ACH 121 Lecture 10 (Utilities)


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ACH 121 Lecture 10 (Utilities)

  1. 1. Utilities Water Supply & Plumbing Electrical Systems Mechanical Systems Communications & Media
  2. 2. Water Supply and Plumbing <ul><li>Types of Water Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cased cylindrical 6-inch hole in the ground, lined with a metal pipe that reaches down to a water-bearing stratum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Municipality collects water from river or reservoir, filter and purifies it and distributes in to customers through water mains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater Storage Tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local receptacle collects rain water and purifies it, then pumped into dwelling for consumption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Water Supply and Plumbing Public Water Supply
  4. 4. Water Supply and Plumbing Private Well Supply <ul><li>An electric pump at the base of a deep well or the top of a shallow well operates when the water pressure in the pressure tank drops to a specified level. Water pumped into the tank increases the tank pressure until an upper pressure limit is reached, which shuts off the pump. A pressurized cushion of air in the tank maintains water pressure in the pipes and prevents the pump from being activated every time a faucet is opened in the house </li></ul>
  5. 5. Water Supply and Plumbing <ul><li>Types of Plumbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rough-in requires installation of water lines and sewer lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bath tubs are usually included in the rough-in plumbing do to their size and load bearing on the frame </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finish Plumbing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of toilets (water closets) and sinks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happens when majority of the finishes are completed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Water Supply & Plumbing <ul><li>Interior Plumbing Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper pipes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyvinyl chloride plastic (PVC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-linked polyethylene plastic (PEX) tubing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polybutylene (PB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyethylene (PE) </li></ul></ul>All types of piping can be used for cold water supply lines, but only PB and CPVC are used for hot water lines
  7. 7. Water Supply and Plumbing <ul><li>Hot Water Heaters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas/Propane heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric heater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar heaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tankless water heaters </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Water Supply & Plumbing <ul><li>Sanitary Discharge Plumbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DWV system (drain-waste-vent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Black ABS pipe (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PVC pipe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cast-iron pipe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water draining from sinks, tub/shower and washer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waste piping typically 1½ - 2” dia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toilets are not considered sanitary discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toilet lines are called drain piping or soil lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vents are required to release noxious, flammable sewer gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vent piping extends from cleanouts though house to roof </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Water Supply & Plumbing P-trap: a typical plumbing trap that prevents sewer gases from escaping into the living space
  10. 10. Waste/Vent Piping Copper Water Piping (joints) Why not PVC? Pipe Insulation WC Rough-in
  11. 11. PVC Waste & Supply Piping for kitchen or bath sink
  12. 12. Plumbing Chase Vent Pipe Why “Stack” Plumbing Fixtures? Easier and less expensive if the plumbing is “stacked” vertically; back to back kitchen and bath with 2 nd floor bathroom over head. Framing accommodates area for rough-in plumbing to be ran and vented through to roof.
  13. 13. Plumbing Waste/Sanitary Discharge <ul><li>The main waste line for the plumbing system leaves the house through a hole in the foundation wall. It drains wastewater into either a city sewer line in the street or into a private septic tank. A clean-out plug is provided at the location </li></ul><ul><li>Each plumbing fixture is provided with a u-shaped trap, such as this one for the bathtub, which always is filled with water. This prevents sewage gasses from venting back into the house through the fixtures. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Plumbing Waste/Sanitary Discharge <ul><li>In this drainage system two lavatories are joined to a common vertical waste pipe that carries wastewater down to the main drainage line. Above the fixtures a pipe extends upward to a vent through the roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Two sinks share a drain system but the vent connection of the left-hand sink is above the right sink in order to avoid accidental siphoning out of water from its trap. Copper supply lines for the right-hand sink up through the floor are capped and ready for pressure testing of the rough supply system. Metal straps protect the waste line from puncture. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Nail Protector
  16. 16. This is a built-in clothes washer connection box. It provides an opening into the drain system for the drain hose and a valve controlled set of connections for its hot and cold supply hoses. The typical trap in the white plastic waste line is seen here along with the copper hot and cold supply lines.
  17. 17. Wastewater & Sewage Disposal <ul><li>Sewerage Disposal Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public (municipal) Sewer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underground pipe from dwelling collects waste and delivers it to a sewer treatment plant, where the waste chemically treated and disposed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Septic System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large, underground vessel that accepts sewage, digests it by fermentation and discharges the liquid effluent into subsoil. It has two main components: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Septic tank & drain fields </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires a “perc” test to verify that soil is capable of accepting septic system; level of water table & rate of water absorption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Wastewater & Sewage Disposal Septic System A typical domestic septic system. Raw sewage flows by gravity from the house into a septic tank. After decomposition in the septic tank, a small amount of solid material falls as sludge to the bottom of the tank, and liquid effluent flows to the drain field where it leaches into the soil.
  19. 19. Wastewater & Sewage Disposal Septic System <ul><li>A septic tank is simply a big concrete, fiberglass or steel tank that is buried in the yard. The tank might hold 1,000 gallons (4,000 liters) of water. Wastewater flows into the tank at one end and leaves the tank at the other. </li></ul>A-Wastewater in B-Scum layer C-Water D-Sludge layer E-To drain field
  20. 20. Electrical Systems <ul><li>Electrical Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From outside via pole or underground to meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goes into house from meter to electrical panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From panel, electric is broken into circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 amp & 15 amp for lights, outlets and exhaust fans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 amp & 30 amp for appliances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuits are ran using 10 - 20 gauge electrical wire to different parts of building </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Electrical Systems
  22. 22. Electrical Systems <ul><li>Electrical Supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical wire is split into ground, hot and neutral and connected to outlets, lighting/fan fixtures and appliances </li></ul></ul>Romex consists of an outer plastic sheath (white in this picture) with three wires inside. The black and white wires are insulated, while a bare, third wire acts as the grounding wire for the circuit. Most normal household applications use 12- or 14-gauge Romex.
  23. 23. Electrical Systems <ul><li>The circuit breaker is an absolutely essential device in the modern world, and one of the most important safety mechanisms in your home. Whenever electrical wiring in a building has too much current flowing through it, these simple machines cut the power until somebody can fix the problem. Without circuit breakers (or the alternative, fuses), household electricity would be impractical because of the potential for fires and other mayhem resulting from simple wiring problems and equipment failures. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Electrical Rough-in
  25. 26. Electrical rough-in using flexible metal conduits
  26. 27. The rough boxes for a ceiling fan and for two recessed ceiling lights have been installed. These boxes may be adjusted left or right on their metal strap hangers and tilted so that the lamps project light directly down. They are also designed to keep cool enough to be safely covered with ceiling insulation. A standard rough recessed light box is secured to the ceiling joists with a steel strap and has been wired.
  27. 28. Electrical Systems <ul><li>The location and purpose of all electrical boxes was marked on the framing. From the bottom up are a box for 3 light switches; then a control for operating a skylight and its transformer; at the top left a thermostat; at right, a control for a ceiling fan. Holes for wire are bored through the center of the wall to avoid the possibility of nails penetrating the wires. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Electrical Systems <ul><li>On this wall the rough electrical boxes and wiring have been installed for the rooms on both sides. The boxes are set forward from the stud face to the thickness of the wall finish. Wire ends are curled up in the box and then are stapled to the wall framing. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Mechanical Systems <ul><li>To provide comfort in the form of heated or cooled air to accommodate the temperature change on the outside </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Heating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced-Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electric (heat pump) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas (furnace) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oil (furnace) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant (floor panels & stoves/fireplaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar-thermal (Forced air from heat panels) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Mechanical Systems <ul><li>Types of Cooling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Conditioner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Split-System Unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Window </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chilled-water system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling Tower </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Furnace is in the basement (or attic) and blows warm and cool air through supply ducts to registers in the floor near the exterior wall of each room. The air returns to the furnace through a centrally located air duct with a return grill near the ceiling.
  32. 33. Insulated “Flex” Duct
  33. 34. Duct Anchorage Flexible Duct Insulation Sprinkler Pipe required in 3-story residential construction
  34. 35. Mechanical Systems <ul><li>Electrical, plumbing, and HVAC work is done in two phases - rough and finish. In this conditioned air system the air is delivered to the room through this rough vent. The duct to it is a flexible tube, insulated to reduce energy loss </li></ul>
  35. 36. Mechanical Systems <ul><li>When conditioned air - heated or cooled - is delivered to a room, it is recirculated through a return air grill and duct system to the heating/cooling equipment. This is the rough return air duct. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Exhaust ventilation is required for areas of high humidity such as baths and kitchens. The flexible duct directs air from an exhaust fan over a tub out through a vent in the end wall of the house. The exterior vent is equipped with a flexible damper to avoid back-flow from outside in. The black plastic pipe through the roof is the vent for the plumbing drainage system.
  37. 38. Communications and Media <ul><li>Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired & Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul>
  38. 39. NEXT CLASS Thermal and Moisture Protection Ventilation & Vapor Barriers  Exterior Cladding  Insulation Read Chapter 7