bacteria detection bacteria identification label-free optical transduction volatile organic compound volatile metabolite bacterial voc escherichia coli sol-gel forward-scattering enzymatic activity gas detection non-invasive detection elastic scattering yeast fungi candida backward-scattering clinical microbiology microcolonies non-invasive technique nanotubes de carbone monocouches; fluoration; agen indole picoliter droplets fluorinated water-in-oil emulsion reverse emulsion rapid enumeration beta-d-glucuronidase digital microbiology fluorosurfactant single-cell characterization p-nitrophenol
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