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Choithram Institute of Health 
Sciences 
PRESENTATION ON-BREATHING 
PATTERNS 
Guided By- Submitted By- 
Dr. Kiran P. S. Ap...
CONTENTS : 
 PHYSIOLOGY OF BREATHING 
 INFLUENCING FACTORS 
 PARAMETERS OF ASSESSMENT 
 ABNORMAL BREATHING PATTERNS
 PHYSIOLOGY OF BREATHING: 
• Breathing is a process by which Oxygen is 
taken in and Carbon dioxide is given out of 
the ...
1.INSPIRATION 2. EXPIRATION 
PHASE PHASE
 INFLUENCING FACTORS: 
1. AGE 
• New born- 30-50 breath/min 
• 3 years - 20-30 breath/min 
• 10 years – 16-22 breath/min ...
 PARAMETERS OF ASSESING: 
• Rate 
• Depth 
• Rhythm 
• Character
 ABNORMAL BREATHING 
PATTERNS: 
1. Apnea 
2. Tachypnea 
3. Bradypnea 
4. Hyperventilation 
5. Kussmaul breathing 
6. Chey...
APNEA : 
 Suspension of breathing. 
 No movement of muscles of resp. 
and volume of lungs remains same. 
 No airflow in...
 Prolonged apnea leads to severe 
lack of oxygen in circulation, b’coz 
under normal conditions body cannot 
store much o...
 Apneic oxygenation 
 Apnea test in determining brain 
death: 
The 3 diagnostic criteria of brain 
death are as follows-...
TACHYPNEA : 
o Increased rate of breathing , 
i.e. >20 breaths/min. 
o Characterized by rapid, shallow 
breathing.
 It is seen in following conditions- 
1. Fever 
2. Pneumonia 
3. Compensatory resp.alkalosis 
4. Respiratory insufficienc...
BRADYPNEA : 
 Decreased rate of breathing , 
i.e. <12 breaths/min. 
 Characterized by slow, shallow 
breathing.
 The rate at c bradypnea is 
diagnosed depends on the age – 
• 0-1 years - <30 breaths/min. 
• 1-3 years - <25 breaths/mi...
HYPERVENTILATION : 
 Characterized by rapid, deep 
breathing. 
 Caused by increased levels of CO2.
 Other causes include – 
• Anxiety or pain 
• Excessive use of aspirin 
• Obstructive disorders- COPD, 
asthma, & pulmona...
 Hyperventilation leads to following 
symptoms- 
• Dizziness 
• Light headedness 
• Weakness 
• Shortness of breath 
• Mu...
KUSSMAUL BREATHING : 
 Rapid, gasping & very deep type of 
labored breathing. 
 Commonly called as “air hunger”. 
 It i...
 Mechanism of kussmaul breathing. 
 Kussmaul’s sign – increase in JVP 
during inspiration.
CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING: 
 Also called as “periodic breathing”. 
 This condition was named after 
“John Cheyne & William...
 Mechanism 
 Conditions in c it is seen are- 
• Stroke 
• Traumatic brain injury 
• Brain tumors 
• Heart failure 
• Tox...
BIOT’S BREATHING : 
 Also called as “cluster breathing" or 
“ataxic breathing”. 
 It is named for a French Physician 
“C...
 It is a group of quick, shallow 
inspirations followed by regular or 
irregular periods of apnea. 
 Causes include- 
• ...
 In ataxic breathing, there is 
complete irregularity of breathing, 
with irregular pauses & increasing 
periods of apnea...
AGONAL BREATHING : 
 shallow & very slow inspirations 
(about 3-4 breaths/min.) followed 
by irregular pauses of apnea. 
...
SIGHING RESPIRATION : 
• Is is the breathing punctuated by 
frequent sighs. 
• Alerts you for possibility of 
hyperventila...
OBSTRUCTED BREATHING : 
 Also called as “air trapping”. 
 It is seen in obstructive diseases 
of lungs.
 Here, expiration is prolonged 
because of increased airway 
resistance. 
 As the respiratory rate increases 
patient la...
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Breathing patterns

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Breathing patterns

  1. 1. Choithram Institute of Health Sciences PRESENTATION ON-BREATHING PATTERNS Guided By- Submitted By- Dr. Kiran P. S. Aparna Bhagwat B.P.T. 3rd year
  2. 2. CONTENTS :  PHYSIOLOGY OF BREATHING  INFLUENCING FACTORS  PARAMETERS OF ASSESSMENT  ABNORMAL BREATHING PATTERNS
  3. 3.  PHYSIOLOGY OF BREATHING: • Breathing is a process by which Oxygen is taken in and Carbon dioxide is given out of the body. • It is the process of gas exchange that occurs in alveoli by passive diffusion of gases between the alveoli and blood. • The normal rate of breathing is 12-20/min. (in adults) and 30-50/min. (in infants). • The normal relaxed breathing is called as EUPNEA. • There are two phases of breathing- 1. Inspiration/Inhalation 2. Expiration/Exhalation
  4. 4. 1.INSPIRATION 2. EXPIRATION PHASE PHASE
  5. 5.  INFLUENCING FACTORS: 1. AGE • New born- 30-50 breath/min • 3 years - 20-30 breath/min • 10 years – 16-22 breath/min • Adults - 12-20 breath/min 2. Body size and stature 3. Exercise 4. Body position
  6. 6.  PARAMETERS OF ASSESING: • Rate • Depth • Rhythm • Character
  7. 7.  ABNORMAL BREATHING PATTERNS: 1. Apnea 2. Tachypnea 3. Bradypnea 4. Hyperventilation 5. Kussmaul breathing 6. Cheyne-Stokes breathing 7. Biot’s/Ataxic breathing 8. Sighing breathing 9. Obstructed breathing
  8. 8. APNEA :  Suspension of breathing.  No movement of muscles of resp. and volume of lungs remains same.  No airflow into or out from the lungs.  Gaseous exchange & cellular resp. is not affected.  Apnea can be achieved _ 1. Voluntarily (breath holding) 2. Mechanically-strangulation/choking 3. From neurological trauma
  9. 9.  Prolonged apnea leads to severe lack of oxygen in circulation, b’coz under normal conditions body cannot store much oxygen.  A person cannot sustain voluntary apnea for more than 1-2 min. (This is much more decreased in smokers)  This is to maintain constant values of CO2 conc. & pH of blood.  Here CO2 is not removed out of lungs, it accumulates in blood, leading to stimulation of resp. centers in brain c stops apnea.
  10. 10.  Apneic oxygenation  Apnea test in determining brain death: The 3 diagnostic criteria of brain death are as follows- 1. Coma 2. Absence of pulse 3. Apnea
  11. 11. TACHYPNEA : o Increased rate of breathing , i.e. >20 breaths/min. o Characterized by rapid, shallow breathing.
  12. 12.  It is seen in following conditions- 1. Fever 2. Pneumonia 3. Compensatory resp.alkalosis 4. Respiratory insufficiency 5. Lesions to resp. centers in brain 6. Salicylate poisoning 7. Elevated diaphragm  Transient tachypnea of newborns
  13. 13. BRADYPNEA :  Decreased rate of breathing , i.e. <12 breaths/min.  Characterized by slow, shallow breathing.
  14. 14.  The rate at c bradypnea is diagnosed depends on the age – • 0-1 years - <30 breaths/min. • 1-3 years - <25 breaths/min. • 3-12 years - <20 breaths/min. • 12 & above - <12 breaths/min.  It is see secondary to following conditions- • Diabetic coma • Respiratory depression • Increased intra-cranial pressure
  15. 15. HYPERVENTILATION :  Characterized by rapid, deep breathing.  Caused by increased levels of CO2.
  16. 16.  Other causes include – • Anxiety or pain • Excessive use of aspirin • Obstructive disorders- COPD, asthma, & pulmonary embolism. • Infections – pneumonia • Congestive heart failure • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  17. 17.  Hyperventilation leads to following symptoms- • Dizziness • Light headedness • Weakness • Shortness of breath • Muscle spasm in hands & feet.  All these symptoms are the result of increased CO2 in blood caused by over-breathing.
  18. 18. KUSSMAUL BREATHING :  Rapid, gasping & very deep type of labored breathing.  Commonly called as “air hunger”.  It is been named for - “Adolph Kussmaul”, a German doctor who first noted it among patients with advanced diabetes mellitus.  It is associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis.
  19. 19.  Mechanism of kussmaul breathing.  Kussmaul’s sign – increase in JVP during inspiration.
  20. 20. CHEYNE-STOKES BREATHING:  Also called as “periodic breathing”.  This condition was named after “John Cheyne & William Stokes”, the physicians who first described it in 19th century.  Characterized by alternate periods of tachypnea and apnea.  Occurs as a compensation for changing serum pO2 & pCO2, and classically seen in damage to pons where resp. centers are located.
  21. 21.  Mechanism  Conditions in c it is seen are- • Stroke • Traumatic brain injury • Brain tumors • Heart failure • Toxic metabolic encephalopathy
  22. 22. BIOT’S BREATHING :  Also called as “cluster breathing" or “ataxic breathing”.  It is named for a French Physician “Camille Biot” who characterized it in 1876.  It is periodic in nature & is characterized by unpredictable irregularities in breathing that alternates with periods of apnea.
  23. 23.  It is a group of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular periods of apnea.  Causes include- • Lesion to brainstem (sp. Medulla) • Cervical spine injury – leading to resp.depression.
  24. 24.  In ataxic breathing, there is complete irregularity of breathing, with irregular pauses & increasing periods of apnea.  As the breathing pattern deteriorates, it merges with the Agonal breathing.
  25. 25. AGONAL BREATHING :  shallow & very slow inspirations (about 3-4 breaths/min.) followed by irregular pauses of apnea.  Characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations.  Causes include- • Cerebral ischemia • Severe hypoxia/anoxia • Cardiac arrest
  26. 26. SIGHING RESPIRATION : • Is is the breathing punctuated by frequent sighs. • Alerts you for possibility of hyperventilation syndrome. • Common cause of dyspnea & dizziness.
  27. 27. OBSTRUCTED BREATHING :  Also called as “air trapping”.  It is seen in obstructive diseases of lungs.
  28. 28.  Here, expiration is prolonged because of increased airway resistance.  As the respiratory rate increases patient lacks sufficient time for full expiration. Hence the chest over-expands i.e. air trapping occurs and the breathing becomes more shallow.
  29. 29. Revision of waveforms:
  30. 30. …Thank you..

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