Findability	
  Experience	
  Redesign	
  
Mor	
  Sela,	
  IKNS	
  4302,	
  Assignment	
  2,	
  November	
  5th	
  2013	...
 

Executive	
  Summary	
  
We	
   live	
   in	
   an	
   era	
   of	
   information	
   overload.	
   Time	
   has	
   be...
 

Introduction	
  
This	
   paper	
   starts	
   by	
   revising	
   the	
   “Negative”	
   Experience	
   described	
   ...
 
1.
2.
3.
4.

Opened	
  Canvas	
  Home	
  
Figure	
  2	
  -­‐	
  Click	
  to	
  link	
  to	
  the	
  screen	
  recording	...
 
search	
   is	
   a	
   quick	
   lookup	
   that	
   leads	
   fro	
   query	
   to	
   results	
   to	
   found	
   ob...
 
•

Problem:	
   Some	
   presentations	
   are	
   accessed	
   directly	
   from	
   the	
   Residency	
   folder	
   w...
 
example,	
  users	
  can’t	
  easily	
  find	
  a	
  desired	
  presentation,	
  if	
  they	
  don’t	
  know	
  the	
  d...
 

User	
  Interaction	
  Scenario	
  
As	
  an	
  IKNS	
  Student,	
  I	
  want	
  to	
  locate	
  a	
  specific	
  slide...
 
•

Comments	
  and	
  Special	
  Observations:	
  	
  Includes	
  highly	
  insightful	
  information	
  about	
  
vario...
 

Design	
  Wireframes	
  
Following	
  is	
  a	
  set	
  of	
  wireframes	
  that	
  illustrate	
  a	
  solution	
  to	
...
 
Fixing	
  Problem	
  #2:	
  Linking	
  the	
  Residency	
  Icon	
  to	
  a	
  Residency	
  Landing	
  Page	
  
• Locatio...
 
•
•

User	
  should	
  have	
  the	
  option	
  to	
  scroll	
  up	
  and	
  down	
  the	
  document.	
  
User	
  should...
 

	
  

Conclusion	
  
The	
  Findability	
  Mode	
  of	
  Interaction	
  discussed	
  in	
  this	
  case	
  is	
  Locate...
 

Appendix	
  
Information	
  Lifecycle	
  Flow	
  
The	
   following	
   workflows	
   shall	
   be	
   used	
   for	
  ...
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Example of Findability Experience Redesign by Mor Sela

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Example of Findability Experience Redesign by Mor Sela

  1. 1.   Findability  Experience  Redesign   Mor  Sela,  IKNS  4302,  Assignment  2,  November  5th  2013   Information Abundance + Filter Failure = Information Overload Source: IKNS 4302, Lecture 1, Oct 2013     Table  of  Content   Executive  Summary  ........................................................................................................................  2   Introduction   ....................................................................................................................................  3   Context  (Revisiting  the  “Negative”  Experience)  .............................................................................  3   “Negative”  Experience  Scenario  .....................................................................................................  3   Findability  Problems  .......................................................................................................................  4   Suggested  Redesigned  Solution  .....................................................................................................  7   Conclusion  ....................................................................................................................................  13   Appendix  ......................................................................................................................................  14       Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     1   Columbia  University  
  2. 2.   Executive  Summary   We   live   in   an   era   of   information   overload.   Time   has   become   the   scarcest   resource   for   the   knowledge   economy.     Helping   users   find   the   information   they   need   easily   and   quickly   is   not   only   about   improving   productivity;   it’s   about   improving   people’s   life   and   even   saving   life   in   some   situations   (e.g.   medical,   driving,   law   enforcement,   and   military   applications).   Lydia   Dishman’s  article  summarizes  nicely  one  of  the  key  challenges  that  Knowledge  Strategists  are   facing:  “Turning  Information  Overload  into  Knowledge”  (Fast  Company,  May  2012)1.   The  objective  of  this  paper  is  to  suggest  improvement  in  the  findability  experience  for  users  of   the   Columbia   University’s,   Canvas   application.   While   the   new   design   is   focused   on   addressing   a   specific  user  experience,  it  will  significantly  improve  findability  for  many  other  audience  profiles   and  interaction  scenarios.     The  experience  is  of  an  IKNS  student  (User)  trying  to  locate  a  particular  resource  (presentation)   on  the  Canvas  application,  so   that  he  could  use  its  content  for  a  class  assignment.  While  he  was   able   to   find   what   he   was   looking   for,   the   process   took   much   longer   than   it   would   with   the   recommended  improved  design.     The  following  table  summarizes  the  key  findability  problems  and  the  suggested  solution:   #   Problem     1   No  Search  Option   Solution   2   Bad  Hyperlink   3   Inconsistent  Classification   Hierarchy   4   Using  Zip  Containers   5   No  Faceted   Classification/Navigation   Adding  search  functionality,  including  universal/federated   search  as  well  as  advanced  filtered  search   Linking  the  Residency  Icon  to  a  Residency  landing  page   Creating  consistent  classification  hierarchy   Browse-­‐able,  searchable,  and  accessible  folders   Option  to  view,  sort  and  filter  resources  by  various  properties   (e.g.  Name,  Author,  Date  Modified,  Size,  Type)     I  selected  this  particular  case  mainly  because  I  hold  high  expectations  for  Columbia  University  in   general  and  believe  that  IKNS  should  serve  as  an  exemplary  model  for  professional  information   and   knowledge   management.   I’m   hoping   that   by   highlighting   this   issue,   Findability   may   be   improved  for  future  IKNS  users.     Figure  1  -­‐  Source:  IKNS4302,  Lecture  1,  The  Findability  Framework   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     2   Columbia  University  
  3. 3.   Introduction   This   paper   starts   by   revising   the   “Negative”   Experience   described   in   my   first   assignment.   I   provide   further   analysis   of   the   Findability   problems   and   suggest   a   newly   designed   solution   that   would  address  these  problems.  I  also  use  this  case  to  demonstrate  implementation  of  related   course   content,   including   Audience   Profile,   User   Interaction   Scenario,   Resource   Profile,   Taxonomy  and  Thesaurus.   Context  (Revisiting  the  “Negative”  Experience)   In  this  Findability  experience,  the  user  is  trying  to  locate  a  specific  content  on  the  IKNS  Canvas   application.     About  the  Application   Canvas  (by  Instructure)  is  a  cloud-­‐based  learning  management  system  (LMS)  used  by  Columbia   University.     It   serves   as   a   portal   for   all   course-­‐related   information,   including   syllabus,   announcements,   course   modules,   assignments,   discussions,   files,   grades,   student   and   staff   directory,  messaging,  and  calendar.     About  the  User     The  two  most  important  users  of  Canvas  are  Students  and  Instructors.  Additional  users  (Roles)   are   Observers,   Designer,   and   Admin.   In   this   particular   example,   I’m   describing   and   evaluating   the  Student’s  user  experience.     Device  Used   The  device  used  is  a  MacBook  Pro,  13-­‐inch  display.  The  interface  used  is  Safari  web  browser.   “Negative”  Experience  Scenario   Here  is  a  Findability  scenario  that  I’ve  experienced  as  I  was  conducting  research  for  my   individual  assignment  of  IKNS  4300  course:   As  an  IKNS  Student,  I  wanted  to  locate  a  specific  slide  from  a  presentation  by  tom  Stewart   given  at  the  Residency  that  took  place  about  a  month  ago,  so  that  I  could  use  its  content  as  a   reference  in  my  assignment  report.     Note:  Based  on  the  format  presented  by  Jeff  Carr  and  Ralph  Poole  at  Live  Session  #2:  “Defining  Context”,  slide  18.   Step  by  Step  process  2   As   I   was   working   on   my   IKNS   4300   Individual   Assignment,   I   recalled   an   interesting   slide   from   Tom  Stewart’s  presentation  at  the  Residency,  which  I  though  could  be  valuable  as  a  reference   for   the   assignment.   I   typically   prefer   to   find   such   content   using   Search.   However,   given   that   there   is   no   Search   option   on   Canvas,   I   had   to   navigate   the   site   in   order   to   find   the   desired   presentation  slide.  Here  are  the  steps  I  had  to  go  through  until  I  found  what  I  was  looking  for:   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     3   Columbia  University  
  4. 4.   1. 2. 3. 4. Opened  Canvas  Home   Figure  2  -­‐  Click  to  link  to  the  screen  recording   Clicked  on  IKNSK4300   Clicked  Residency   Got  the  following   message:  This  page   doesn't  exist  yet.   5. Clicked  on  Files   6. Clicked  on  IKNS   Residency  1  2013   As  you  can  see  in  Figure   1,  this  folder  had  several   documents  and   presentation  files  in  it,  as  well  as  several  zip  files.   7. As   I   didn’t   know   if   my   desired   file   is   saved   in   this   folder   directly   or   within   one   of   the   zip   files,   I   used   the   browser’s   page   search   option   (Command+F   on   Mac)   and   searched   for   “Stewart”.  Unfortunately,  it  wasn’t  there.   8. So  I  realized  I  should  search  in  one  of  the  zip  files.  But  I  didn’t  remember  in  which  day  of   the  Residency  it  was.  So  I  had  two  options  for  me:   a. Search  for  the  Residency  agenda  document  to  identify  the  right  day   b. Download  and  Open  the  zip  files  in  some  logical  order  and  search  within.     9. I  was  pretty  sure  it  wasn’t  in  the  first  day  of  the  residency  so  I  downloaded  Day  2  zip  file.   10. I  opened  the  “Downloads”  folder  and  clicked  on  the  zip  file  to  unzip  it   11. I   then   opened   the   Day   2   folder.   Luckily   that   was   the   correct   day   and   Stewart’s   presentation  was  there  (actually  two  of  them,  one  with  “PREREAD”  in  its  filename  and   one  without  it).   12. I  opened  the  largest  file  of  the  two  and  browsed  through  the  slides  as  I  remembered  the   slide  visually  but  not  its  title.   13. I  found  my  desired  slide  at  slide  33  out  of  34.   Findability  Problems   The  experience  above  introduces  the  following  Findability  problems:     1. No  Search  Option   • • • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300   Problem:  There  is  no  Search  option.     Why   is   it   important:   Search   is   arguably   the   most   desired   method   for   users   to   find   content   that   is   not   immediately   accessible   on   their   used   interface.   “The   archetypal   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     4   Columbia  University  
  5. 5.   search   is   a   quick   lookup   that   leads   fro   query   to   results   to   found   object.   It   serves   as   a   navigation  short-­‐cut  that  speeds  our  way  from  here  to  there.”  (Morville  &  Callender,  6)3   2. Bad  Hyperlink   • • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300   Problem:  Clicking  on  the  Residency  icon  leads  to  an  empty  page  with  the  following   message:  This  page  doesn't  exist  yet.       • Why   is   it   important:   The   residency   covered   a   lot   of   very   interesting   and   valuable   content   that   is   useful   for   various   assignments   and   self-­‐enrichment   of   students.   Users   looking   for   residency’s   content   are   likely   use   the   Residency   icon   and   would   expect   to   find  its  content  there.   3. Inconsistent  Classification  Hierarchy   • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     5     Columbia  University    
  6. 6.   • Problem:   Some   presentations   are   accessed   directly   from   the   Residency   folder   while   others  are  only  accessible  via  daily  containers  within  the  Residency  folder.     • Why   is   it   important:   In   a   logical   hierarchy,   “the   top   level   categories   of   resources   are   based   on   the   values   of   the   property   evaluated   first,   and   then   each   category   is   further   subdivided   using   other   properties   until   each   resource   is   classified   in   only   a   single   category”   (Glushko,   60)4.   Consistent/logical   hierarchy   improves   Findability   as   it   makes   the  navigation  process  more  predictable.   4. Using  Zip  Containers     • • • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013     Problem:  Resources  are  stored  in  compressed  zip  containers  (see  screenshot  above)     Why  is  it  important:  Users  can’t  open  the  containers  online  to  browse  their  content.   When  searching  for  a  specific  presentation,  the  user  should:   a. Download  the  zip  file  (as  opposed  to  opening  a  folder  on  the  browser)   b. Open  the  zip  file  and  search  locally  within  the  opened  folder   5. No  Faceted  Classification/Navigation5   • • • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013     Problem:   Resources   are   stored   in   daily   containers.   There   is   no   option   to   navigate   by   other  properties  of  the  resources  (e.g.  Topic  of  presentation,  Presenter’s  name).     Why   is   it   important:  Faceted  navigation  makes  it  easier  to  find  sought-­‐after  resources   when   the   user   knows   one   or   more   facets   but   not   necessarily   all   of   them.   In   this   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     6   Columbia  University  
  7. 7.   example,  users  can’t  easily  find  a  desired  presentation,  if  they  don’t  know  the  day  of  the   residency  in  which  the  desired  presentation  took  place.       Suggested  Redesigned  Solution   Here  is  a  suggested  solution  for  all  the  5  Findability  problems  described  above.   Audience  Profile   This  Audience  Profile  is  comprised  of  a  single  and  well-­‐defined  User  Type:  IKNS  Student.   Persona:     Todd   is   a   37-­‐year-­‐old   male,   living   in   NJ,   working   as   an   IT   consultant,   pursuing   master’s   degree   in   Information   and   Knowledge   Strategy   at   Columbia   University.   Very   busy   lifestyle,   having   both   a   full   time   job   and   intensive   academic   studies.   Given  his  active  involvement  in  information  management  education,  he  holds  high   Findability  and  usability  expectations  from  Columbia  University’s  applications.   Goals  &  Objectives:   • Quick  and  thorough  completion  of  course  assignments.   • Enriching  my  knowledge  with  online  content  relevant  to  my  studies  and  work   • Efficient  communications  with  peer  students  and  faculty   Tasks  &  Activities:   • Researching  information  and  knowledge  for  course  assignments   • Finding  and  reading  course  material   • Getting  updates  and  announcements   • Communication  and  collaborating  using  the  Discussion  board   • Communicating  using  the  embedded  messaging  system  (Inbox)   • Properties  Used   • Syllabus   • Announcements   • Modules   • Assignments   • Discussions   • Files   Frustrations  &  Pain  Points   • No  search  option   • Bad  hyperlink   • Inconsistent  classification   hierarchies   • Zip  containers  require  to  download   the  entire  container  to  access  and   browse  it   • No  faceted  navigation Content  Requirements   • Presentations   • Videos   • Blogs   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx       7   Columbia  University  
  8. 8.   User  Interaction  Scenario   As  an  IKNS  Student,  I  want  to  locate  a  specific  slide  from  a  presentation  by  Tom  Stewart  given   at  the  Residency  that  took  place  about  a  month  ago,  so  that  I  could  use  its  content  as  a   reference  in  my  assignment  report.   Resource  Profile   • • • • • • • • • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013  >  Day  2   File  Type  and  Size:  PDF,  1.8MB   Document  Type  ("is-­‐ness"):  Presentation   Key  Metadata  ("about-­‐ness"):       o Title:  Taking  Knowledge  to  Market   o Author:  Thomas  (Tom)  A.  Stewart   o Description:  Tom  Stewart’s  presentation  at  the  IKNS  Residency  1.  The   presentation  covers  the  following:   ! Understanding  value  in  the  knowledge  economy     ! Understanding  knowledge  strategy:  intellectual  capital  in  theory,   coherent  capabilities  in  action,  and  a  discussion   ! Understanding  knowledge  management:  a  case  study   o Keywords:  knowledge  management  (Preferred  Term),  intellectual  capital,  value,   case  study,  strategy,  knowledge  economy,  Instilled  knowledge,  Distilled   knowledge,  Knowledge  services,  Evolution  of  Strategy,  strategy  frameworks,   Knowledge  assets   o Last  modified  date:  July  30,  2013  at  4:43  PM  ET   o Version  #:  2.0   o Content  Layout:  Landscape   Used  By  (Audience):  IKNS  Students   Used  In  (tasks  it  required  for):     o Preparation  for  class   o Taking  notes  during  class   o Recap  after  class   o Reference  for  assignments   Where  Used  (“connected-­‐ness”):  Course  Content   Information  Lifecycle:  Approved  for  Distribution   Analytics:     o Access  frequency  (estimated):     ! Peak  visits/day:  40   ! Average  visits/day:  0.2   o Usage  (Average  Minutes  Per  Visit):    10     Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     8   Columbia  University  
  9. 9.   • Comments  and  Special  Observations:    Includes  highly  insightful  information  about   various  organizational  strategies  and  how  they  evolved  over  time.   Taxonomy     Hierarchical  taxonomy  for  one  related  metadata  element:   Program   Course   Unit   (Level  1)   Unit   (Level  2)   Day  1   Residency   4300   IKNS   Day  2   Online  1   Day  3   4301   Online  2   4302     Thesaurus   Example  for  one  metadata  element:   Term  (Preferred  Term):  Knowledge  Management   Synonym:  Knowledge  Services   Broader  Term  (Parent):  Management   Narrower  Terms  (Childs):   • • • • Knowledge  Development   Knowledge  Sharing   Information  Management   Collaboration   Related  Terms  (Associative  Relationship):   • • Knowledge  Strategy   Intellectual  Capital  Management   Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     9   Columbia  University  
  10. 10.   Design  Wireframes   Following  is  a  set  of  wireframes  that  illustrate  a  solution  to  the  five  key  Findability  Problems   identified  and  explained  above.  While  fixing  the  key  problems,  I  tried  to  avoid  a  complete   redesign  of  the  current  Canvas  application  so  that  my  recommendation  would  be  both  logical   and  practicable.  Some  of  the  suggested  redesign  requires  application  changes  by   Canvas/Instructure  (e.g.  search,  preview,  faceted  classification);  however  there  are  also   suggested  improvements  that  could  be  done  by  the  IKNS  Instructor/Designer  without  any   application  change  (e.g.  consistent  hierarchy,  not  using  zip).   Fixing  Problem  #1:  Adding  Search  Functionality   Location:  All  Canvas  pages   New  Behavior:   Default  search  is  a  universal/federated  search  that  queries  the  entire  content  to  which  the  user   is  allowed  to  access.  This  should  include  the  “is-­‐ness”,  the  “about-­‐ness”  as  well  as  the  text   within  the  files.   Advanced  Search  allows  the  user  to  define  keywords  for  specific  metadata  fields  (e.g.  Author,   Course)  and  to  filter  the  search  for  specific  type  of  content  (e.g.  files,  people,  discussions).     Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     10   Columbia  University  
  11. 11.   Fixing  Problem  #2:  Linking  the  Residency  Icon  to  a  Residency  Landing  Page   • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300   • New  Behavior:  Clicking  on  the  Residency  icon  should  leads  the  following  location:   Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013     Fixing  Problem  #3:  Creating  Consistent  Classification  Hierarchy   • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013     • New  Behavior:    Consistent  hierarchy  within  the  IKNS  Residency  1  2013  folder,  in  which   the  first  level  resources  are  all  folders.  Within  these  folders  are  resources  of  the  same   level  of  hierarchy.     Fixing  Problem  #4:  Browse-­‐able,  Searchable,  and  Accessible  Folders   • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013   • New  Behavior:  All  resources  are  stored  in  Browse-­‐able,  Searchable,  and  Accessible   Folders.  Clicking  on  a  resource*  should  allow  preview  of  its  content  online,  without   having  to  download.     (*)  As  a  minimum,  support  preview  of  most  common  image  formats  and  PDF.  Later  add   Microsoft  Office  files.       Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     11   Columbia  University  
  12. 12.   • • User  should  have  the  option  to  scroll  up  and  down  the  document.   User  should  have  the  option  to  easily  download  the  file  after  preview.       • Fixing  Problem  #5:  Faceted  Classification/Navigation   • Location:  Home  >  IKNSK4300  >  Files  >  IKNS  Residency  1  2013     • New   Behavior:   There   will   be   an   option   to   view,   sort   and   filter   resources   by   various   properties  (e.g.  Name,  Author,  Date  Modified,  Size,  Type)       Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     12   Columbia  University  
  13. 13.     Conclusion   The  Findability  Mode  of  Interaction  discussed  in  this  case  is  Locate  –  to  find  a  specific  (possibly   known)  thing/resource.  6     In   reference   to   definition   “b.”   of   Findability   by   Morville7:   “The   degree   to   which   a   particular   object  is  easy   to   discover   or   locate”  I  would  rate  this  experience  low  compared  to  other  similar   systems   and   what   can   be   expected   from   an   online   content   management   system   (CMS)   these   days.   The   target   resource   was   not   easy   to   locate.   This   is   clearly   a   subjective   measure   that   is   dependent  on  the  level  of  expectations  in  the  particular  context.   Search   is   probably   the   ideal   experience   for   such   scenario.   It   would   allow   the   user   to   simply   query  the  entire  course  content  by  the  author  of  the  presentation  (which  was  the  only  property   of  the  desired  resource  that  the  user  remembered).     However,   given   that   search   doesn’t   always   work   perfectly   and   given   that   some   users   prefer   browsing   over   searching,   it   is   highly   recommended   to   improve   the   navigation   experience   in   addition  to  enabling  search.     Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     13   Columbia  University  
  14. 14.   Appendix   Information  Lifecycle  Flow   The   following   workflows   shall   be   used   for   review,   approval,   archival,   and   disposition   of   the   modeled  resource:   1. Approval: Admin, Designer, or Instructor, should define for each type of resource, what should be the approval workflow. When a User wants to add a resource to Canvas, the previously defined approval workflow routes the resource to designated users for their approval or rejection. 2. Review: Users should have a “send for review” option associated with each resource. Once selected, the user should be able to select reviewers from a list of approved users. The Review workflow should route the resource to the designated people for their comments. The workflow should consolidate all the comments and present them to the User who sent the original request. 3. Collect Signatures (route a document, workbook, or form for digital signatures). The Collect Signatures workflow routes a Microsoft Office document to designated people for their digital signatures. Please note that the Collect Signatures workflow functions only with Word documents, Excel workbooks, and InfoPath forms. 4. Archival & Disposition: The Archival and Disposition workflows should allow users to decide whether to retain or delete old/expired resources. This workflow follows a similar process to the Approval workflow. Admin, Designer, or Instructor, should define for each type of resource, what should be the workflow. When a User wants to archive or remove a resource, the previously defined workflow routes the resource to designated users for their approval or rejection. This workflow should have the option to be launched automatically when resources expire.                                                                                                                 1  Turning  Information  Overload  into  Knowledge”  (Fast  Company,  May  2012):  http://www.fastcompany.com/1836838/turning-­‐information-­‐ overload-­‐into-­‐knowledge  (last  accessed:  11/04/2013)   2  Negative  Experience  screen  and  narrative  recording:  http://youtu.be/5OU7VdkDbU4   3 Morville,  P.  &  Callender,  J.,  Search  Patterns  (O’reilly  Media,  2010)  6     4  Glushko,  Robert,  The  Discipline  of  Organizing,  (The  MIT  Press,  2013)  60   5 Glushko,  Robert,  The  Discipline  of  Organizing,  (The  MIT  Press,  2013)  293-­‐304     6  Lamantia,  Joe,  Discovery  and  the  Age  of  Insight,  Slide  118:  http://www.slideshare.net/moJoe/discovery-­‐and-­‐the-­‐age-­‐of-­‐insight-­‐walmart-­‐eim-­‐ open-­‐house-­‐2013  (last  accessed  11/04/2013)     7 Morville,  Peter,  Ambient  Findability  (O’reilly  Media,  2005)  4     Mor  Sela  -­‐  IKNS  4302  -­‐  Assignment  2  -­‐  Findability  Experience  Redesign.docx     14   Columbia  University  

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