Made By : Priyanka Chavan(114007)
Department : DCP 2nd year.
a paper presentation on
• The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict when Computers will compute
faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases.
• This technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules
• Atom will be enable part of this future, enabling great improvements in future, it must be used in
all the fields, in which the human present.
• Nanotechnology will touch our lives right-out to the water we drink and the air we breathe. Once
we have ability to capture position and change the configuration of the molecule, we would be able
to create filtration systems that will scrub the toxins from the air or remove hazardous organisms
from the water we drink.
• Space will always open up to us in new ways. With the current cost of transporting pay loads into
space being as, high as $20,000 per kg, little is being done to take the advantage of space.
Nanotechnology helps us to deliver more machines of smaller size and greater,
functional it into space, paving the way for solar system expansion. The application of
nanotechnology might even allow us to adapt our body for survive in space.
• We will able to expand control of systems from the macro level to the micro level and
beyond, while simultaneously reducing the cost associated with manufacturing of products.
1. What is nanotechnology?
2. Goal of nanotechnology
3. Pioneers of nanotechnology.
4. Up and down approaches in nanotechnology
5. Combining of Atoms
6. Devices of nanotechnology
7. Formation of carbon Nanotube circuits.
8. Enabling techniques in nanotechnology
9. Applications :
- Impact on medicine.
- Super computing
- Impact on environment.
- On cosmetology
- Growing & replacement of blood vessels.
• A nanometer is billionth of a meter
that is about 1/80,000th of the
diameter of a human hair, or 10 times
the diameter of the hydrogen atom.
• If we blow a tennis ball to the size of
the earth, the atoms of the tennis ball
will be about the size of grapes.
• If we measure the width of ten atoms
placed side by side by size, we would
have a Nanometer.
• All the technology which deals in
nanometer is called Nanotechnology.
GOAL OF NANO TECHNOLOGY:
• Manipulate atoms individually.
• Placement of atoms in pattern to
produce desired structure
WHAT IS NANOTECHNOLOGY?
• Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the
• It’s a Hybrid science combining engineering, chemistry and to certain extent
• It Deals with creation of functional materials, devices, systems through
control of matter on Nanoscale
• Generally, atoms and molecules stick together and have complementary
shapes; millions of these atoms are pieced by nanomachines at a certain
shapes for specific products.
• The original vision of nanotechnology is some times termed as “molecular
manufacturing” or “manufacturing based nano technology”
• Nanotechnology placed the foot prints in the field of energy
medicine, electronics, computing, Security and materials.
PIONEER OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
• Arthur von hippee, an
electrical engineer from
institute of technology
• He coined the term
• He predicted feasibility
of constructing nano
molecular devices, at
UP AND DOWN APPROACHES IN
TOP DOWN APPROACH:
Large machines small
Processes used in this
approach are :
films, selecting etching.
Used to made micro
structures of gears and
motors (such devices are
tens of microns).
BOTTOM UP APPROACH:
Atomic level manner
molecular level in precise.
The machines isolate the atom
from the molecules are artificial
molecular machines, molecular
assembler, assembler based
replicators & mechanical
COMBINING OF ATOMS:
DEVICES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:
The devices nanotechnology are generally called
nano size robots
• Nano assembler.
• Nano replicator.
• Nano disassembler.
• Carbon nanotubes. 7/11/2013 9
This is able to bond atoms together, in virtually and pattern adding a few at a
time, until a complex structure is complete.
We can build any thing, as the laws of nature allow.
Assembler picks up molecules, as they need.
Then each assembler constructs its part, diamonded plastic, graphite sensor
etc.,Gives reinforcing wherever necessary.
Eg: assembler building large structure
Now we are going to see most advanced rocket engine construction, by Eric
drexler, worlds leading nano technologist.
Capability of assembler is ability to self-replicate or to take many copies.
Nano assembler works atom by atom, it’s slow because for desired products,
needs trillions of atoms to make. However such assembler’s robot arm
designed to make copies and those copies to further copies.
This Nano Replicators process to be speed, and is object assembled.
Self-replicating assembler (replicator) if supplied with enough raw materials
abundant carbon atoms and energy they can quickly create vast number of
themselves as growth is expendental.
Similarly using this method conservative estimate in 10 hrs produces 68 billions.
In 1951 john von Neumann outlined principle of replicated machines exactly
like neuman snoke for molecular machines.
Nanotechnology can also
be used for dissembling
layer by layer, taking apart
of the same layer until the
entire atomic structure is
This information is feed by
nanocomputers and copied
Use : in advent of
discovering a new alloy,
perhaps in an asteroid.
Resource extraction and
able to extract right element
and leave unvalued one. 7/11/2013 12
• This method stores data by flipping electron in
structure called carbon nanotubes.
• Carbon cylinders have 1to2 nanometer in
dia, structure similar to seamless rolls of chickenwire.
• Carbon nanotube serve as nanowires in molecular
computer, by quantum property called electron
• Carbon nanotubes are stronger than kelver durable
than diamonds adding even small fractions.
• It does not corrode and make plastics electrically
• Nanoscale zinc oxide flakes by nanophase tech. make
invisible sunscreen possible and tiny nanoflakes
reflects harmful UV rays.
•Today’s IBM created nanowire switches, transistor and
other components by input and output of carbon
nanotubes in bulk.
CARBON NANOTUBES :
FORMATION OF NANOTUBE CIRCUITS:
• Existing silicon based circuits were replaced by nanotechnology circuits. Until now no one
demonstrated the practical molecular circuits, for that electrical property of number of
molecules to be investigated.
• Its significant success for denser and denser integration.
• To create a FET must place an insulated GATE electrode. The FET is controlled by the
current passing through the Nanotube can be controlled by a voltage supplied to the GATE.
• Inverter is a basic circuit that changes zero to one and one to zero. To create an inverter,
two distinct transistors are needed for molecular, one N-type and one P-type placed on
silicon substrate insulated with a silicon oxide layer, that acts as GATE.
• In future individual GATEs consisting of aluminium deposited on Nanotube, allow GATEs to
be controlled separately.
ENABLING TECHNIQUES IN
Develop techniques for designing molecular devices made of proteins.
GENERAL MACRO MOLECULAR ENGG:
Design and synthesizing molecular devices made of more tractable
This nanotechnic Extend technology of scanning tunneling and
atomic force microscopy to chemical synthesis and construct
Its flow energy and heat in matter in bulk.
Constrain all physical system and the subject is regarded as prequisite.
The top 10 nanotechnology applications are:
• 1. Energy storage, production and conversion.
• 2. Agricultural productivity enhancement.
• 3. Water treatment and remediation.
• 4. Disease diagnosis and screening.
• 5. Drug delivery systems.
• 6. Food processing and storage.
• 7. Air pollution and remediation.
• 8. Construction.
• 9. Health.
• 10 Monitoring.
• 11. Vector and pest detection and control.
IMPACT ON MEDICINE:
• Patients will drink medicinal fluid, which contain nano-
robots, programmed to attack and reconstruct the
molecular structure of cancer cells and reconstruct them
• Diseases causes mostly due to damage at cellular and
• Today’s surgical tools are large and erude, from the point
of view on cell, even the finest scalpel is blunt, more
suited to tear and injure, than heal and cure.
• Nanoknives are 1000 times sharpest than today’s
• Nanotechnology lead us build broad range of complex
molecular machines, fleets of computer controlled
molecular tools much smaller than human cell, built with
accuracy and precision of drug molecules
• Also remove obstruction in the circulatory system, it’ll
cancerous cells or take over the function of sub-cellular
• Just like today’s artificial heart, future will have artificial
• The ability to shrink the size
of transistors on silicon
microprocessors is already
reaching limits, but
nanotechnology creates new
generation of computer
• Molecular computers have a
property of storing trillions
of bytes in a structure, as
the size of sugar cube.
• Components made from
molecules are smaller than
today’s IC fabrication
method. They have
potentially “self assemble”,
which would allow
IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT:
• Nanotechnology takes a major role in
the processes like pollution
prevention, treatment and remediation.
• It has improved detection and
sensing, removal of finest contamination
from air, water and soil.
• It helps in creation of new industrial
process that reduces waste products, act
as ‘green’ (eco-friendly).
• Air-borne nanorobots programmed to
rebuild the thinning of ozone layer.
• Bottom-up approach provides less
pollution than conventional
• Our future depend on non-renewable
resources would be diminished by the
• Many resources were constructed by
nanomachines like cutting down
trees, mining coal, or drilling of oil, may
not need long necessary.
• Considering our global
industrialization, development of
nanotechnology would clean the air to
ONTHE FIELD OF COSMETOLOGY:
In the field of
will go to be act as milestone in
Nanorobots could slow or
‘reverse’ the aging process.
Nanotechnology can even
change once physical
The nanorobots were
programmed to perform the
cosmetic surgery. This will
rearrange our atoms of
ear/nose shape, eye colour
GROWING REPLACEMENT OF
This was presented in BIOMEMS &
BIOMEDICAL nanotechnology world
conference at the place OHIO.
Today researchers have taken steps to
grow replacement of blood vessels from
lab to bodies of heart attack victims.
This was presented by Ohio state
university investigator ‘Nicanor
Resulting cultivars are given to the heart,
by heart via microscopic machine called
The role of these angio-chips was to
repair the damage caused by heart
These angio-chips couldn’t bring the
tissue back to original form, but they try
to revascularize & make the rhythm of
• It can produce computer hardware like
molecular gates, wires etc.
even the lithographic method couldn’t
• Inexpensively, we can make strong and less
weighted materials of our convenience.
• Its over 50 times lighter than steel, of same
• There are precision instruments that operate
on cells even molecules, from which we are
• “Bottom-up” approach requires less material
and causes less pollution.
• Its inexpensive, as the molecular manufacture
causes less pent, by little cost, capital, land &
Labour. Guiding motion of molecules using
mechanical system imposes, less energy cost.
• Nanotechnology, with all its challenges and
opportunities, is an unavoidable part of our
future. The possibility of nanotechnology was
immense and numerous.
• The researchers were filled with optimism, and
products based on this technology are
beginning to make their mark.
• The extent to which nanotechnology will
impact on our lives only depends on the limits
of human ingeninity.
• It can rightly be said that nanotechnology is
slowly but steadily ushering in the next
• With a few exceptions, nanotechnology still
resides in university, laboratories and
corporate and research faculties.
• As such, nanotechnology is a technology in
which most of the work is to be done in the
future and till now.
1. ARTICLE – “How Nanotechnology Could
Help (Miniaturized?) Human Beings
ELECTRONICS FOR YOU
2. J. BR. Interplanet , Nanotechnology:
Evolution of the concept
3. Internet Link –
4. Internet Link – http://www.nano.org.uk