Recurrent actiongrammar techersguide-1


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Recurrent actiongrammar techersguide-1

  1. 1. Copyright © 2005, 2009 by Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn. All rights re- served. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including pho- tocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval sys- tem, without permission from the author, with the following exceptions: (1) single copies of any portion or of the entire Teacher’s Resource Guide may be made by teachers for their own use; (2) Word Searches and Word Scrambles may be photocopied for classroom use only; (3) transparencies may be made for classroom use only and (4) pages A, B, C and D (immediately following page 144 in the Unit 7 section) may be photocopied for classroom use only to provide the correct material for students who have faulty copies of the Level 2 Workbook (see the following note). Under no circumstances may copies of any part or all of the Teacher’s Resource Guide be sold. Note serious printing error in the Level 2 Workbook for Unit 7: The printers accidentally substituted the Level 1 version of Unit 7 for the Level 2 version in the Level 2 Workbook. We have made an effort toTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 contact people who purchased this faulty version of the first edition of the book, to replace it with a corrected version. If the Workbook(s) you and your students are using do not match the instructions and solutions shown in this Guide, please go to to request replacement copies. Or, if your students are already well into the semester when you see this, use the instructions and pages given in this Guide to correct or replace the faulty pages (66-67, 70, 75 and 76 in the Level 2 Workbook). The corrected pages can be found immediately following page 144 in the Unit 7 section. Please Note: Please email corrections and comments to ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009
  2. 2. Please Note: Instructions framed in single-outlined boxes are only for stu- dents using the Level 1 Workbook, and instructions framed in double-outlined boxes are only for students using the Level 2 Workbook. Any paragraphs not boxed at all are instructions which apply to both Workbooks.TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 Please Note: If you would prefer to use a guide in the form of a physical book instead of downloading this Guide, the entire Guide is included in the author’s book Recurrent Action Grammar (2009). ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION This Teacher’s Guide, and the two Live Action English Interactive Workbooks, Level 1 and Level 2, have been written specifically to accompany the software Live Action Eng- lish Interactive. These two Workbooks are not a series! Students will not use first one book and then the other. Rather, they will use one or the other as they make their way thru the software, depending on their level at the time. It is also recommended that, before beginning with the software and the workbooks, sev- eral of the lessons in the book Live Action English be taught first, to familiarize the stu- dents with the procedures of a TPR action series, and to introduce at least the Present Progressive, the Present, the Simple Past and the Future tenses before venturing into the software and the workbooks. The author usually begins with page 1, “Washing Your Hands” (great for introducing the Present Progressive tense), and continues with at least pages 2-7, introducing one per day (or per two days), before getting to the first unit in the software, “Good Morning.” For a complete guide for beginning with eight of the first Live Action English action se- ries, and an expanded description of the methods used in this guide, see the book Recur- rent Action Grammar (Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009, Command PerformanceTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 Language Institute). What follows are some notes on two unique properties of the Live Action English course and curriculum. 1. REDUNDANCY IN FORM, VARIETY IN CONTEXT—a different way to or- ganize the ESL curriculum While most language learning materials present different language forms (verb tenses, modals, subject/verb agreement, adjective/noun word order, formation of questions and negatives, use of prepositions, etc.) in each chapter or unit of study, along with an intro- duction of new vocabulary and a new context for each, the Live Action English curricu- lum also presents a new context for each lesson (the action series, to be acted out by the students), but uses that context to practice very similar language forms each week. So, for example, the four tenses included in the curriculum, Present Progressive, Simple Pres- ent, Simple Past, and Future, are often all presented in the same unit, all in real time to create a natural context. And most of them are presented in almost every unit (note: the future tense is not presented in the first five units). ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 This built-in redundancy helps the students to acquire the different forms, as they are confronted with them repeatedly thruout the semester. In contrast, many beginning ma- terials leave the introduction of the past tense, for example, to the end of the text, so that the students who are not present for that particular week miss it entirely. In the Live Ac- tion English course, it cannot be missed, as it is presented again and again thruout the semester, often in exactly the same way, differing only in vocabulary and context.
  4. 4. This is uniquely effective for adult non-credit open-entry/open-exit classes where the stu- dents come and go and attend as their adult lives, full of adult responsibilities to jobs and family, allow. But it is even more effective with the students of all ages who attend every class session; they are the ones who reap the full benefit of the natural redundancy this curriculum format provides. And not only are the language forms reinforced by constant repetition in this format, but the vocabulary of the action series is also practiced and re-practiced, first in the context of one verb tense, and then in another and another. So by the end of each unit, the stu- dents have learned and used in context the -ing and past forms of each verb in the par- ticular lesson. But doesn’t this redundancy get annoying or boring to the faithfully regular attenders? Not at all. Because the action series, which provide the context of each day’s class session, are so varied, and so actively and graphically presented and practiced with physical ac- tivity and props and thru natural conversation, that the students have the impression of anything but redundancy. They have been know to excitedly exclaim at the end of a class session that this is their favorite feature of these materials: “I love this class! We do some- thing different every day!”TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 2. MEANINGS of verb tenses thru REAL TIME CONTEXT and CONTRAST Another feature provided by this course that is absent in many language teaching mate- rials is the acquisition of not just the formation of the verb tenses, but also natural, real- time contexts for each verb tense, so that its meaning is clear and can be naturally internalized by the student who is engaged in the activities. In many materials the focus of the exercises is on the formation of the verb tenses, a left-brain intellectual exercise, and the meanings of the utterances being practiced are all but forgotten for the duration of the exercise. In the Live Action English course presented in this Guide, the right side of the brain is engaged in the holistic experience of the physical activity, so that even as the students are being asked to use the correct forms, they are also constantly and fully aware of the mean- ing of what is being said. To further reinforce the meanings of the various tenses, this course is also full of con- trastive exercises where the students are asked to use their cognitive skills to consider the difference in meaning of one verb tense contrasted with another, or often with two or even three other verb tenses. This gets some of the more right-brained students to increase ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 their awareness of the different verb tenses, encouraging them to engage their internal “monitors” of their use of the language (see Krashen).
  5. 5. To bring about real acquisition of English, please read this guide and follow the instructions for the classroom activities. It is hoped that the teachers using the Live Action English Interactive Workbooks with their students will not limit themselves to just the simple written exercises in the Work- books, but will take the time and effort to read, digest, and use the many TPR activities and dictations presented here to help their students to use the language of the action se- ries actively and physically, thereby engaging both sides of the brain for a full and natu- ral language learning/acquisition experience. Please feel free to contact the author at with questions or comments about the use of any activity or exercise in this Guide. As mentioned above, if you would prefer to use a guide in the form of a physical book instead of downloading this Guide, the entire Guide is included in the author’s book Recurrent Action Grammar (2009). That book includes additional material and information on the methodology used in the Guide, forming a complete beginning course. ReferencesTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 Asher, James J. 1996. Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher’s Guidebook. 5th ed. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks. García, Ramiro. 1988. Instructor’s Notebook: How to Apply TPR for Best Results. 2nd ed. Los Gatos, CA: Sky Oaks Krashen, Stephen D. 1981. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Perga- mon Press. Ray, Blaine and Contee Seely. 2008. Fluency Through TPR Storytelling. 5th ed. Berkeley, CA: Command Per- formance Language Institute. Romijn, Elizabeth Kuizenga. 1998. Puppies or Poppies? ESL Bingo. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance Language Institute. Romijn, Elizabeth Kuizenga. 2005. Live Action English Interactive Workbooks, Levels 1 and 2. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance Language Institute. Romijn, Elizabeth Kuizenga and Contee Seely. Live Action English Millennium (3rd) ed. 1997. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance Language Institute. ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 Romijn, Elizabeth Kuizenga, Contee Seely, Larry Statan, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith and Robert Wachman. 2008. Live Action English Interactive, v.1.4. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance. Seely, Contee and Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn. 2006. TPR Is More Than Commands—At All Levels. 3rd ed. Berkeley, CA: Command Performance Language Institute.
  6. 6. 7 UNIT 1 Good Morning Introducing Vocabulary The Action Series Imperatives Text Page 1: Action Series from the Software The action series of imperatives at the beginning of each unit are basically vocabulary lessons which establish the vocabulary at the beginning of each class session in which this vocabulary will be used. This is to ensure that everyone is clear on the meaning of all these words before continuing on to expand their use in the ensuing activities. The final objective for these vocabulary lessons is for each student to be able to tell another student to perform the series (Memorization is not necessary! Students can be reading the se- ries.) and, conversely, to be able to respond physically to another person’s delivery of the commands.TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 GOOD MORNING 1. Wake up! 2. Stretch and yawn and rub your eyes. 3. Get up. 4. Do your exercises. 5. Wash your face. 6. Get dressed. 7. Make the bed. 8. Eat breakfast. 9. Read the newspaper. 10. Brush your teeth. UNIT 11. Put on your sweater. 1 12. Kiss your family goodbye. 13. Leave the house. ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009
  7. 7. 8 To enact this series of actions in the classroom: Receptive Stage: Listening with Books Closed 1. Setting up (gather the props and set up before class begins) Set up one area of the room as the bedroom, with a chair with a small blanket (a doll blanket or baby blanket will do) and a small pillow. Set up another area as the bathroom, with a toothbrush, towel, bar of soap, and a picture of a sink. Set up one more area as the kitchen, with a basic place setting (plate, fork, spoon, cup), and a newspaper on a table or desk. 2. Initial demonstration of series Sit in the “bedroom” chair with your head on the pillow (behind you against the wall, for example) and the blanket over your shoulders and chest. Tell the students that it is 7:00 in the morning and everybody is sleeping. Tell everyone to close their eyes (and close your own!). When everyone is quiet, make the sound of the alarm clock, and announce each im- perative from the series just as you begin to demonstrate it yourself. Encourage the stu- dents to do the actions too. Do not allow them to talk or repeat your words at this time. At the end of the series, ask for a volunteer to take your place and to repeat the actions,TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 using the props, as you tell him or her what to do (reading the series). 3. Group live action Read thru the series again several times without performing the actions yourself, to check students’ comprehension. They should all be responding physically (pantomim- ing, without props) to each imperative. If they cannot, repeat step 2 until they can. Receptive Stage: Reading 4. Reading and listening with books open Have the students open their books to page 1, and read along silently as you read the series again. Ask them still not to repeat, but only to listen while you read it. This is also the time to ask for questions about the meanings of the words. Hopefully, most of the questions can be answered with props and/or actions, using the context of the situation presented in the action series. UNIT Expressive Stage: Speaking 1 5. Oral repetition and question/answer period ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 Now have the students repeat the words of the series after you. Pay particular atten- tion to individual words that give the students problems, and to intonation and words that run together in natural speech. Ask for questions about the pronunciations of in- dividual words.
  8. 8. 9 6. Student(s) speaking/other person responding Ask for a volunteer to read the series to you, as you respond appropriately to each com- mand. Or, as the items of the series are numbered, assign each number to a different stu- dent to read in order, as you respond physically to the commands. Next, with the whole class looking on, have one student read the series while another student responds physi- cally. 7. Students all working in pairs When you feel that the students are clear enough on the language of the series (com- prehending, responding, pronouncing), ask them to work in pairs or threes, one telling (reading) what to do and the other(s) listening and responding physically. Circulate around the room, listening for problems, answering questions, encouraging reluctant or hesitant students to try it, or just observing all the different ways that different students find to fix the new words in their minds. The first six steps are used as a method of preparing students to be ready to work effec- tively and independently in the seventh and final step (pair practice). These first six steps are only suggestions and can be changed or alternated. You may experiment and do what- ever you find necessary to properly prepare students for step 7. If you run out of time during the class session, start at the beginning again at the next session. The review will go faster and make things easier for everybody.TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 Note: This action series is shown in a video at the beginning of the first unit of the software (the “Watch” screen). Altho this action series is quite easy to depict with props in the classroom, you may wish to show the video as part of your ini- tial presentation of the action series. If you don’t have access to the software, but do have access to the Internet, you can find this video on YouTube as “LAEi Good Morning.” UNIT 1 ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009
  9. 9. 10 Practicing the Present Progressive Tense The Pantomime Game Subject Pronouns, Possessive Adjectives What...? Questions with Long Answers Introducing the English Auxiliary Verb System Text Page 2: Present Progressive, Long Answers What follows is a description of a way to introduce and drill the present progressive tense. In subsequent units, when the Pantomime Game comes up again, you will be referred back to these pages for using this game to introduce and drill this tense. The more your students have played this game (in the different contexts of the various action series), the less instruction will be required in terms of prompting students with the appropriate responses, and of explaining how to form the verb tense. Be careful not to abandon these instructions too early, however. Students of any new skill, especially a skill as complicated as language, need a lot of repetition; that’s what this book is all about! Lesson—The Pantomime Game Pantomime, without props, one of the actions of the “Good Morning” series on page 1, asking students at the same time, “What am I doing?” Low Beginners will probably answer with the appropriate line from the series, in the nowTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 inappropriate imperative form, and High Beginners may answer this way too. For example, if you are washing your face, and ask them, “What am I doing?” They may answer with “wash your face.” Encourage them, saying: THAT’S RIGHT, I’M WASHING MY FACE UNIT 1 After they’ve heard your present progressive version several times, write this verb form on the board and explain that you’re no longer giving instructions, as you were doing on page ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 1 (imperative form), but are now talking about an action that is happening right now, at the same time they’re talking. Have them repeat the appropriate response in the second person. In other words, when you ask “What am I doing?” have them repeat, “You’re wash- ing your face.” Repeat this with every action in the series, reminding them to use the -ing forms of the verbs as they answer you. This is an introduction to the present progressive tense for users of the Level 1 Workbook and a review of the tense for users of the Level 2 Workbook.
  10. 10. 11 Next, have members of the class do certain actions, and ask them what they’re doing. Better yet, ask them to do any action from the lesson—this is much more interesting and makes a game of it: “Luis, show us a different action from the same lesson; no, don’t say anything, just do one action. Look, everybody, look at Luis. What is he doing?” Point out (or in the case of High Beginners, remind them) that the verb to be is used here, and re- view its various forms, if necessary. Along with the present progressive, introduce or review possessive adjectives: “Luis, wash your face. What’s he doing?” “He’s washing his face.” “Anne, wash your face. What’s she doing?” “She’s washing her face.” “Look, everybody, what am I doing?” “You’re washing your face.” Introduction to the Written Exercise (for Level 1) While presenting and playing the Pantomime Game, you may have written the pos- sessive adjectives on the board. If you have not already done so, list them now with their corresponding subject pronouns: I myTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 you your she her he his we our they their Then have the students open their books and complete the Long Answer exercise on page 2. Exercise (or Dictation) (for Level 2) When you are satisfied that the students have a fairly good grasp of how to formulate the answers to the questions in the Pantomime Game, have them open their books and complete the exercise on page 2. If they experience quite a bit of difficulty with it, or you expect that they will, dictate the answers to them instead. Or ask the first ques- UNIT tion, pointing to the illustration there, and after one student, or the whole class, has answered the question, tell them to write or complete the answer to number 1, before 1 going on in a similar way to item number 2. ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 1. What is she doing? She’s washing her face. 2. What are you doing? I’m rubbing my eyes. 3. What are they doing? They’re brushing their teeth. 4. What is he doing? He’s putting on his sweater. 5. What are we doing? We’re doing our exercises. 6. What am I doing? You’re kissing your family goodbye.
  11. 11. 12 For either level, the question of consonant doubling may come up at any time. See notes for text page 46, on page 97, for tips on teaching or reviewing this rule as well as the rule to drop silent -e. Correcting the Exercise After the students are finished, write the answers on the board so that the students can correct their own work, or go around the room and check their work yourself. You can also have individual students volunteer to come to the board to write one item each. (This can take a lot less time than just one person—you!—writing the whole exercise, because this way several students may write their respective items at the same time.) After students are finished and the entire exercise is on the board, go over each item together, asking the students if anything needs correcting. Dictation At this point, Low Beginning students can be given a dictation: dictate the questions and answers of the exercise on page 2, or the answers only (according to the capabili- ties of your students). Students can write the dictation on a separate piece of paper or on page 9 of their workbooks. The dictation is an exercise, not a test! Students with literacy problems (even if just mild literacy problems) should be allowed to refer to the exercise as often as needed, even to the extent of copying, to ensure that they write the sentences correctly. In this way they will begin to acquire experience with the fact that English spelling does notTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 represent the spoken word very accurately, as they hear, see and write the words all at the same time. After the dictation, have students correct their own, or a classmate’s paper, comparing it to the corrected exercise on page 2. Pronunciation Practice When the exercise has been corrected, have the students repeat the questions and an- swers after you, to practice their pronunciation. Pair Practice Have the students practice the questions and answers in pairs. Suggested instructions: Now practice speaking, two people together. One person can read the questions (with beautiful pronunciation!). You’re the teacher. Point to the picture, read the question and listen to your friend’s an- swer to see if it’s correct. Help your friend if the answer is not correct. UNIT The other person is the student. Look at the picture and answer the question, but don’t read the answer! Only look at the photo in your “teacher’s” book. 1 Your “teacher” will help you if you are not correct. Only one person is supposed to read from the book! ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 If you have a problem or a question, please ask me. If necessary, demonstrate this process with two students who understand, or who can catch on quickly, or you can demonstrate it yourself with one student. Group Work Here is an alternative to pair practice. It may be a bit tricky to set this up the first few
  12. 12. 13 times you try it with each class, but the effort is well worth it, as it can be a very pro- ductive practice session, with the students taking the initiative themselves to direct their own practice. It also uses the real-time context of live action instead of the tiny photo- graphs in the Workbook. Have the students get up and move their chairs into circles to form groups of 4 or 5. If pos- sible, make sure each group has at least one “he” and one “she” so the group will be prac- ticing all pronouns. Then have them tell each other to do (pantomime) an action (by reading one item of the action series on page 1). While one or more of the students are doing the action, ask the rest of the group the question. Demonstrate this with one group before everyone tries this. For example: 1. (To a female student) Wash your face. (S washes her face.) (To rest of group) What’s she doing? She’s washing her face. 2. (To one student) Rub your eyes. (S rubs his/her eyes.) (To same student) What are you doing? I’m rubbing my eyes. 3. (To two students) Brush your teeth. (Ss brush their teeth.) (To rest of group) What are they doing? They’re brushing their teeth. 4. (To a male student) Put on your sweater. (S puts on his sweater.) (To rest of group) What’s he doing? He’s putting on his sweater. 5. (To whole group) Do your exercises. (Everyone, including the speaker, does theirTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 exercises.) (To whole group) What are we doing? We’re doing our exercises. 6. (S pantomimes kissing family) (To rest of group) What am I doing? You’re kissing your family goodbye. Emphasize that this is the present progressive tense, so it’s important to have an action first, and then, during the action, to ask the question. While students are practicing, circulate to offer any help needed. If a group is trying to discuss everything in their own language(s), again direct them thru the exercise yourself until they catch on. If one student clearly understands the proce- dures, ask that one student to be the “director” of the group, but instruct him or her not to try to explain what to do, but just to take on the role of the teacher and to start doing it. Before you go on to the next group, watch to see that they’re getting it, and then tell them to continue practicing, but to speak only English. UNIT Text Page 3: Present Progressive, Short Answers 1 The Importance of the English Auxiliary Verb System ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 The English system of auxiliary verbs is perhaps the most difficult aspect of English grammar for speakers of other languages to learn, partly because of its complexity, but also because of the fact that it is so foreign—few languages have anything like it, espe- cially the way auxiliaries are used alone in English phrases, e.g.: I do, You are, Should we? Neither have they. Because of this difficulty, and because the auxiliary verb system is so fundamental to understanding the English use of verbs and verb tenses, it is useful to
  13. 13. 14 familiarize students at the lowest levels of English acquisition with its use in normal con- versation. One simple way we use it overtly is in Short Answers—simple if you limit your- self to one or two auxiliaries at a time. Students often get all the way to advanced stages of fluency without ever understanding even this elementary use of auxiliaries, answer- ing yes/no questions with a large variety of auxiliaries but never selecting the correct one! (Did you see him? Yes, it is. Will they recognize you? No, they don’t.) However, if students are guided thru the correct selection of person, tense and auxiliary verbs from the most rudimentary levels of their acquisition of English, they come out with an implicit understanding of the way the system works, and they have no problem sorting thru all the choices available to them later at the more advanced levels. What is so fundamentally important about the English auxiliary system and what is the value of spending so much time and effort to help students grasp it? English auxiliaries mark person, tense, voice, and modality—concepts which in other languages are marked in entirely different ways, such as with dozens of verb forms. In English, what our pal- try four or five forms of each verb lack in number, our auxiliary system makes up for in intricacy. Until ESL students understand this basic difference between our verb system and their own, many things we do with verbs in English elude them as subtlety or out- right mystery. For a more thorough treatment of the subject of teaching auxiliary verbs at all levels, and the many ways in which we use them, see Chapter 11 of Puppies or Poppies? ESL Bingo (Romijn, 1998) by the same author. Several of the Short Answer Bingo games fromTEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 that chapter are adapted in this Teachers Resource Guide, beginning with one of the simplest and easiest games, and gradually increasing in difficulty as you and your stu- dents work your way thru this guide. The following exercise introduces the English auxiliary system in a very simple way by teaching Short Answers with only the verb to be in the present tense. Introduction: Yes/No Questions with Short Answers With students’ books closed, ask a student to do an action from the lesson. (You can spec- ify an action or let the student select one.) While the student is pantomiming the action, ask the rest of the class a yes/no question. For example, if the student is doing his exercises, ask the class, “Is he eating breakfast?” When the students say “no,” teach them the short answer form, “No, he isn’t.” Next ask two students to rub their eyes. Ask the rest of the class: UNIT ARE THEY RUBBING 1 THEIR EYES? ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 When the students say “yes,” teach them the short answer form, “Yes, they are.” With the students’ books still closed, go thru the entire exercise on page 3 in this way, elicit- ing an action from one or two students, and eliciting the correct short answer from the class.
  14. 14. 15 Point out that if the question begins with is, the short answer must end with is, and if the question begins with are, the short answer must end with are. The students may also need to have it pointed out that the person (he, she, they, we) must be the same in both question and answer as well. Notice that you have just done the entire written exercise on page 3 orally, before the students have even looked at the page. So now they will open their books and write the answers they have already heard in the context of real-time action. Doesn’t this make the written exercise too easy? Not if short answers are new to them. They’ve begun with live action they can see and understand, they’ve been shown how to answer your ques- tions with the correct form in this meaningful context, and they’ve practiced using these forms in several real-life examples. They still have to make the leap to writing the new forms down for the first time ever. You will see this technique of guiding the students orally thru a written exercise first, and thus providing them with the answers before they see the exercise, used many times in this book. It is a way of instructing the students with very small steps to successful completion of the exercise. As the course progresses, the students will require fewer and fewer of these tiny steps with each subsequent return to each grammatical form. So now finally have the students open their books and complete (for Level 1) or answer (for Level 2) the questions on page 3 with short answers, after you all do item 1 together. Point out that the top photo is for items 1 and 2, the second photo is for numbers 3 and 4, the third is for numbers 5 and 6, and the fourth is for numbers 7 and 8.TEACHER’S RESOURCE GUIDE for Live Action English Interactive WORKBOOKS 1 & 2 1. Is she rubbing her eyes? No, she isn’t. 2. Is she getting dressed? Yes, she is. 3. Are they reading the newspaper? Yes, they are. 4. Are they brushing their teeth? No, they aren’t. 5. Is he leaving the house? No, he isn’t. 6. Is he stretching and yawning? Yes, he is. 7. Are we eating breakfast? No, we aren’t. 8. Are we making the bed? Yes, we are. Correcting the Exercise as on page 72 Dictation: Dictate the questions and answers of the exercise. Students can write the dictation on a separate piece of paper or on page 9 of the Level 1 workbook . Upon completion, have vol- unteers come to the board, each writing a different item, so that you can correct them with UNIT the class’ help, and the students can correct their own papers. Note on Giving Dictations: 1 Don’t hesitate to repeat words and sentences in each item many times. This is excellent ©Elizabeth Kuizenga Romijn, 2009 aural input during an activity in which the students are very focused on listening to de- tails, but at the same time are very aware of the meaning and content of the sentences they’re hearing. Make the most of it by repeating as many times as needed. Also, vary the speed of delivery, alternating speaking slowly and precisely, with using a natural, con- versational speed, and elision. Pronunciation Practice as on page 12 Pair Practice as on page 12