<ul><li>What is cyber-bullying? – Cuál es acoso en la net? </li></ul><ul><li>Cyber-bullying refers to deliberately hurting someone by sending messages to, or information about that individual using electronic communication technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies include mobile phones and the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication can be via text-messaging, email, web sites such as MySpace & YouTube , chat rooms, blogs, etc. </li></ul>
Why investigate? - Por qué investigar? • Incidence world-wide is increasing. • More detailed research is required to reveal the full extent of the problem. • Causal factors should be investigated (familial, cultural, etc.). • Consequences can be tragic, resulting in death from suicide or murder. • Coping strategies for victims need to be developed. • Intervention strategies for bullies need to be developed.
Overview – Visión general A survey was conducted at Lavalla Catholic College. It was found that cyber-bullying was occurring, with both girls and boys being victims and perpetrators. Mobile phones and the Internet were being used .
Cyber-bullies in action! — Acoso en la net en plena acción! (Simulation only)
Introduction – Introducción There is a limited amount of research on cyber-bullying, with a variety of findings. It appears that the incidence of cyber-bullying is increasing world-wide: • The incidence of victims ranges from 7% in the United States (2004) to 29% in Canada & China (2007). • The incidence of bullies ranges from 11% in Australia (2005) to 19% in Canada & China (2007).
Numerous authors express the need for educating adults and consulting youth in order to devise intervention strategies. Purpose of the current research : to expand current body of findings with the view of developing helping strategies for victims and prevention strategies for potential bullies.
Method – Metodologia 136 students aged 14 to 18 years participated by completing a self-administered survey. There were 14 items on the questionnaire designed to identify victims, bullies and the more common forms of cyber-bullying.
Sample Question (Victim) Have you received a nasty, deliberately hurtful text message on your mobile phone? A. never B. once or twice C. three to five times D. more than five times Sample Question (Bully) Have you posted mean, nasty or embarrassing information, pictures or videos about someone on an Internet site (e.g. MySpace) ? A. never B. once or twice C. three to five times D. more than five times Total confidentiality was maintained to encourage honest responses.
Results – Resultados • The incidence of victims was 1:4 • The incidence of bullies was approximately 1:7 • Boys have been bullied in more ways than girls • More photos or videos about boys have been sent to mobile phones
Una pregunta para usted: What is the most common form of bullying? Answer: Enoph elibom a ot gnigassem- txet ( Una pista: Read back-to-front! )
Conclusions – Conclusiónes The incidence of cyber-bullying among students was significant: During the previous three to four months 25% had been victims and 14% admitted to being perpetrators. Coping strategies for victims and intervention practices for bullies need to be implemented .
Future directions – Hacia dondé vamos • More global research to identify the full extent of the problem. • Identification of reasons why teenagers engage in covert aggression. • Education of older generation for intervention purposes. • Consultation with youth on how to combat the problem. • Development of cyber-safety policies including legislation. • Devising intervention strategies to reduce psychological harm for victims and victim bullies. • Identifying factors that lead to bullying so that the activities of bullies may be redirected to more pro-social behaviour.
References – Referencias Bamford, A. (2004). Cyber-bullying. AHISA Pastoral Care National Conference, Melbourne, Australia . firstname.lastname@example.org Campbell, M. (2005). Cyber-bullying: An old problem in a new guise? Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling 15 (1) , 68-76 Child Health Promotion Research Unit (2007): http://chpru.ecu.edu.au/research/current/cyber-bullying.php
References – Referencias Li, Q. (2007). Bullying in the new playground: Research into cyberbullying and cyber victimisation. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23 (4) , 435-454 Ybarra, M.L., & Mitchell, K.J. (2004). Youth engaging in online harassment: Associations with caregiver-child relationships, Internet use, and personal characteristics. Journal of Adolescence, 27 , 319-336
Acknowledgements Sponsorship thanks: Village Cinemas (Morwell), Edith Cowan University , Trafalgar Lions Club A personal thank you to Melissa Epstein of Edith Cowan University for her interest and support. Thank you also to Colin Purrington for his amusing and excellent article on how to design a scientific poster: Purrington, C.B. (2006). Advice on designing scientific posters . http://www.swarthmore.edu/NatSci/cpurrin1/posteradvice.htm. Accessed 06/03/2008