Risk-Focused Prevention• PREVENT problem behavior fromhappening:– Identify factors that increase risk of problemand then find ways to reduce those risks– Enhance protective/resiliency factors• Decades of research: Hawkins, Catalano& other researchers• Four Domains:– Community -- Family– School -- Individual/Peer
Problem behaviors share common riskfactorsExposure to a greater number of riskfactors a young person’s riskexponentiallyProtective factors buffer exposure to risk& build on strengths of individual, family,communityThe Risk & Protective FactorTheory:
Risk FactorA characteristic at the biological,psychological, family, community,or cultural level that precedesand is associated with a higherlikelihood of problem outcomesSource: CAPT http://captus.samhsa.gov
Recognized Problem Behaviors• Substance abuse• Violence• Delinquency• Teenage pregnancy• School dropout Problem gambling??– Apparently similar risk factors– Very high co-occurrence between problemgambling & other problem behaviors, especiallyalcohol/substance abuse
Risk or Protective?Individual, family, community /society? Young people who feel school isimportant. Young people who live incommunities with norms tolerantof use. Young people who believe drug useis dangerous.
Young people who have friendswho use alcohol or marijuana. Young people who have anopportunity to contribute to theirschools. Young people who begin ______ atan early age.Risk or Protective?Individual, family, community /society?
Potential Shared Risk Factors forProblem GamblingCommunity:– Availability– Community Laws & NormsFamily:– Family History– Family Conflict (competition)– Parental Attitudes/InvolvementSource: Marotta & Hynes, 2003
• Single-parent household• Gambling oncards/sports• Being male, older teen• Lower householdincome• Competitive• Having lost more than$50 in a single month• Started gambling before8th grade (earlyinitiation)• Parents who gamble--youth twice as likely tobe at-risk gamblers &four times as likely to beproblem gamblersSource: Volberg, et al (2008; bid).RISK FACTORS FOR YOUTH
“A” Unique Set of RisksYouthgambling isstill underthe radar.
“The earlier people begingambling, the more likelythey are to experienceproblems from gambling.”- National Academy of Sciences
•Amygdala active•Fight or flight,emotion•Decision-makingaltered•More vulnerable to risk-taking & impulsivebehaviorsSource: Ramoski, S., Nystrom, R. (2007).“The adolescent brain isespecially sensitive to theeffects of dopamine.
AWARENESS (low)2012 Oregon Student Wellness Survey, Lane County (“ESD”) andOregon; available athttp://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011
AWARENESSOregon parent/youth focus groups :All parents in their focus groups said theirkids didn’t gambleAll of their kids, who were in their own focusgroups, said they did gambleNeither sees gambling as risky
ATTITUDESMost parents &communities believe:Youth gambling is harmlessYouth who gamble areunlikely to haveproblems in schoolYouth gambling is notassociated withalcohol or drug use…and those beliefs arepart of the problem!
2012 OregonStudent Wellness Survey (SWS)2012 Gambling, Substance Use and Mental Healthamong Oregon Youth0%10%20%30%40%50%Gambling Alcohol BingeAlcoholMarijuana CigarettesDepression PsychdistressPercentage6th 8th11thSource: http://oregon.pridesurveys.com/esds.php?year=2011n=55,611 students (18,885 6th grade; 21,368 8th grade; 15,358 11th grade)
Used alcohol in the pastmonth3.1%14.6%29.5%14.9%30.9%46.9%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble Gambled
Binge drank in the last 30days0.5%5.6%16.4%4.3%12.7%28.7%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
Smoked cigarettes in the pastmonth1.1%6.2%12.5%5.1%10.8%18.7%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
Used marijuana in the pastmonth0.7%8.3%19.3%4.3%15.8%28.4%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
Skipped school one or moredays in the past month5.7%12.8%22.5%15.4%23.0%35.4%Grade 6 Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htm
7.2%5.0%11.3%9.0%Grade 8 Grade 11Did not gamble GambledAvailable at: www.preventionlane.org/sws.htmPercent of youth that attemptedsuicide in the past year
Percent of youth that attemptedsuicide in the past year10.1%8.0%21.0%18.6%Grade 8 Grade 11Did not bet/gamble more than wanted toBet/gambled more than wanted to
Delinquency (physical fight inlast month)41.80%22.40%Physical fightGambled Did not gamble
CONCLUSION?Teens who gamble aresmoked up, toked up,drunk emo delinquents.
CONCLUSION?Teens who gamble aresmoked up, toked up,drunk emo delinquents.
delinquencysexualbehaviordepressionsubstanceusegamblingProblemBehaviorsConclusion: Problem Gambling isOne Component ofProblem Behaviors
Protective Factors &Gambling60.60%29%65.90%21.80%Strong Positive Youth development DepressionGambled Did not gamble
43.80%32.90%53.70%23.20%Likes school absenteeismGambled Did not gambleProtective Factors &Gambling
Protective Factors &GamblingLussier et al (2007):Social bonding &personal competencerelated to lowergambling severity.
• Tobacco, alcohol, andother drug use and abuse• Delinquency and crime• Premature or unsafe sex• Depression and suicidality• School failure, dropoutScientific consensus is that that wecan prevent these problems
By creating nurturingenvironments usingEVIDENCE-BASEDPREVENTION PRACTICES
Pre-conceptionPrenatal/InfancyEarlyChildhoodChildhoodEarlyAdolescenceAdolescenceFamily• Prenatal care• Home visiting• Evidence-based parentingprograms• Evidence-based kernelsSchools• High-quality preschool and daycare• Classroom-based prevention curricula• Evidence-based kernels• Afterschool programsCommunity• Community organizing to improve neighborhood environments• Support for evidence-based strategies• Support for out-of-school activities• Evidence-based kernelsPolicy• Community members have ensured access to services to meetbasic needs• Promotion and support of healthy lifestyles• Policy to promote and support evidence-based strategiesPrevention strategies bydevelopmental phase and domainSource: Project WEAVE, 2011
The right support to the right peopleIdeally, we would have varying levelsof support to meet the needs ofdiverse youth and their families.Size of population affectedMore intensive for at-risk youth and families~15%Most intensiveinterventions for theyouth and families athighest risk~10%Universal supports forall youthand families~75%Source: Project WEAVE, 2011
Evidence-based prevention isa good investment$61 $120 $880$1,200$15$30,828$79,935 $94,900$50$5,050$10,050$15,050$20,050Annual cost per person perfamilySource: Project WEAVE, 2011
Evidence-based prevention programssave money• On average, for every dollar investedin these evidence-based preventionprograms nationwide…– $6 was saved with Project Alert– $8 was saved with Adolescent TransitionsProgram– $11 was saved with StrengtheningFamilies 10-14– $35 was saved with Good Behavior GameWe can expect all of these to work withproblem gambling!
It’s ALL of us.NOT JUST programsOR those prevention people.
More links:Consider doing one of yourassignments on a vulnerablepopulation group we didn’tget to explore.National Registry of EffectivePrevention Practices (NREPP)(SAMHSA)“Best Intentions Aren’t Enough:Techniques for Using Research &Data to Develop New Evidence-Informed Prevention Programs”(U.S. Dept of H&HS, 2013)
preventionlaneFor more info & resources, visitpreventionlane preventionlane