commas<br />
  2. 2. Apostrophe<br />The two main uses of apostrophes are<br />To show the omission of one or more letters in a contraction (it is usually best to avoid contractions in formal writing)<br />To show ownership or possession<br />
  3. 3. Apostrophe in Contractions<br />A contraction is formed when 2 words are combined to make 1 word.<br />An apostrophe is used to show where letters are omitted. Some common contractions:<br />I + am= I’m it + is= it’s it + not= isn’t<br />I + have= I’ve I + had= I’d who + is= who’s<br />Could + not= couldn’t do + not= don’t they + are= they’re<br />* Will + not has an unusual contraction, won’t.<br />
  4. 4. Apostrophe to Show Possession<br />The ’s goes with the possessor. The thing possessed follows.<br /> Ex. Toni&apos;s jacket<br />A singular word ending in –s shows possession by adding an apostrophe + s.<br /> Ex. James’s jacket<br /><ul><li>Plurals that end in –s show possession by just adding an apostrophe.</li></ul>Ex. My parents’ car is old.<br />
  5. 5. Apostrophe versus Possessive Pronouns<br />Do not use an apostrophe with possessive pronouns (his, hers, its, yours, ours, theirs). They already show ownership.<br />Incorrect: The store lost its’ lease.<br />Correct: The store lost its lease.<br />
  6. 6. Quotation Marks<br />The two main uses of quotation marks are<br />To set off the exact words of a speaker or writer<br />To set off the titles of short works<br />
  7. 7. Quotation of Exact Words<br />Use quotations to show exact words.<br />Ex. “Say something tender,” whispered Lola.<br />Every quotation begins with a capital letter. If it is split, the 2nd part doesn’t start with a capital.<br />Ex. “I love you so much,” she said, “that it hurts.”<br />Commas are used to separate the quoted part of the sentence from the rest.<br />Commas & periods that come at the end of the quotation go inside the quotation marks.<br />
  8. 8. Title of Short Works<br />Use quotations when mentioning the titles of short works:<br />Articles in books, newspapers, magazines<br />Chapters in a book<br />Titles of short stories<br />Titles of poems<br />Titles of songs<br />Titles of essays<br />
  9. 9. Commas<br />Commas are used as follows:<br />To separate items in a series<br />To set off introductory material<br />Before & after words that interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence<br />Before 2 complete thoughts connected by and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet<br />To set off a quotation from the rest of a sentence<br />Certain everyday material<br />* Commas often mark a slight pause or break.<br />
  10. 10. Items in a Series<br />Use commas to separate items in a series.<br />Ex. Do you drink tea with milk, lemon, or honey?<br />The last comma in a series is optional, but often used.<br />
  11. 11. Comma After Introductory Material<br />Use a comma to set off introductory material.<br />Ex. After punching the alarm clock with his fist, Bill went back to sleep.<br />Ex. In addition, he held a broom in his hand.<br />A comma is also used to set off extra material at the end of a sentence.<br />Ex. A sudden breeze came in, driving out the stuffiness.<br />
  12. 12. Interrupting Flow of Thought<br />Use commas before & after words or phrases that interrupt the flow of thought.<br />Ex. That reality show, at long last, has been canceled.<br />You can usually “hear” words that interrupt. Not sure? Remove the words. If it still makes sense, those words are interrupters.<br />
  13. 13. Between Complete Thoughts<br />Use a comma between two complete thoughts connected by and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.<br />Ex. Rick works Monday nights, so he records the game.<br />The comma is optional when the complete thoughts are short.<br />Ex. Grace has a headache and Mark has a fever.<br />
  14. 14. Everyday Material<br />Use commas with everyday material, such as<br />Persons spoken to. Ex. Tina, where are my shoes?<br />Dates. Ex. March 4, 2007, is when Sam was born.<br />Addresses. Ex. He lives at 8 Tan St., Tampa, Florida.<br />Openings & Closings of letters. Ex. Dear Santa, <br />Numbers. Ex. The charity raised $10,000.<br />