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Fonologia e fonética

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Aula introdutória com os conceitos de fonologia, fonética, classificação de fonemas, encontros vocálicos e consonantais, dígrafos e divisão silábica.

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  • Muito bom! Aproveitei nas minhas aulas.
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  • Excelente!
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Fonologia e fonética

  1. 1. Prof. Jorge Henrique - 2009
  2. 2. LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA Divisão da Gramática MORFOLOGIA Estudo das formas da língua, classificação, estrutura, mecanismos de flexão das palavras. SINTAXE Estudo das funções e relações que as palavras estabelecem nas frases. FONOLOGIA Estudo dos sons da língua, (fonemas). Prof. Jorge Henrique
  3. 3. AS MENINAS SAÍRAM CEDO. M – E – N – I – N – A – S ME – NI – NAS MENIN – A – S CONSTRUINDO CONCEITOS 7 LETRAS 7 FONEMAS 3 SÍLABAS RADICAL DESINÊNCIA NOMINAL DE GÊNERO DESINÊNCIA NOMINAL DE NÚMERO 3 MORFEMAS SUJEITO Prof. Jorge Henrique
  4. 4. FOMEMAS CONSTRUINDO CONCEITOS Unidades sonoras mínimas distintivas na fala. LETRAS Representação gráfica dos fonemas. COLA BOLA MOLA CALA BALA MALA NOTA BOTA COTA FONOLOGIA Parte da gramática que estuda os fonemas. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  5. 5. CONSTRUINDO CONCEITOS Não há correspondência regular entre fonemas e letras.  Uma letra representa um fonema: pato (4 letras) /pato/ (4 fonemas)  Uma letra representa dois fonemas: sexo (4 letras) /sekso/ (5 fonemas)  Duas letras representam um fonema: carro (5 letras) /kaRo/ (4 fonemas)  Uma letra não representa nenhum fonema: hoje (4 letras) /oje/ (3 fonemas) Prof. Jorge Henrique
  6. 6. CONSTRUINDO CONCEITOS  Um fonema representado por letras diferentes: /z/  mesa /z/  zebra /z/  exame  Uma letra representa fonemas diferentes: exame  /z/ faixa  /x/ máximo  /s/ tóxico  /ks/ Prof. Jorge Henrique
  7. 7. Classificação de fonemas Prof. Jorge Henrique
  8. 8. Classificação de fonemas Os fonemas classificam-se em:  VOGAIS - CONSOANTES -  SEMIVOGAIS - São os sons mais puros da fala, são fonemas produzidos pela livre passagem do ar pelo aparelho fonador. São, na prática, os fonemas “i” e “u”, quando, ao lado de uma vogal autêntica, soam levemente, sem a força de vogal. (com + soante = soar com) - São ruídos produzidos pela interferência de alguma barreira (língua, dentes, lábios, alvéolos) à passagem do ar. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  9. 9. Classificação de fonemas Observe: CASA C A S A PEIXE P E X E I BRASIL R A S I LB Prof. Jorge Henrique
  10. 10. Classificação de fonemas  LEMBRE-SE: A vogal é o fonema básico de cada sílaba. Não há sílaba sem vogal. Não pode haver mais de uma vogal por sílaba. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  11. 11. Encontros vocálicos DITONGO CRESCENTE Semivogal+vogal na mesma sílaba. DITONGO DECRESCENTE Vogal+semivogal na mesma sílaba. ORAIS - SÉRIE, ÁGUA, VÍTREO, NÓDOA. NASAIS - QUANDO, FREQUENTE; ORAIS - LEITE, BAIXO, CÉU, HERÓI, NASAIS - MÃO, PÕE, MUITO, TAMBÉM. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  12. 12. Encontros vocálicos TRITONGO saguão – Paraguai Semivogal+vogal+semivogal na mesma sílaba. HIATO saúde – Raul – pessoa – Saara – guria - álcool Vogal+vogal, obviamente, em sílabas disjuntas. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  13. 13. Dígrafos ou digramas Ocorrerá dígrafo ou digrama sempre duas letras corresponderem a um único fonema. CHEIO, FILHO, NINHO, GUINDASTE, QUERIDO, REQUINTE, SEGUE, TERRA, PASSA, PISCINA, EXCETO NASÇA, DÍGRAFOS VOCÁLICOS OU NASAIS TAMBÉM, CANTO, SEMPRE, ENTRE, ÍMPIO, PINTURA, COMBATE, ONDA, ÁLBUM, FUNDA. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  14. 14. Encontros consonantais Bra-sil A-dre-na-li-na As-pec-to Rap-to Se-xo /sekso/ Podem ocorrer no nível gráfico, na mesma sílaba (puro) ou em sílabas diferentes (disjunto); e no nível fonético. Prof. Jorge Henrique
  15. 15. Sílaba São grupos ou segmentos fônicos pronunciados numa mesma expiração. É / EU / UAI Podem constituir-se de uma vogal, um ditongo ou um tritongo sozinhos: A-PLAU-DIR TRANS-POR U-RU-GUAI Ou acompanhados de consoantes: Prof. Jorge Henrique
  16. 16. Separação Silábica Não se separam: Ditongos, tritongos: GLÓ-RIA / CÁ-RIE / MÁ-RIO / MÁ-GUA / RÉ-GUA TÊ-NUE / CON-TÍ-GUO / SA-GUÃO / PA-RA-GUAI Encontros consonantais em início de palavra: PNEU-MÁ-TICO / PSI-CO-LÓ-GI-CO / MNE-MÔ-NI-CO Dígrafos ch, nh e lh: RA-CHAR / NI-NHO / MO-LHO Separam-se hiatos, encontros consonantais disjuntos (pronunciados separadamente) e os demais dígrafos. Prof. Jorge Henrique

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