ACH 121 Lecture 08 (Wood Frame)


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  • Advantages Flexible MOST ANY SHAPE ASSIMILATED ALL THE CHANGES - MPE Easily constructed MINIMAL EQUIPMENT & TOOLS Economical STILL COMPETITIVE WITH “FACTORY BUILT” Disadvantages Burns rapidly, Decays if exposed to moisture Changes volume with moisture changes NATURAL PRODUCT - HUMIDITY AFFECTS
  • ACH 121 Lecture 08 (Wood Frame)

    1. 1. Wood Frame Construction Wood Terms Framing Methods Floor, Wall & Roof Systems Innovations in Wood Frame Construction
    2. 2. Light Wood Framing <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burns rapidly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decays if exposed to moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes volume with moisture changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing unattractive (must be covered) </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. History - Prior to mid-1800s <ul><li>Timber Frame (or Timber with Masonry) </li></ul><ul><li>Light Framing for Filler Studs </li></ul><ul><li>Lumber (Trees) Plentiful </li></ul><ul><li>Craftsmen Available </li></ul>
    4. 4. History - mid 1800s <ul><li>Developments Promoting Light Wood Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Powered Saw Mills In Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Made Nails Available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earliest Version of Lt. Wood Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balloon Framing </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Light Wood Framing & the Building Codes <ul><li>Type 5 - Permitted in all Use Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Area & Height Restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, zoning ordinances may not permit in densely populated areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods to Increase Area / Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprinklers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Walls </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Wood Terms Describing the parts of the wood frame structure
    7. 7. Wood Terms <ul><li>Joist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(not “joyce”)-horizontal framing member </li></ul></ul>floor joist ceiling joist
    8. 8. Wood Terms <ul><li>Rafter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sloping framing member for the roof </li></ul></ul>rafter
    9. 9. Wood Terms <ul><li>Stud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical framing member </li></ul></ul>ceiling joist floor joist stud rafter
    10. 10. Wood Terms <ul><li>Beam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal framing member that supports load from other framing members (joist, trusses, rafters) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Column </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical supports for beams </li></ul></ul>beam column
    11. 11. <ul><li>Header </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beam used at openings in floors, walls, roofs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal framing member at opening supporting windows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cripple/Jacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate vertical supports between plates & header or sill </li></ul></ul>Wood Terms sill header cripple/jacks sill cripple/jacks stud jack stud bottom plate top plate
    12. 12. Wood Terms <ul><li>Plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal member supporting other framing members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul></ul></ul>stud bottom plate top plate
    13. 13. Wood Terms <ul><li>Sheathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(not “sheeting”) is the first material covering the framing members (roof, floor & wall) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OSB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4ft x 8ft sheets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Bottom Plate Top Plate - Often Doubled Stud Sheathing Header Framing Terminology
    15. 15. Wood Terms <ul><li>Blocking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid piece of isolated wood (stud) placed between framing members (walls, floors, roofs). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually for support or attachment of something else. </li></ul></ul>blocking
    16. 16. <ul><li>Bridging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material between framing members (continuous) to distribute evenly loads between members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also helps to keep framing members from twisting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid blocking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diagonal bridging </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Wood Terms bridging bridging
    17. 17. <ul><li>It is necessary to brace long joist at midspan against twisting or buckling. The method being used here is solid blocking with short pieces of floor joist. The blocking is staggered so that the pieces may be end nailed to the joists </li></ul>
    18. 18. FRAMING Methods BALLOON vs. PLATFORM
    19. 19. Framing Methods <ul><li>Balloon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studs continue from foundation to roof </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Balloon Framing <ul><li>“ All” Light Wood Framing </li></ul><ul><li>Full Length Studs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost - Less than Timber </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full length studs difficult to handle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hang 2nd floor platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No firestop </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Framing Methods BALLOON FRAMING
    22. 22. Framing Methods <ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studs are between floors and roof </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Platform Frame <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><li>Short, easily handled lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Made entirely of 2” lumber </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic fire stop </li></ul><ul><li>Working platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Nail Connections </li></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGE </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical shrinkage </li></ul>
    24. 24. FLOOR Framing <ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment to the Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheathing </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Attachment to the Foundation <ul><li>Sill Material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decay Resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Termite Shield </li></ul><ul><li>Sill Attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchor Bolts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion Bolts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add’l for Wind / Quake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set to Line & Elevation </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>A double 2X6 sill has been secured with anchor bolts and the 2X10 floor joists - 16&quot; o.c. (38X235 mm, 400 mm o.c.) are toe- nailed to them. A strip of sealant is seen between the wood and concrete. Back-filling is not done on the outside of the basement wall until the floor framing is in place to serve as bracing. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Floor Framing Material Plywood Web Floor Joists 2x Material (larger sizes optional) <ul><li>Trusses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Floor Framing SPACING & SPLICING <ul><li>Spacing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors Influencing Joist Spacing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Loading ( Minimums in Code ) & Span Length </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strength of Joist Material Used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheathing (strength & size) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designation - Inches “o.c.” (on center) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical - 16” oc (Other Typ. Options - 12” or 24”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Splicing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In - Line (w/ metal strap or wood) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lapped </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Wood Joist System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively small joist members closely spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Short spans for subflooring, underlayment and applied ceiling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joists supported by either beams or walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible in form & shape </li></ul></ul>Floor Framing FLOOR SYSTEMS
    30. 30. <ul><li>Wood plank & beam system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger beams spaced further apart and spanned with structural planking & decking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beams supported by girders, posts or walls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to conceal mechanical & electrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated loads and floor openings may require additional framing </li></ul></ul>Floor Framing FLOOR SYSTEMS
    31. 31. Floor Framing BRIDGING & ANCHORAGE <ul><li>Joist Hanger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal - Sized to Joist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anchorage & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bridging </li></ul><ul><li>Material - Wood or Metal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improve Rigidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold Joist Straight & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute Loads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code requires for joists > 2x12 </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plywood or OSB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpendicular to the Floor Joist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails, Screws, Glue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staggered End Joints </li></ul></ul>Floor Framing SHEATHING
    33. 33. Floor Framing SHEATHING
    34. 34. <ul><li>After the floor joist are in place plywood deck is installed on top of them. A mastic adhesive is gunned onto each joist just before the plywood is put down to increase the rigidity of the floor and to prevent squeaks. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Floor Framing STRUCTURE
    36. 36. Floor Framing STRUCTURE
    37. 37. Floor Framing FLOOR PROJECTIONS
    38. 38. Floor Framing FLOOR OPENINGS
    39. 39. Partition perpendicular to joists Partition parallel to joists Floor Framing PARTITION CONNECTIONS
    40. 40. Floor Framing PARTITION CONNECTIONS Partition perpendicular to joists Partition parallel to joists
    41. 41. Floor Framing PARTITION CONNECTIONS Partition perpendicular to joists Partition parallel to joists
    42. 42. WALL Framing <ul><li>SEQUENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stud Spacing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Openings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build in place </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Build on the Platform & Tilt-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Install Wall Sheathing </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Wall Framing Layout FRAMING MEMBER SIZE & SPACING <ul><li>Loads - Vertical & Lateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor Loads, # of Stories, Roof Loads, Wind, Quake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum - Code Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attachment of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Finishes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opening Locations - Doors & Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation Requirements (may elect to use ‘deeper framing to accommodate thicker insulation) </li></ul>
    44. 44. Headers <ul><li>Sizing Factors: Load, Span, Material, Code </li></ul><ul><li>Materials: 2”, Laminated, Composite, Metal </li></ul>
    45. 45. Constructing the Wall Framing <ul><li>Build on the Platform & Tilt-up or </li></ul><ul><li>Build in Place </li></ul>
    46. 46. Wall Systems <ul><li>Wood Stud Walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally made from wall studs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2x4 or 2x6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stud are spaced 16” or 24” o.c. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation, vapor barriers, mechanical fit within the stud cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studs carry vertical loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sheathing or bracing help to make the frame rigid </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Top Plate <ul><li>Double Top Plate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joist Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie Framing Together </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Bottom Plate Anchorage
    49. 49. Wall Systems <ul><li>Wood Post & Beam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses larger and fewer structural members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires diagonal bracing or rigid connections for lateral stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts are laid out in a grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not commonly used in framed construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ log cabin” look </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Wall Systems <ul><li>Masonry/Concrete Bearing Walls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made from CMU or site-cast concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong in compression, require reinforcement for tensile stresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire-resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation, mechanical, electrical contained within wall </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Wall Systems- Corners & Partition Intersections
    52. 52. Corner Framing
    53. 53. Wall Systems- Doors & Windows Openings
    54. 54. Header Supports Double Top Plate Double Header
    55. 55. First Floor Framing
    56. 56. Wall Framing
    57. 57. 1 st Floor Platform & 2 nd Floor Framing
    58. 58. Wall Sheathing <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically – OSB or Plywood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulating Sheathing - (no structural qualities) </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Wall Sheathing <ul><li>Sheathing Purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Joins & stabilizes the structure </li></ul><ul><li>Resists uplift </li></ul><ul><li>Resists racking- Resists lateral forces </li></ul><ul><li>Provides surface for finish material </li></ul>
    60. 60. Wall Systems- Wood Stud Sheathing
    61. 61. Wall Systems- Wood Stud Sheathing
    62. 62. Exterior Sheathing
    63. 63. Exterior Sheathing & Roof Trusses
    64. 64. Innovations in Wood Frame Construction
    65. 65. NEXT CLASS Roof Systems