Dualfrequency oshaped 3 way bagley power divider based on tlt

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Dualfrequency oshaped 3 way bagley power divider based on tlt

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD), International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 ISSN 2248– 9525 (Print)ISSN 2248 –9533 (Online), Volume 3, Number 1 IJECERDResearch and Development (IJECERD), (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013)Jan- March (2013), pp.22- 28© PRJ Publication, http://www.prjpublication.com/IJECERD.asp © PRJ PUBLICATION DUAL-FREQUENCY O-SHAPED 3-WAY BAGLEY POWER DIVIDER BASED ON TLT Prashant Gupta1, P.K.Singhal2 1,2 Electronics Department, Madhav Institute of Technology and Science, Gwalior-474005, India ABSTRACT In this paper, dual-frequency O-shaped 3-way Bagley power divider is designed and analysed. Equal split power division is achieved at arbitrary design Frequencies. In this structure, two-section transmission line transformer is used to realize the dual-frequency operation. This paper describes a new Bagley power divider on a single-layer micro strip line that can reduce the occupied area. To validate the design procedure, O-shaped Bagley power divider is designed, simulated, and fabricated. The design frequencies are chosen to be 1 GHz and 2 GHz. Very good matching at the input port is achieved, and Good transmission parameters are obtained from these experiments. The results demonstrate that the design can fulfil our goals. Keyword-Bagley power divider (BPD), Microwave wireless application, Full wave simulator [IE3d], Ms Paint, Ms Excel, Transmission line transformer (TLT), Wilkinson power divider (WPD). INTRODUCTION With the advent of new wireless communication technologies, multi-frequency microwave components are widely needed. In this regard, multi-frequency transmission line transformers (TLTs) have been reported in literature [1-6]. In [1, 5], closed form design equations for the dual-frequency TLT were presented. Tri-frequency and quad-frequency TLTs were reported in [2, 3], respectively. Furthermore, the general design of multi-frequency TLTs for arbitrary number of operating frequencies was presented in [4]. On the other hand, other dual- frequency TLTs for arbitrary number of operating frequencies was presented in [5, 6].The Wilkinson power divider (WPD) is one of the devices that have taken advantage from the multi-frequency TLTs in microwave components design. In [7], the design of dual-frequency unequal split WPD using Monzons equations [1] was presented. In [8, 9], triple and quad- frequency equal split WPDs were designed and investigated. The general design of multi- frequency equal split WPD was presented in [10]. Moreover, the dual-frequency operation is 22
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013)achieved using three different techniques; namely dual-frequency TLT [1,5]. The designprocedure is simple and straightforward. After reducing the 3-way BPD to its equivalentcircuit model, one of the dual-frequency matching networks can be used instead of thequarter-wave section to generate the dual-frequency operation of the BPD. Following thesame procedure, triple and quad frequency operation can be achieved by utilizing the tripleand quad TLTs [2, 3]. The designed dual-frequency dividers are simulated using full-wavesimulator (IE3D [11]). Moreover, fabrication and measurement are performed. The results ofthe simulations and the measurements are in good agreement.PROPOSED CONFIGURATION AND THE THEORY As mentioned above, based on the conventional Bagley polygon power divider,compact modified Bagley dividers were proposed in [5, 6]. Figure 1(a) shows the schematicdiagram of the 3-way modified BPD [5]. Noting that this divider is symmetric around itscentre line, an equivalent circuit (looking from Port 1 to the right or left side) can be drawn asshown in Figure 1(b). Figure: 1 (a) Figure: 1 (b)Figure 1 Proposed structure of 3-way BPD. Referring to the equivalent circuit it can be easily realized that choosing Zh = 2Z0makes the design of this BPD independent of the length lh. In this case, the characteristic ଶ୞impedance (Zm) of the quarter wave section is Zm =ඥሺ2Z଴ ሻ Z୪ , where Z୪ = బ . This gives: ଷ ଶ୞బ √ଷ Zm = 23
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013) ଶ୞Thus, each quarter-wave section matches an impedance of ଷబ to2Z0, resulting in a perfectmatch at port 1 (the input port) and equal split power division to the three output ports. Asnoted in the Introduction, the BPD does not contain any lumped elements, and it can be easilyextended to any (odd) number of output ports.DUAL-FREQUENCY MATCHING NETWORKS Figure shows a schematic diagram for the dual-frequency two-section transmission linetransformer (TLT) [1, 5]. To achieve a dual-frequency operation, the conventional quarter-wave section is replaced by two transmission line sections, as shown in Figure 2. Figure: 2. Dual-frequency two-section TLT The characteristic impedances (Zm1, Zm2) and the line lengths (lm1, lm2) for the twosections can be evaluated using the following equations [1- 5]. lm1 = lm2 (1) ஠ lm2=ஒଵାஒଶ (2) α ൌ ሺtanሺβ1lm1ሻሻଶ (3) ୞୬ሺ୞ౢ ି୞୬ሻ ଶ Zm1 ൌ ඨ ൅ ටZ୬ Z୪ ൅ ቂ ୞୬ሺ୞ౢ ି୞୬ሻ ଶ஑ ଷ ଶ஑ ቃ (4) ୞ౢ୞୬ Z୫ଶ ൌ ୞ౣభ (5)Where β1 and β2 are the phase constants at the design frequencies f1 and f2, respectively.In ଶ୞the case of the 3-way BPD, Zn corresponds to 2Z0, while Z୪ = ଷబ, where Z0 is the portsimpedance (usually 50 ). Based on the dual-frequency matching networks presented in the previous section,dual-frequencies BPD operating at 1 GHz and 2 GHz are designed, simulated, and fabricated.First, circuit models of the designed dual-frequency O-shaped 3-way BPD is simulated usingthe full-wave simulator IE3D [11]. An FR-4 substrate, with a relative permittivity of ୰ = 4.4 ɛimpedance Z଴ is chosen to beand a substrate height of h =1.6mm is used. In this design presented below, the terminating50 which gives Z୦ = 100 and W୦ = 0.64 mm; while, l୦ is chosen arbitrarily. 24
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013)Figure: 3.The layout of the proposed dual-frequency O shaped 3-way Bagley power divider. (Dimensions are in mm)found to be: Z୫ଵ ൌ 69.05Ω and Z୫ଶ ൌ 48.27Ω . The corresponding micro strip line widthsUsing the design Equations (4) and (5), the dual-frequency two-section TLT impedances areconsidering the substrate mentioned above are W୫ଵ ൌ1.6mm and W୫ଶ ൌ 3.11 mm. FromEquations (2) and (3), the corresponding physical lengths are lm1 = 27.59mm and lm2 =26.84 mm. Figure 3 represents the layout of the designed dual-frequency 3-way BPD usingTLT sections.III FABRICATION, SIMULATION AND MEASUREMENT SETUPThe 3-way O-shaped BPD structures are simulated using the full wave simulator IE3D [11].Figure 4 presents the simulation and measurement results of this dual-frequency 3- way BPDusing TLT. Dual-frequency operation with centre frequencies around 1 GHz and 2 GHz isclearly seen. As shown in Figure 4(a), good input port matching is achieved with parameterS11 equals -35 dB and -30 dB at 1GHz and 2GHz,respectively, Figures 4(b),4(b) and 4(c)show the transmission parameters (S12, S13 and s14). Since the BPD is an equal split powerdivider, the simulated and measured values of transmission parameter are close to thetheoretical value of -4.77 dB at the design frequencies. The small differences are due tolosses and discontinuities shown in Figure 4. It is worth mentioning here that because of thesymmetry of the structure, S14 is the same as S12. The agreement between simulated andmeasured results can be clearly seen. 25
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013) Figure: 4(a) Figure :4(c) Figure: 4(b) Figure: 4(d) Figure: 4. Simulation and measurement results of this dual-frequency 3- way BPD using TLT. (Source: IE3D, Ms Excel)A picture of the fabricated dual-frequency 3- way BPD is shown in Figure 5. An extra 5mmfeeding lines were used at each port of the 3-way BPD to make it possible to attach the BNCconnectors that adapt to the coaxial cables connecting to the spectrum analyzer, whenmeasurements were performed. The dual-frequency BPD, presented above, have beenfabricated using the same FR-4 substrate, mentioned earlier, and tested using a SpectrumAnalyser extending from 0 to3 GHz. 26
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013) Figure: 5. a photograph of dual-frequency O-shaped 3-way Bagley power dividerCONCLUSIONDual-frequency matching network was investigated and applied in the design of dual-frequency O shaped 3-way Bagley power dividers. Dual-frequency operation was achievedusing two sections of TLT. The full-wave simulation IE3D results and the experimentalresults confirmed the dual-frequency operation of the designed divider. Very good input Portmatching and transmission responses were obtained at the design frequencies. Differencesbetween the simulations and measurements results could be due to the fabrication process,and measurements Errors. Even though a 3-way BPD was only considered in this paper, thesame procedure can be applied on BPD with any (odd) number of output ports.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI Prashant Gupta student of ME final year Electronics Department, Madhav Institute ofTechnology and Science, Gwalior-474005, India designed the proposed structure. This workis supported by Dr P.K.Singhal Associate Professor Electronics Department, MadhavInstitute of Technology and Science, Gwalior-474005, India.REFERENCES[1] Monzon, C., “A small dual-frequency transformer in two sections,"IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 15,No. 4, 1157-1161, Apr. 2003.[2] Chongcheawchamnan, M., S. Patissang, and S. Srisathit,“Analysis and design of a three section transmission line-transformer," IEEE Transactions on Microwave [3] Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2458-2462, Jul. 2005.[3] Jwaied, H., F. Muwanes, and N. Dib, “Analysis and design of quad-band four-section transmission line impedance transformer,"Applied Computational Electro magnetics Society (ACES) Journal,Vol. 22, No. 3, 381-387, Nov. 2007.[4] Khodier, M., N. Dib, and J. Ababneh, “Design of multi-band multi-section transmission line transformer using particle swarm optimization," Electrical Engineering Journal (Archiv fur Elektrotechnik), Vol. 90, No. 4, 293-300, Apr. 2008 27
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Research and Development (IJECERD),ISSN 2248-9525(Print), ISSN- 2248-9533 (Online) Volume 3, Number 1, Jan-March (2013)[5] A. Qaroot, K. Shamaileh, and N. Dib, “Design And Analysis Of Dual- Frequencymodified 3-Way Bagley Power Dividers,” Progress In Electromagnetics Research C,Vol. 20,67-81,2011.[6] Sakagami, I., T. Wuren, M. Fujii, and M. Tahara, “Compact multi-way power dividers similar to the Bagley polygon," 2007 IEEE/MTT-S Int. Microwave Symposium, 419-422, 2007.[7] Feng, C., G. Zhao, X. Liu, and F. Zhang, “A novel dual-frequency unequal Wilkinson power divider," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 50, No. 6, 1695- 1699, Jun. 2008.[8] Chongcheawchamnan, M., S. Patissang, M. Krairiksh, and I. Robertson, “Tri-band Wilkinson power divider using a three-section transmission-line transformer," IEEE Microwave and Wireless Communications Letters, Vol. 16, No. 8, 452-454,Aug. 2006.[9] Jwaied, H., F Mawanes, and N. Dib, “Analysis and design of a quad-band Wilkinson power divider," Int. Journal on Wireless and Optical Communication, Vol. 4, No. 3, 305-312, 2007.[10] Dib, N. and M. Khodier, “Design and optimization of multi-band Wilkinson power divider," International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-aided Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, 14-20,Jan. 2008.[11] Zeland software 2011 [IE3D], www.zeland.com.[12] B.Ramarao, M.Aswini, D.Yugandhar, Dr.P.V.Sridevi “dominant mode resonant frequency of circular microstrip antennas with and without air gap” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET) Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 111 - 122, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6472, Published by IAEME.[13] Haritha.Thotakura, Dr. Sri Gowri .Sajja and Dr. Elizabeth Rani.D, “performance of coherent ofdm systems against frequency offset estimation under different fading channels” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET) Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 244 - 251, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6472, Published by IAEME. 28

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