Chile – the natural choice “Premium Chile” Michael Cox Europe Director – Wines of Chile Moscow - 1st March 2012
Steven Spurrier writing in Decanter Magazine – Sept 08• “I believe Chile to be the most exciting wine region in the southern hemisphere”
Andes mountains created bythe Pacific and Nazca tectonic plates
Chile• A land of extremes• Natural and beautiful• 4,300 kms long• 150 kms wide• Arid Atacama desert to the north• Cold Pacific ocean to the west• Snow capped Andes mountains to the east• Glaciers in Patagonia to the south• A ‘garden of Eden’ in the centre• Chile – the natural choice………
An old new-world wine country• Wine has been made in Chile since the mid 16th century• Vines were brought by the Spanish ‘conquistadors’ – mainly País• The ‘classic’ vine varieties such as Cabernet, Merlot, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc were brought from France in the middle of 19th century• Carmenère arrived from Bordeaux in mid 19th century (before phylloxera) but was not properly identified until 1994• Although best known for its red wines, mainly Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Carmenère, some of Chile’s most exciting wines are now from Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Pinot Noir, and especially Syrah
Chilean VineyardPlantings 2011 Main VarietiesTotal Vineyard Area: Cabernet Sauvignon: Camenere:111,525 ha 40,728 ha 8,827 haTotal Red Varieties: Chardonnay: Syrah:80,933 ha 13,082 ha 6,027 haTotal White Varieties: Sauvignon Blanc: Pinot Noir:30,592 ha 12,159 ha 2,884 haRed / White Varieties: Merlot: Other Varieties:73% / 27% 10,041 ha 17,774 ha
Special characteristics• Ideal climate – warm days & cool nights• Long growing season• Diverse topography and fertile soils• Low average rainfall – and mostly in winter• No phylloxera• Ability to practice near organic farming• High levels of antioxidants and flavanols• Pure & natural water for irrigation• High levels of investment in winemaking and viticulture• Stylistically, a blend of ‘old world’ and ‘new world’
Chile – a modern & progressive country• Chile exports over 75% of its wine production and is the world’s 5th largest exporter of wine• Exports in 2011 total 75 million cases to 150 countries with a value of US$ 1.7 billion.• The top 10 export markets for Chile are the UK, USA, Holland, China, Canada, Brazil, Japan, Germany, Denmark, and Ireland The capital city Santiago
Total Chilean wine exports 1996-2011$1,800,000$1,600,000 Chile - total exports to all markets Value (000s USD$)$1,400,000 Chile - total exports to all markets Volume (000s litres)$1,200,000$1,000,000 $800,000 $600,000 $400,000 $200,000 $0 Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Основной Source: S.A.G. Govt of Chile
Unique terroirs and conditions• Colluvial and alluvial granitic soils and stony river beds from the relatively young Andes Mountains• Very old sea bed sediments created the coastal range of mountains with much older soils• Humboldt current flowing up the coast from Antarctica creates cold sea and cooler coastal temperatures• Chile’s vineyard areas are completely free from the vine pest phylloxera thus all vines are growing on their original rootstocks• The snow-melt from the mighty Andes mountain range provides an abundant natural water supply for vineyard irrigation
Chile’s wine Regions• Elqui• Limarí & Choapa• Aconcagua• Casablanca• San Antonio (including Leyda)• Maipo• Cachapoal Central• Colchagua Rapel Valley Valley• Curicó• Maule• Itata• Bío Bío & Malleco
Red wine regions - COMPARISONSRegion Heat Diurnal Average Average Summation Range (°C) Minimum (°C) Maximum (°C Days) (°C)Bordeaux 1485 11.4 11.2 22.6(France)Coonawarra 1399 14.4 9.5 23.8(Australia)Pumanque 1513 14.2 10.1 21.9(Colchagua, Chile)Alto Jahuel 1637 17.6 8.9 26.5(Maipo, Chile)Apalta 1781 16.5 10.2 26.7(Colchagua, Chile) Misión
Cooler areas – white wine regions (and Pinot Noir)Region Distance Heat Diurnal to coast summation range (°C) kms (°C days)Limarí 40 1741 12.2Maipo Alto 90 1637 17.6Casablanca 30 1245 17.2Pumanque 30 1513 14.2Leyda 15 1327 11.2San Antonio 5 1145 10.6Dijon - Burgundy 1172 11.4Misión
Chile’s ‘extreme’ regionsSantiago – Huasco 660 kmsSantiago – Elqui 470 kms Wine growing areas stretch1,500 kms from north to southSantiago – Bío Bío 550 kmsSantiago – Osorno 900 kms
Chile’s exciting regions for the future• Huasco – almost into the Atacama Desert – plantings of Sauv Blanc & Pinot Noir• Elqui – cool but very sunny, good light – ideal for Syrah and Sauv Blanc• Limarí – granite & limestone – great minerality for Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Syrah• Aconcagua Costa (Concón & Zapallar) cool with some schist soils – potential for SB, Chard, and Syrah• Leyda – marine clay & granite soils with random limestone – very cool with Ocean influence• Coastal Colchagua (Paredones, Lolol)• Maule – Cauquenes – old vine / dry grown Carignan, Malbec, Petit Verdot – and Empedrado (Miguel Torres project)• Bío Bío – schist and old granite and some quartz – more European climate – potential for Pinot Noir, Riesling, Chard• Malleco (Traiguén) – cool & wetter – like Central Otago• Temuco and Lago Ranco – experimental plantings in far south – possibility for sparkling?
some quotes....Ronan Sayburn - director of wine and spirits, Hotel du Vin group“I love Chilean wine – especially now they’re planting more onto the hillsides and starting to make some really exciting stuff. In Leyda and Casablanca they’re making a new style of Sauvignon Blanc which I think is really unique, and way down south they’re starting to make Gewurztraminer, which is extremely exciting.”Gerard Basset MW and Master Sommelier - co-owner, Hotel TerraVina, Hampshire“There’s a very enthusiastic bunch of producers in Chile now and a real buzz when you go and visit the vineyards. The quality of the wine, not just the classic Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Sauvignon, but even some of the Syrah and Pinot Noir is very high, and it tends to be extremely good value.”Martin Lam - chef-patron, Ransomes Dock, Battersea, London“Five years ago if you’d have asked me was a Chilean Sauvignon Blanc a ‘must have’ on a contemporary wine list in the same way as a Marlborough, I would’ve said ‘no’, but in the Decanter world wine awards this year a Chilean Sauvignon won the overall SB trophy. In the last 10 years it’s like someone took the brake off and Chile is running away with forward-thinking wine-making.”
High scores in influential US publications in 2011 (Robert Parker and others)95 points: 92 points:• Concha y Toro Carmin de Peumo • Montes M 2007 Carmenere 2007 • Matetic EQ Syrah 200893 points: • Lapostolle Clos Apalta 2007• Cono Sur 20 Barrels Sauvignon • Domus Aurea 2008 Blanc 2009 • Errazuriz La Cumbre 2008• Almaviva 2007 • Errazuriz Kai 2008• Santa Rita Casa Real 2007 • Errazuriz Don Maximiano 2008• San Pedro 1865 Syrah 2007 • Ventisquero Pangea 2007• Casa Marin Syrah 2008 • Cousiño Macul Finis Terrae 2007• Emiliana Gé 2006 • Santa Ema Catalina 2007• CyT Don Melchor 2007 • Miguel Torres Superunda 2005
A MILESTONE FOR THE CHILEAN WINE INDUSTRY January 2004 Rene Gabriel / Eduardo Chadwick / Steven Spurrier
The Berlin Tasting around the world 6 MAY, 2009 14 MAY, 2008 5 OCT, 2006 13 OCT, 2008 5 MAY, 2009 23 JAN, 2004 7 JULY, 2008 14 JUNE, 200610 MAY, 2010 8 JULY, 2008 7 NOV, 2005
The wine is an assemblage of CabernetSauvignon, Carmenère, Cabernet Franc andMerlot. The grapes are picked from 63hectares within the Puente Alto Vineyard andthe wine is made in its own bespoke beautifulwinery.Cabernet Sauvignon 73%Carmenère 22%Cabernet Franc 4%Merlot 1%The Puente Alto region of the Maipo Valley where the soil andsub-soils all favour Cabernet Sauvignon plantings, is oftenregarded as Chiles finest area for this variety. The soils arestoney and with careful ploughing we reduce the weeds andencourage the roots to grow deep in to the soil.
• Chile’s original modern fine wine (21 consecutive vintages) • Puente Alto Vineyard - Alto Maipo at 650m altitude – deep stony silt alluvial soils - nutrient poor & mineral rich. Planted in 1976 • Average yield 3.5 tonnes per hectare97% Cabernet Sauvignon3% Cabernet FrancThe soils are very stony, making them highlypermeable and free-draining. The vines which are 20years old on average yield very low amounts of smallberries, which are highly concentrated in colour andfruit flavours.
It is also the first ever Chilean Carmenère to receive theunprecedented score of 97 points in The Wine Advocate in June2007. Winemaker Ignacio Recabarren chose Block 32 in the Peumovineyard for its unique terroir, which he believes is ideal for thisgrape variety. Carmin de Peumo is made predominantly withCarmenère grapes with the addition of a small percentage ofCabernet Sauvignon, Petit Verdot and Cabernet Franc. Afterfermentation, the wine spends approximately 20 months in newFrench oak barriques.90% Carmenère7.5% Cabernet Sauvignon2.5% Cabernet FrancBlock 32 has deep clay soils, alluvial in origin. The clay helps toretain water, controlling the vigour of the vine and allowingthe grapes a long, controlled ripening period.
Casas del Bosque Pequeñas Producciones Sauvignon Blanc 2011 Casablanca Valley• All fruit was sourced from our own vineyard - located within the coolest, westernmost reaches of the Casablanca Valley. Sourced from 8 year old hillside blocks of clone 107 planted on a red clay mixed with decomposed granite. Cropped at an average of 5.5 tonnes per hectare• Harvest was carried out by hand on the 7th and 15th of April, 2011. .• 80% of the blend was racked to stainless steel tanks, inoculated with selected yeasts and ultra-cool fermented (reaching temperatures as low as 8ºC at the peak of the fermentation). Following fermentation this component was aged for 2 months on gross lees (without stirring) before blending. The remaining 20% of the blend was fermented with selected yeasts in new (5%) and second use (15%) French oak barrels with temperatures peaking at 20ºC• Post fermentation the barrels were stirred weekly in order to encourage lees break-down and the subsequent pick-up of “yeasty” characters in the wine. After two months the barrel component was blended with the tank fermented component• Intense notes of grapefruit, lime, white pepper and fresh ginger dominate on the nose. In the mouth flavours of quince and white peach are backed up by smokey notes leading to a flinty, mineral finish with just a hint of green jalapeño chilli. A bright, zesty acidity imparts excellent structure and length.• Alcohol: 13.7%• pH: 3.39• Total Acidity: 6.4 g/L• Residual Sugar: 2.6 g/L
Carmenère Terrunyo means terroir in Spanish and these wines are made from very specific blocks within Concha y Toros single vineyards. The vineyards have been meticulously mapped to identify every feature; including location, orientation and soil structure. Only then are the best blocks chosen for each Terrunyo varietal. Both the back and front labels show the exact position of these blocks within the vineyards. 85% Carmenère 15% Cabernet Sauvignon The clay which is so prolific in the soils of Peumo retain a lot of water, this is ideal for controlling plant growth and therefore stemming production of buds and grapes.
Concha y Toro Terrunyo Carmenere Cachapoal ValleyTechnical Details: 2008 Vintage: • 85% Carmenère, 15% Cabernet Sauvignon, from grapes • Slightly warmer than the previous 2007 vintage the picked in the Rapel Valley, Peumo Vineyard - Further grapes were consistently good weight and with a well away from the slopes of the Andes Mountains the vineyards of Rapel are influenced predominantly by the balanced structure. The winter of 2007 was the coldest Cachapoal River and Lake Rapel. Chile had seen for the past forty years with lots of frosty • Made by Ignacio Recabarren days and less rainfall than the average. These frosts led to some damage on the vines for some varieties in some • Manually harvested between 8 th – 22nd May areas. Vines began budding later than usual years due • Aged for 19 months in French oak barrels (70% new) to the harsh winter, and once the buds had appeared with medium toast they were prolific, which led to extensive working on the vines de-budding. After the harsh winter OctoberAwards & Accolades – all 2007 vintage and November were unseasonably warm, this speeded up the process between bud-break and blooming of the • 95 points – Wine & Spirits vines. • 92 points – Wine Enthusiast • 94 points & Best Carmenère – Descorchados 2011 • 92 points – Wine Spectator (ranked 63 rd in top 100 of Tasting Notes: the World) • This is a luxurious Carmenère, elegant and complex with damsons and plums abundant on the nose, ripe red fruit and tobacco box, mouth filling with a good structure and firm tannins.
Syrah 20 Barrels Limited Edition is Cono Sur’s top range of wines, The first vintage was released in 1996, when the winemaking team decided to put aside 20 of the very best barrels of Casablanca Pinot Noir from that year, hence the name. The range has gradually expanded to include other classic grape varieties, when winemaker, Adolfo Hurtado, feels he has found the ideal vineyard to produce the best example fruit possible for each variety. 93% Syrah 7% Cabernet Sauvignon The alluvial soils of the Los Almendros vineyard are low fertility, which means the vines roots have to bury deep for nutrients. This additional stress on the vine results in a greater concentration of flavour.
Cono Sur 20 Barrels Syrah Limarí ValleyTechnical Details : Tasting Notes: • Los Almendros Estate, Limarí Valley – alluvial and stony • This highly complex Syrah is filled with a remarkable soils which are low in fertility. Gentle climates and warm aromatic combination of black during summer. cherries, flowers, blackberries and spices, followed by a • 92% Syrah 8% Cabernet Sauvignon beautifully rounded and soft taste. A long lasting, elegant • Made by Adolfo Hurtado, Chief Winemaker and General and enigmatic wine; an excellent choice for barbecued Manager for Cono Sur. meats, especially pepperoni and spicy sausage. • Manual harvest 20 th May, yield 6 tonnes per hectare • Aged for 16 months in 100% new French oak barrels.2008 vintage: • Slightly warmer than the previous 2007 vintage the grapes were consistently good weight and with a well balanced structure. The winter of 2007 was the coldest Chile had seen for the past forty years with lots of frosty days and less rainfall than the average. Vines began budding later than usual years due to the harsh winter, and once the buds had appeared they were prolific, which led to extensive working on the vines de-budding. After the harsh winter October and November were unseasonably warm, this speeded up the process between bud-break and blooming of the vines.
The Perez Cruz winery in the foothills of the Andes Mountains in the Alto Maipo Valley
Alto Maipo Valley 600 metres above sea level• Soil is of alluvial origin caused by rock degradation by the rivers and streams resulting in more rounded stones, sand and clay.• In the higher vineyards, in the Andes foothills the soil is coluvial - produced by ancient landslides - more angular stones with clay loam soils• The stones give a great contribution of minerals to the soil and provide good drainage of rainwater
Perez Cruz LIGUAI 2008LIGUAI is a blend between Syrah, Carmenère and C. Sauvignon, and is the name of thestate where the winery is located; its means “guess what” in Mapuche language.The grapes were hand picked on the last week of April, looking for the right tannin andflavour ripeness. Small-lot of grapes was made to reveal unique characteristics of everyparcel. The grapes were selected and carefully crushed and they continued a cold soakmaceration during four days at 10º C. Hand pumping-over was done to make soft tanninsextraction during fermentation and total period of maceration was of 30 days. Malolacticfermentation undergoes in French new one uses oak barrels. Total barrel aging: 16months.The complex, elegant aromas await discovery: black berries, pepper, cedar wood and chocolate, mingled with light toasted note from de French oak. Its is a concentrated wine with a solid tannic structure and a long, persistent finish.Denomination of Origin: Maipo Andes ValleyVarieties: 40% Syrah, 30% ,C. Sauvignon , 30% Carmenère.Filtering: Very light, avoiding over processing.Origin: Liguai Estate, Huelquén, Paine, Maipo Valley.Yield: 3.5 tons/ha.Harvest: Hand picked.Alc Vol%: 14.5%Total Acidity: 3.50 gr/l Sulfuric acid.PH: 3,43 Recommended Serving Temperatures: 18º C
Santa Rita Alto Jahuel• Climate and Soil:• The climate is sub-humid Mediterranean. Rainfall is primarily concentrated in the winter with an annual average of 500 mm. Spring is cold and dry and the summers are hot with temperatures that surpass 30ºC. The influence of the Andes Mountains produces a daily temperature variation of more than 15ºC.• Temperature begins to drop toward the end of the summer, which allows the grapes to ripen gradually while maintaining good fruit concentration and reaching proper maturation of the tannins.• Soils are of alluvial origin with an 80- 100 cm (31.5-39.4 in) layer of loam atop a layer of silt, which ensures proper drainage of rainwater and deep root growth.
CASA REAL100% Cabernet Sauvignon 2008Alto Jahuel – Maipo Alto ValleyVinification:Classic in every sense. The hand-picked grapes were inspected andselected upon reaching the cellar. Alcoholic fermentation took placewith selected yeasts to ensure complete fermentation. Colour andtannin extraction was achieved through manual pumpovers anddetermined by tastings to respect the characteristics of the grapesand to allow them to reach their maximum potential.The wine was aged for 18 months in new French oak barrels.Malolactic fermentation occurred in the barrels. The wine was notfiltered.Technical Details: •pH: 3.53 •Total Acidity: 3.6 g/lt •Alcohol: 14.7 % Vol •Residual: 2.4 g/lt Misión •Bottling Date: May 5, 2010 •Ageing Potential: More than 20 years