Shopper Perceptions in the face of global competition – Case of Shopping Centers of Kolkata, India


Published on

Shopper Perceptions in the face of global competition – Case of Shopping Centers of Kolkata, India

Published in: Business, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Shopper Perceptions in the face of global competition – Case of Shopping Centers of Kolkata, India

  1. 1. Shopper Perceptions in the face of global competition – Case of Shopping Centers of Kolkata, India Present affiliation of Authors Dr. Atish Chattopadhyay Professor of Marketing, SPJIMR, India And Dr. Kalyan Sengupta Professor of IT and Systems, IISW&BM, Kolkata, India Presented at the Conference on Global Competitiveness at IIM-Kozhikode, 25-26 March, 2006) 1
  2. 2. 1. IntroductionThe retailing industry in India, estimated at INR 930,000 crores (2003-04) is expected togrow at 5 percent per annum. The size of the organized retailing market in 2004 stood atINR 28,000 crores, thereby making up a mere 3 percent of the total retailing market. Theretail revolution in India has provided a much wider range and depth of products for theIndian consumers along with a choice of retail destination that reflect global formats.The late 1990s witnessed the proliferation of well endowed modern malls which causedthe older shopping destinations to move down the scale. Shopping malls have nowbecome the visible face of Indian retail. There are over two hundred malls in planning orunder construction stage throughout India. Over 35-40 million square ft. of new retailspace may come to the market in the next 12-24 months (including re-developments) inover 50 cities across the country. Further, by 2010, 500-600 malls occupying approx 120million square ft. are at various stages of planning at this point in time. Indian retailinghave witnessed fundamental shifts in the shopping behavior of customers (India RetailReport, 2005).United States which has been a fore runner in the evolution of the organized retailingwitnessed the emergence of malls in the 1950s. In 1960s, Express highways tookorganized retail to smaller town in US like the Wal-Mart (1962) and Gap (1969). In1970s value retail chains gained prominence and competition dictated the course in theUS. This was the period when growth of retail gained at the expense of competition andvolumes became the name of the game. The 1980s saw retail developments in the US intwo distinct fronts – Off-price retailing as compared to Mega Malls with unique shoppingexperience. It may be noted that the evolution of organized retail may hold certainlessons for retailers in developing economies like India.With the imminent opening of the retail sector by the Government of India and easing ofFDI norms, global retailers like Wal-Mart, Carrefour, Tesco and Home Depot will in allprobability enter India. “The battle with Wal-Mart is not about money, or low prices, butfor the mind space of customers” says Kishore Biyani of Pantaloons, India (Dasgupta,2005). Experts opine that right positioning will be the key to success of shopping malls 2
  3. 3. in India in the face of increased competition. The paper aims to study the existingcustomer perception of the shopping centers of in the city of Kolkata, India.2. Background LiteratureConsumers today have a growing choice of shopping destination which includesfreestanding stores, retail parks, malls, specialty and festival centers, and ancillaryretailing (Guy, 1994), as well as an increasing variety of home shopping by mail,computer, television and telephone. Shopping centers can no longer rely on a captivemarket, and there is an increasing need for centers to compete and to market themselveseffectively.Since the early – 1990s the need for effective marketing of shopping centers has beenbrought into sharp focus. In extreme cases, some schemes have required repositioning orconversion to other land uses (Houlder, 1992). Some American mall operators have beenaccused of marketing myopia (Turchiano, 1990) and centers have been urged to strive formarket dominance as never before (Gruen, 1993). Shopping centers need to plan for thenewly competitive environment.Definition of “shopping centers” focus on their fundamental differences compared totraditional high street retail locations – i.e. planned developments that are managed andmarketed as a unified whole (Guy, 1994). Often implicit is the suggestion that shoppingcenters are coherently and proactively marketed, and that centers typically have a strongmarketing profile (Guy, 1994). However, many studies have pointed out the noticeablelack of marketing orientation among shopping centers (e.g. Cooke, 1993). Howard(1995) blames the property management emphasis in the industry and there is alsoconfusion as to what marketing actually means in the context of shopping centers.The marketing task for managed shopping centers may be viewed as offering of a servicefor targeted consumers to gain convenient access to a desirable mix of retailers within themanaged environment that provides a satisfying and safe shopping and leisure experience(Kirkup and Rafiq, 1999). This definition differentiates “managed shopping centers” 3
  4. 4. from other forms of shopping destinations like High Streets, Department Stores, homeShopping etc. The marketing task for shopping centers includes major decisions to bemade prior to the opening of the center – relating to design of the center, location andmarket positioning. There exist a range of studies on the design and development process (e.g. Dawson,1983; Beddington, 1991), center success and failure factors (e.g. Ordway et al., 1988),occupancy dynamics (Kirkup and Rafiq, 1994a), and discussions on particular aspects ofshopping center management such as tenant relationships and their implications formanagement. However, little research has been undertaken on the marketing issues withrespect to shopping centers.The current research addresses the issue of understanding the shopper’s needs andshopping behavior, so that shopping center managers can meet today’s market challengeseffectively.3. MethodologyThe research was carried out empirically by using a number of shopping centers ofsimilar nature. Our approach was comparative in nature. The steps adopted in our studywere (1) identification of the shopping centers under study and their profile (2) customersurvey to measure perception of the shopping centers (3) interpretation of marketingstrategies of shopping centers in the light of the perception of shoppers.In step 1, we looked for a homogenous market in the city of Kolkata, which wasdominated by small firms and important in terms of growth and opportunity. In step 2 wewere concerned about the shopper perception with respect to the shopping centers. Forthis purpose, a customer survey was conducted. A questionnaire was designed for thepurpose of extracting information on the following – (1) customer characteristics ofrespondents (2) General characteristics of the shopping centers (3) Ratings of a numberof selected parameters to evaluate customer’s perception on a five point scale. Also, levelof importance for such individual parameter was collected on a five point scale. The 4
  5. 5. overall quality factors in our case were derived through factor analysis technique. Clusteranalysis was then performed to identify grouping among shoppers and their orientationtowards specific factors which influences choice. Finally, the marketing strategies of theshopping centers were evaluated qualitatively.As mentioned earlier, with the imminent opening of the retail sector by the Governmentof India and easing of FDI norms, shoppers’ perception may be critical the success factor.Thus, it was important to study present perception of shoppers of the shopping centers inIndia. A set of prominent shopping centers in the city of Kolkata were chosen, namely 22Camac Street, Forum, Vardaan, New Market, Metro Plaza, City Center and Metropolitan(abbreviated names CS, Frm, Vdn, NM, MP, CC, Mpol).Typical marketing strategies of the shopping centers were studied through case studymethod. The case studies were developed based on business reports and direct interviewswith top level managers/owners of the firms based on their perception of the targetsegment and competition. Also, the shopping centers were studied by way of visits,collection of catalogs, promotional materials like advertisements etc.The consumer survey was based on simple random sampling. Target population wasthose who visited the shopping centers in the city of Kolkata. The study was based ondata collected in 2005 through a sample survey which included respondents’demographic attributes, shopping motivations, situational factors and purchase behaviors.The sample frame consisted of existing large shopping malls where customers wereinterviewed as they left the centers. Randomized selection procedure was used wherebyinterviewers walked from exit door to exit door consecutively, approaching the shopperas he or she exited the mall (Sudman, 1980). These respondents were approached andfrom which 408 agreed to be interviewed. Finally, 389 respondents filled in thequestionnaire, which was the sample size. Through the questionnaire, an attempt wasmade to gather facts about the most recent purchase and perception of the shoppingcenters the respondents were aware of. As far as the scale for measuring the perception ofthe shopping centers was concerned, a pilot survey was conducted to identify the 5
  6. 6. parameters. In the pilot survey, a set of 16 parameters was given to respondents and only12 parameters were found to be suitable for the purpose.4. Result and Discussions4.1 Profile of the Shopping CentersKolkata was flooded by numerous mall projects recently. Forum was promoted bySunsam Properties on Elgin Road, City Center in Salt Lake by Bengal Ambuja andMetropolitan by Calcutta Metropolitan Group on the E M Bypass. The other popularshopping centers of the city are Vardaan Market, Metro Plaza, 22 Camac Street and NewMarket. New Market is the oldest and located in the heart of the city since the British Raj.Vardaan and Metro Plaza are more of shopping complexes than organized malls. VardaanMarket is a combination of small retail stores with various types of merchandise. MetroPlaza is also developed on the same format that of Vardaan Market and comprises ofsmall retail stores with very few branded retail formats. 22 Camac Street is a combinationof office complexes, eating joints and retail stores. It houses offices of Bengal Ambuja,Glaxo Consumer Division and Ernst & Young etc. It also houses large branded retailformats like Westside, Pantaloons and Planet M. and also Food Joints like Pizza Hut andGrain of Salt. Most importantly 22 Camac Street is located among the other officecomplexes making it a very accessible shopping location for working executives. MetroPolitan is located on the EM By-pass and houses Big Bazar as its anchor. City Centre atSalt Lake houses a lot of national as well as international branded stores such asShopper’s Stop, Jockey, Reebok, Wills Life Style, Planet M, C 3, KFC, Pizza Hut etc. Itis located in the heart of Salt Lake City and thereby attracts shoppers from all locations inand around Salt Lake.4.2 Shopper PerceptionsThe survey data provided a fair amount of information on shopper perceptions of theshopping centers. The data set was tested for reliability and was found to be satisfactory. 6
  7. 7. The respondents were asked about the shopping center from which they made their last visit. They were also asked about their favorite shopping destination. It was observed the approximately 30 percent of the respondents considered Forum to be their favorite shopping destination followed by 22 Camac Street which was considered favorite by around 21 percent of the respondents. New Market was considered favorite by around 19 percent of the respondents and City Center by around 13 percent of the respondents. This clearly demonstrates that New Market has lost its leadership as the preferred shopping destination of Kolkata (refer to table 1). It was further observed that around 49 percent of customers purchasing from Forum considered it to be their favorite shopping destination and the figure was around 51 percent for New Market. This clearly demonstrates that the majority of the population purchasing from New Market still considers it to be their favorite shopping destination though its preference among the total shopping population of Kolkata has declined considerably. It was also interesting to note that 22 Camac Street and City Center were considered to be their favorite shopping destination by around 45 percent and 34 percent of the shoppers respectively. It may also be noted that Vardaan Market, Metro Plaza and Metropolitan enjoys very poor preference amongst the shoppers at less than 10 percent (refer to table 1). Table 1: Favorite shopping destination “Purchase from Cross tabulation”Favorite Shopping Last Purchased Form Destination CS (%) Frm (%) NM (%) MP (%) CC (%) Mpol (%) Total (%) CS 44.8 27.0 10.8 10.9 16.4 20.0 21.2 Frm 37.9 49.2 15.4 34.4 9.0 32.7 29.3 Vdn 1.7 3.2 3.1 10.9 7.5 4.6 NM 8.6 6.3 50.8 6.3 22.4 18.2 19.1 MP 5.2 4.8 3.1 18.8 6.0 6.5 CC 1.7 6.3 10.8 9.4 34.3 12.7 12.9 Mpol 1.6 1.5 12.7 2.4 Others 1.6 6.2 9.4 3.0 3.6 4.0 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Further studies were carried out to investigate why some of the shopping centers preferred by the shoppers while others were not. Also it would be of interest to investigate why an erstwhile favorite shopping destination like New Market is no longer preferred by a vast majority of shoppers of Kolkata. 7
  8. 8. Factor analysis was performed on all the quality attributes to investigate presence ofsignificant factors among the attributes under study. A number of indicative factor wereconsidered for this purpose. The factors considered were:i) Value for moneyii) Locationiii) Shop décoriv) Customer servicev) Variety of shopsvi) Availability of brandsvii) Parking facilityviii)Eating joint/caféix) Promotional activitiesx) Loyalty programxi) Kids cornerxii) EntertainmentThe interviews were asked to assess the shopping centers for each of these factors on arating scale. It was also assumed that each of these factors is not considered by theshoppers to be of equal importance and only a few might be a high importance and therest may be of less importance. In order to accommodate these subjective variations, therespondents were asked to indicate the level of importance attached to each of the factors.Factor analyses were performed on all the quality attributes to investigate presence ofsignificance factors among the attributes under study. Factor extractions were done andcorresponding factor rotation were applied (refer to table 2). The shoppers extracted fourfactors explaining 15.00, 29.59, 40.95 and 51.90 percent of total variance. 8
  9. 9. Table 2: Total Variance ExplainedComponent Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 2.588 21.565 21.565 1.804 15.029 15.029 2 1.344 11.199 32.764 1.748 14.567 29.596 3 1.203 10.027 42.791 1.363 11.361 40.957 4 1.094 9.113 51.904 1.314 10.947 51.904 It may be observed that the shoppers clubbed parking facility, eating joint/café, kid’s corner and entertainment as factor 1 which are related to family ‘entertainment’. Value for money, promotional activities and loyalty program were clubbed by the shoppers as factor 2 which are mostly related to ‘economy’. Factors related to ‘accessibility and service’ like shop location, shop décor and customer service were clubbed as factor 3. Factor 4 was a combination of shop variety and brand availability which may be termed as ‘range of brands’ (refer to table 3). It may be of interest to note that ‘entertainment’ has emerged as an important factor for the shoppers of Kolkata. Table 3: Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 4 Value for Money -0.359 0.447 0.231 0.219 Location -0.124 0.015 0.726 -0.053 Shop Décor 0.250 0.021 0.673 -0.053 Customer Service 0.049 0.054 0.559 0.243 Variety of Shops -0.012 0.075 0.008 0.761 Availability of Brands 0.183 0.024 0.068 0.707 Parking Facility 0.651 0.026 0.070 0.322 Eating Joint/Café 0.719 0.137 0.062 0.056 Promotional Activities 0.169 0.788 0.035 0.014 Loyalty Program 0.191 0.782 -0.012 0.003 Kids Corner 0.412 0.470 0.010 0.112 Entertainment 0.621 0.255 0.047 -0.051 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization Since there were four distinct factors influencing the purchase of shoppers in Kolkata, cluster analysis was performed to identify whether there existed any grouping among shoppers and their orientation towards specific factors which might influence their purchase. Four clusters emerged amongst the shoppers of Kolkata (refer to table 4). 9
  10. 10. Table 4: Initial Cluster Centers Cluster 1 2 3 4REGR factor score 1 for analysis 1 0.07292 0.96490 -0.54240 0.16355REGR factor score 2 for analysis 1 0.09411 -1.05920 -0.17600 0.39595REGR factor score 3 for analysis 1 -1.13259 0.46132 -0.13930 0.40834REGR factor score 4 for analysis 1 0.39235 -0.24460 0.38375 0.17124Monthly_family_inc 2 4 5 3Ownership: house 1 1 1 1Ownership: two wheeler 2 2 2 2Ownership: car 2 1 1 1Ownership: PC 2 1 1 1 The first cluster mainly comprised of shoppers having family income up to Rs.20, 000 per month having no ownership of car, personal computer etc. This group of shoppers was more interested in variety and the range of brands and attached some importance due entertainment and economy. The second cluster comprised of shoppers having a monthly family income of Rs.30, 000 to Rs.40, 000 and gave maximum importance to entertainment and service amongst all the customer groups. They attached to limited importance to the other factors like economy and variety. The third group of shoppers comprising of the highest income group with a family income of above Rs.40, 000 per month were interested only in the brand name and the availability of wide range of product categories. The fourth group comprising of shoppers having a family income between Rs.20, 000 to Rs.30, 000 per month constituted the majority of the shoppers being 35 percent of the total shoppers. This group accorded importance to each of the four factors and considered economy as well as service and accessibility as the predominant factors while making their choice of shopping destinations. It may be observed that each of the 4 clusters belonged to groups having different monthly family income. Further, investigation was hence undertaken to investigate the dependency of monthly family income on the choice of shopping centres. An investigation of income as a discriminating factor for choice of shopping centre shows that there is dependency on income for the choice of shopping destination. A chi-square test suggests at a value of 67 (with a degree of freedom 48) that the difference is significant (Refer to Table 5 and Table 6). 10
  11. 11. Table 5: Favourite shopping destination “monthly family income” Cross tabulation Favourite Shopping Monthly Income Destination Less than 10000-2000 20000-3000 30000-40 More than 10000 0 0 000 40000 CS 16.3% 28.1% 19.6% 20.0% 12.5% Frm 18.6% 18.8% 32.0% 32.7% 35.7% Vdn 5.2% 3.1% 7.3% 3.6% NM 25.6% 22.9% 18.6% 18.2% 12.5% MP 9.3% 1.0% 7.2% 1.8% 10.7% CC 20.9% 14.6% 5.2% 12.7% 14.3% Mpol 4.7% 3.1% 2.1% 1.8% 1.8% Others 2.3% 3.1% 7.2% 3.6% Total 100.0% 100.% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%Table 6: Chi-Square Tests - Favourite shopping destination “monthly family income” Value df Asymp.Sig. (2-sided) Pearson Chi-Square 67.143a 48 .035 The P – value of 2-tail chi-square is very low of 0.035 (significant at 5 percent level) showing dependency of income as a factor for choice of shopping destination by the shoppers. It was interesting to observe that New Market was considered to be their favorite shopping destination mostly by shoppers having monthly family income of less than Rs. 10,000. 22, Camac Street was considered as their favorite shopping destination mostly by those shoppers having a monthly family income between Rs. 10,000 to Rs.20, 000. It was remarkable to note that a vast majority of higher income group shoppers having monthly family income of above Rs. 20,000 considered Forum as their favorite. One may observe that 22, Camac Street was preferred by middle income group shoppers mostly of the first cluster as illustrated in Table 4. These group of shoppers preferred variety and range of brands along with entertainment and economy. However, Forum has emerged as the favorite for the higher income group shoppers. It may be further noted that around 38 percent of shoppers visiting 22 Camac Street and 35 percent of shoppers visiting Metro Plaza, 32 percent of shoppers visiting Metropolitan considered Forum as 11
  12. 12. their favorite shopping destination clearly illustrating the success of Forum as a mall.Forum’s marketing strategy was hence studied in a qualitative manner to study thereasons for its success.4.3 Marketing Strategy of ForumThere are various ways malls can build brand. This includes combining the consistencypeople associate with a brand with something special that makes a mall stand out. Mallowners try to position their properties in specific ways. Forum, the first mall in Kolkatahas revolutionized the concept of mall experience in the city. It is a 2, 00,000 sq. ft mallwith Shopper’s Stop as its anchor occupying around 60,000sq.ft. space spread acrossthree floors. Forum offers a product mix of shopping, food and entertainmentForum operated in a manner similar to a retail store. For example, the product mix atForum, Kolkata was decided even before the concrete was poured. The developer had apretty good idea of who the tenants would be and designed the mall accordingly; evenspoke to potential tenants about possible rentals. The product mix was planned rightdown to how much of the retail space should stock accessories, women’s apparels, men’sformal wear, kids wear etc.Once this was decided, and the relevant shops rented out, it was up to the stores to figureout their pricing and brand strategies. Even after this exercise was complete, Forum’sdeveloper’s monitored the traffic in each section of the mall to figure out which sectionswere doing well, and which were not. This was the reason why mall space at Forum wasrented out and not sold. Overall, renting helps in controlling the deliverables,performance, service and structure of retailers in the mall. In case of unsatisfactoryperformance by any retailer, the same is replaced with another brand in the store. This isdone to maintain continuity of products sold and provide an entire shopping solution toeach customer.Besides deciding on the tenant rentals and product mix, a mall developer needs to plan aformat for all stores within the mall. The question to be answered here is not just ‘how 12
  13. 13. much and what?’ but also ‘where?’ Shops must be located on the basis of customerconvenience and preference, following directly from the tenant mix. Forum houses allsports brands like Nike, Planet Sports, Adidas, and Woodland Shoes etc on the groundfloor to provide a complete range of similar products to shoppers. All comparisons can bemade on the same floor before buying a product category. Similarly, level 1 is the fashionlevel for up market women, both homemakers and working with shops like Satya Paul,Be:, Bizarre, Swarovski etc, level 2 for trendy college going students and Level 3comprising mostly men’s apparels and accessories. Level 4 consists of restaurants andInox ticket counters while the actual multiplex is on Level 6. Level 5 is dedicated entirelyto food court. The strategy behind placing the food court on a floor between the ticketcounters and movie halls is to drive the crowd towards food before and after moviewatching. Shopping and entertainment activities now complement each other and aresynonymous with lifestyle.Forum offers a unique product mix of shopping, food and entertainment:Retail:Among the first timers housed in over 1.25 lakh sq. ft of retail space are Anokhi, SatyaPaul, Bizarre, Cotton World, Be:, Swarovski, etc. The chunk of course, has been taken bythe 60,000 sq. ft anchor store Shopper’s Stop. Other retailers include United Colors ofBenetton, Levis, Spykar, Blackberry’s, Hidesign, La Lingerie, Prime Watch, Swatch, NikNish, Celeste, Candy Treats, Music World, Free look, Little Shop, Toy Planet, Nike,Samsonite, Dockers, Ritu Kumar, Archies, GKB, Opal, Woodland, Planet Sports andmany more.Food:The food section comprises of two fine dining restaurants. The first is a formal diningrestaurant called Oh! Calcutta serving Bengali, Indian and Continental food while thesecond is a funky restaurant and pub with a Bollywood theme called Star struck. Thereare other pick and eat shops like Biscotti confectionery, Mc Cann fries, Amoretto’s juicecentre, Camellia Chaibar, coffee shops etc. A 180-seater multiple cuisine food courtcalled ‘Burp’ was the city’s first and only multi-faceted food court. It facilitated the useof smart card technology to overcome long queues and payment hassles at each food- 13
  14. 14. billing counter. Prices are charged against this card as an alternative to cash payment. It isdesigned with a refilling facility, a move that certainly makes eating out an enhancedexperience.Entertainment:A four-screen multiplex called Inox and state of art fitness centre called Geo Spa takesup a chunk of space at Forum starting from the fourth floor up to the sixth floor. Theother zones of entertainment are Timbaktoo – interactive video game parlour andchildren’s crèche, making Forum a complete lifestyle destination.Forum, targets the premium section of the society, houses top-notch designer brands.Shopper’s Stop was chosen as its anchor to provide a shopping experience to customersespecially those having preference towards premium priced brands. The entire productmix was planned for this segment. Strategies were formed for constant monitoring of thetenants to ensure that all sections were doing well and that high footfalls lead to highconversions. This was done through special events, shopping festivals, joint promotionsetc (Agarwal, 2004).5. ConclusionIt was observed that the young and the high income group of the present generationpreferred and shopped from a planned shopping mall like Forum. New Market which wasthe favorite shopping destination earlier is no longer a favorite with the young generation.Camac Street which is a shopping center plus office complex though has attractedcustomers but a vast majority of their shoppers consider Forum to be their favoriteshopping destination. This fact may be attributed to the absence of entertainmentfacilities like multiplexes. Shopping complexes like Vardaan, Metro Plaza have lost outowing to lack of coherent marketing and branding strategy which is as important as hasbeen seen in the case of Forum. 14
  15. 15. 6. Managerial ImplicationsOur findings provide marketers with a current understanding of mall shoppers and theirshopping behavior. It addresses the issue of how malls can leverage their particularstrength and compete more effectively by adjusting their strategies in the face ofcompetition. It is a crucial learning period especially for real estate developers enteringinto mall development, which is the case in India. Malls need to position themselvesdistinctively and develop appropriate marketing strategies by aligning their marketingmix with their desired positioning in the face of global competition. 15
  16. 16. References:Agarwal, P. (2004): “Branding of a Mall: Kolkata is happening @ Forum”, MarketingMastermind, pp.44-51, June.Cooke, J. (1993): “The shopping challenge – centres without a future”, in Henry StewartConference Studies (Ed.), Latest Developments in the Ongoing Marketing and Promotionof Shopping Centres, pp.1-9.Dasgupta, S. (2005): “Who’s afraid of Wal-Mart?” Business Standard, 03 December.Dawson, J.A. (1983): Shopping Centre Development, Longman, London.Beddington, N. (1991): Shopping Centres, Butterworth Architecture.Gruen, N.J. (1993): “The reinvention of retailing”, Journal of Property Management,Vol.58, No.1, pp.40-46.Guy, C. (1994): The Retail Development Process, Routledge, London.Houlder, V. (1992): “The new centre of discontent”, Financial Times, 31 January.Howard, E.B. (1995): Partnerships in Shopping Centres, OXIRM, Oxford.India Retail Report (2005): “Evolution of Organized Retailing: The Global Experience,Images Multimedia, New Delhi, pp.16-17 16
  17. 17. Kirkup, M.H. and Rafiq, M. (1994a): “Tenancy development in new shopping centres”,International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, Vol.4, No.3,pp.345-360.Kirkup, M.H. and Rafiq, M. (1999): “Marketing shopping centres: challenges in the UKcontext”, Journal of Marketing Practice in Applied Marketing Science, Vol.5, No.5,pp.119-133.Ordway, N., Bul, A.A. and Eakin, M.E. (1988): “Developing a visibility index to classifyshopping centres”, Appraisal Journal, April.Sudman, S. (1980): “Improving the quality of shopping center sampling”, Journal ofMarketing Research, Vol.17, No.2, pp.423-431, November.Turchiano, F. (1990): “The (un)malling of America”, American Demographics, Vol.12,No.4, pp.36-39. 17