ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)


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ACH 216 Lecture 11 (Safety)

  1. 1. Construction Safety Safety Expectation Accidents Causes and Costs Types Prevention Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Admin.
  2. 2. Safety Expectation <ul><li>American workers EXPECT safety in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to maintain safety, everyone needs to cooperate and follows safety rules & regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone must be alert and aware of potential health and safety hazards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The necessity of safe operations and of protecting and conserving lives by preventing accidents is understood by all. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Safety Expectation <ul><li>Accident rates have fallen within the last twenty years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily due to the Occupational Health and Safety Act of 1970 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific regulations for Construction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the construction industry has not improved the record, whereas other high hazard industries have. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION is a hazardous profession. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Safety Expectation <ul><li>It is the CONTRACTOR’s responsibility to see that everything possible is done to provide a safe working environment for the work force and the public in general. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Safety Expectation <ul><li>These factors motivate safe practices by contractors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic costs and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal and regulatory considerations </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Safety Expectation <ul><li>Due to the high potential of accidents on a job site, the contractor must accept the liabilities associated with such hazardous environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors is responsible for committing and maintaining safe practices and accident prevention on the job site </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The heart of safety begins with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions on site </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When an accident or near miss occurs on a job site, the focus tends to be on the conditions of the job site at any given time. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsafe acts or unsafe conditions cause ACCIDENTS </li></ul>
  8. 8. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>Unsafe conditions are hazards that can cause injuries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defective tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unprotected openings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper storage of equipment and materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contaminants brought onto job site without proper containment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>Unsafe acts are caused by the actions of people on the job site </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things a person should have done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informing others about unsafe conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neglecting to inform is neglecting to act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things a person should have done differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If person performs work inappropriately, they are acting improperly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Things a person should not have done at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If person proceeds into hazardous area despite warnings, that person is acting how they shouldn’t </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>Typical causes of construction accidents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neglect of surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to carelessness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much confidence in one’s skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior and work practices </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The cost of accidents are staggering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone always gets hurt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Family suffer emotional and financial implications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possible inability to work due to prolonged pain, increased fear of reinjury and loss of income potential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects worker morale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in case where death of a worker is involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worry over the person’s welfare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of being injured themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guilt over not preventing the accident </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The cost of accidents are staggering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled laborer is removed from job site </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks up productivity of crew </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deplete morale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased insurance costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased bonding levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both can cause competivity issues when bidding future work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECT COSTS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health and Medical expenses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workman’s compensation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Productivity and personnel time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged property, material and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleanup and repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of retraining or replacing skilled labor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDIRECT COSTS : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insurance premiums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ Compensation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medical insurance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penalties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors can be hit with monetary penalties from government agencies such as OSHA and MOSHA (Maryland OSHA) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDIRECT COSTS : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most Workers’ Comp laws limit an employee from suing his or her employer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But, people can file suit against manufacturer of faulty equipment, which in turn can file suit against contractor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called THIRD-PARTY lawsuits </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors can file suit against each other if the accident was caused by any one another </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General public can file suit against contractor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The costs of accidents is high, both directly and indirectly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INDIRECT COSTS : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serious accidents become the headline story for the television news and newspaper </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Company’s reputation is seriously damaged by this type of coverage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention, both public and investigative, will hover around the job site causing work productivity to go down </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Future jobs are compromised when contractors have to explain circumstances around accident </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction accounts for 6% of work force in United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction has 12% of the injuries in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250,000 – 300,000 injuries per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3,000 result in death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Days lost per 100 workers reach 144.5 annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two times national average </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction yearly revenues is about $650 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk and liability insurance averages about 1% of direct labor costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ comp insurance averages about 7% of direct labor costs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct labor costs is about 25% of project costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Accidents Causes & Costs <ul><li>The Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DO THE MATH: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$650 billion x 25% = $162 billion in payroll </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk and liability insurance: $162 billion x 1% = $1.6 billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers’ compensation insurance: $162 billion x 7% = $11.3 billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TOTAL INSURANANCE COSTS = 12.9 billion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Accidents Types <ul><li>Leading type of construction accidents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FALLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEING STRUCK BY SOMETHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEING INJURED BY ELECTRICITY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These make up about 90% of all deaths in the construction industry </li></ul>
  21. 21. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Safety is an ATTITUTE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>starts with top management and is reflected on the job and to the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Housekeeping (keeping site clean of debris) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tool box meetings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adherence to safety measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of equipment and tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intolerance to violations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Implement Safety Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of program is mandated by OSHA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical safety program has two components: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall corporate safety program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site-specific safety program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong corporate program is the foundation of the site safety program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs constant feedback from site to be effective </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Overall corporate program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lay out responsibility of the top executives in regards to safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify methods of measuring performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute control measures through supervisory personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define reporting requirements in the event of an accident </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop safety training for employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute disciplinary warnings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide incentives for those who achieve high standards of safety </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Site-specific programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains the work that must be done at the site before and during the construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety team is identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superintendent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crew Foremen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures are put in place and enforced throughout job </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Site-specific programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout of job site; location of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobsite entrance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobsite trailer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First-aid station </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right-to-know information postings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breakout areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Areas must be clearly visible, well marked and easy to reach </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Site-specific programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout of job site must also consider how the public will be protected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barricades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporary lighting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Walkways and overhead protections </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Site-specific programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program should also include documentation of emergency notification procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who to call in case of emergency with correct phone numbers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Employee Orientation and Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating ignorance of the hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message is delivered in various ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First-day orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-job training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance at OSHA courses and conferences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toolbox meetings </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Safety Meetings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly meetings are held to direct and monitor the effectiveness of the safety program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report of any accident or near miss with review of corrective action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review of new regulatory activity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results of project safety audits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly toolbox meetings conducted by foreman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on spreading info about specific safety hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents and near misses are discussed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updated info regarding hazardous substances/material </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Preventive Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FALL PROTECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required when workers above 6 feet in areas with sides and edges are open </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protections include guardrails, safety nets, personal fall restraints, covers and controlled access zones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hard hats, safety goggles, protective clothing (including pants and boots) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Accidents Prevention <ul><li>Preventive Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide safe conditions for the workers on job sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FIRE PROTECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combustibles and flammables must be kept in special containers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire extinguishers must be available and placed on jobsite </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SIGNS, SIGNALS AND BARRICADES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gives info to workers and general public about hazardous conditions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flag-waving garments, traffic control, visible signs and signals and barricades </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) <ul><li>In 1970, federal government passed the OSHAct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures workers have consistently safe work environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides standards and rules for healthful and safe work environments, tools, equipment and processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OSHA conducts investigations to make sure its standards are being followed </li></ul>
  33. 33. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) <ul><li>OSHA will inspect workplace or jobsite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If violations are found, inspectors will likely issue citation listing violations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infractions and penalties could be imposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fines range from $7,000 to $70,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OSHA ensures compliance through SURPRISE visits to job sites. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to worker’s complaints regarding unsafe conditions </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Government Agencies Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) <ul><li>OSHA allows individual states to establish their own programs for safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States regulations must meet or exceed OSHA’s standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maryland has MOSHA (Maryland OSHA) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. NEXT CLASS Last Lecture: Project Closeout Read pages 212-216 in your books