Design and learning


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Design and learning

  1. 1. “Design is in everything we make, but it’s also between those things. It’s a mix of craft, science, storytelling, propaganda, and philosophy.” — Erik Adigard
  2. 2. “Chalk and Talk” Elements of traditional teaching: • Classroom • Textbook • Teacher • Examinations • Homework • Tutorial- Unidirectional • Subject specific
  3. 3. Integrative Learning
  4. 4. Why Design? • Interactivity • Participatory • Relevance • Problem solving • Applications • Play • Innovative learning tools • “The Learning Experience” Tranforming approaches to learning: • ‘Yes’ to ‘Why’ Agastya is a Science Education programme. • ‘Looking’ to ‘Observing’ Goals: To create an education dissemination model- cost-effective, scalable and replicable • ‘Passiveness’ to ‘Exploring’ in India and elsewhere. • ‘Textbook-bound’ to ‘Hands-on’ • ‘Fear’ to ‘Confidence’
  5. 5. Design in Education | One Laptop Per Child To create educational opportunities for the world’s poorest children by providing each child with a rugged, low-cost, low-power, connected laptop with content and software designed for collaborative, joyful, self-empowered learning. When children have access to this type of tool they get engaged in their own education. They learn, share, create, and collaborate. They become connected to each other, to the world and to a brighter future. It’s not a laptop project. It’s an education project- In 2002, MIT Professor Nicholas Negroponte experienced first-hand how connected laptops transformed the lives of children and their families in a remote Cambodian village. A seed was planted: If every child in the world had access to a computer, what potential could be unlocked? What problems could be solved? These questions eventually led to the foundation of One Laptop per Child.
  6. 6. Design in Education | Return to Happiness UNICEF’s Return to Happiness program is a psycho-affective recovery program for children who have experienced the trauma of natural disasters or armed conflict. The program employs the strategies of play therapy and creative arts to encourage children to express their concerns, fears, anxieties, and other emotions related to their experiences during and following a disaster. Adolescent volunteers work with children ages 6-12 in small groups, using program materials, such as puppets, cloth dolls, wooden toys, arts and crafts, and storytelling.
  7. 7. Design in Education | Scratch & PicoCrickets SCRATCH Scratch is a new programming language that makes it easy to create your own interactive stories, games, and animations – and share your creations with others on the web. Scratch has a very simple interface and instructions. PICOCRICKETS An interactive platform where you can create playful inventions. A PicoCricket is a tiny computer that can make things spin, light up, and play music. You can plug lights, motors, sensors, and other devices into a PicoCricket, then program them to react, interact, and communicate.
  8. 8. Design in Education | Exploratorium The Exploratorium is a museum in San Francisco full of hundreds of hands-on exhibits, most of them made onsite, that mix science and art. It also aims to promote museums as informal education centers. Founded in 1969 by the noted physicist and educator Dr. Frank Oppenheimer, the Exploratorium offers visitors a variety of ways— including exhibits, webcasts, websites and events—to explore and understand the world around them. The Exploratorium’s museum floor is the public face of the Exploratorium, a laboratory for the research and development of innovations in exhibits for exploring science, art, and human perception.
  9. 9. Agents of Change | Introduction In Pavagada taluk of Karnataka, fluoride is endemic in groundwater and way above permissible. In partnership with the Rainwater Club and an NGO called BIRD-K they are building rainwater harvesting tanks in 6 schools. This harvested rainwater will provide the school children with fluoride free drinking water for the time they are in school. Unavailability of clean water also affects the health and sanitation conditions in this area, which is abysmal. Addressing this, along with providing clean water is a big need. • These tanks hold enough water for 150 days of the year and can provide just about 1litre per child during these days. • Conserve it while not compromising on their personal health and hygiene • Since it is only now that they are exposed to clean drinking water, it cannot be a direct ‘use less water’ message. It needs to be a subtle nudge that reminds them of what they should do.
  10. 10. Agents of Change | Needs, Problems & Goals • Awareness • Access to information and resources • Behavioural change- Nudges (not direct) • Education & making learning practical • Facilities, Hygiene promotion • Introducing the needed tools/appropriate technology • Making learning practical and fun • Community coming together • Feeling a sense of ownership (Failed projects) Overarching Goal: To bring about behavioral change and awareness by engaging students in this affected areas in a participatory mode to address the idea of WATSAN by introducing them to appropriate technology. I wanted to build some devices/toys with them so that they can carry this forward and experiment with it in the different environments that they are exposed to.
  11. 11. Agents of Change | Workshops - Associations An activity to see what the students associate with water. Their perceptions of the water they are exposed to and how much they know about it and what they feel their immediate needs are. • Rainwater being harvested properly • Water tankers should supply near school • Daily supply of water at home from taps • Taps in bathrooms • Plenty of water for farming • Drinking water for patients in the hospitals • Drinking water near bus stops and railway station. • Clean water for drinking • Water for the cattle Assumptions & Insights
  12. 12. Agents of Change | Workshops - Translating • Triggers presentation- discussion followed • Flash cards that each have one icon related to health or hygiene. I showed them those cards and they raised their hand to tell me how many of them actually follow those practices that are essential. Then, we went around the campus and stuck these cards in the places they belong in. (Hand washing with soap near their tank, boiling water before drinking near the pots they store water in, etc.)
  13. 13. Agents of Change | Workshops - Making To create little nudges from the associations obtained in the previous exercises through a playful mode. This device is something that these children can carry with them, anywhere they go, specifically to the open loos that they use. It makes hand-washing and easier and fun task for them to follow. An activity to show them a cause and effect action using water test vials and introduce them to the Bio-Sand filter. Introducing them to AT like this, something that they can make and see the effects for themselves was a good experience. They said they had been studying about sand filters since 5th standard, but had never made one, even though it was so easy to make it.
  14. 14. Agents of Change | Systems Diagram . Supply the village . Train people with basic, essential . Run awareness Facilities- GREEN SCHOOL GOVERNMENT facilities. programmes . Regular health . Hire locals check-ups . Invest funds in the . Host Awareness most required areas. POLICIES programmes . Follow up once EDUCATION . Make sure the tanks systems built are maintained even . Involve community after built. Their job in their work SCHOOL doesn’t end there. . Increase student- NGOs/ teacher ratio. ORGANAZATIONS STAKE-HOLDERS ENVIRONMENT . Teachers should be more in number, aware and be willing to participate in GOVERNMENT awareness projects and pass this on to SANITATION the children. NATION/WORLD . Should encourage SCHOOL/ WIDE participation of ADMINISTRATION community and COMMUNITY practical learning COMMUNITY WATER . Involved in their CHILDREN children’s activities AWARENESS and curriculum . Could be involved in Child Adults public/art projects CHILDREN Pressure Could lead to . Attend awareness Facilitator Decison makers Child . Bring about behavioural programmes BEHAVIOURAL chance by indirect nudges . Get to know through . Making problem (water) more fun. CHANGE and not by directly putting the agents of change and . Introducing practical FLUORIDE problems to them. spread it to other learning-enabling behavioural change . It is just a possibility and part villages. . Doing this by emotional connect. of a larger goal. It will be great . Change practices at Solution . Making, Doing and Personalizing . Making uoride ‘visible’ to them if it happens in the fun process home for the better . Connecting to the object/ . Making them aware of its bad e ects of learning and doing. feeling a sense of ownership RAIN WATER and tell them what to do about it . We need to see changes in . Getting something to be part of their . Awareness on RWH tanks children as well as adults in lives or routine . How does the tank work? their WATSAN practices. . How does one maintain it? . Being part of the building/painting process so that they feel like they contributed- hence a sense of ownership . Them feeling rain water is ‘safe’ and ‘clean’ so that they will drink it
  15. 15. Agents of Change | Directions • Activities involving the larger community SANITATION testing kit for .Using the uoride activities • Teacher-student involvement . Making this kit fun for the students- child friendly . Easy to handle and understand • Fluoride kits, publication package . Make the students test all sorts of water samples- informal way of data collection • Increasing the sense of ownership . Involve the teachers in the activity and community if possible NATION/WORLD WIDE • Personalising COMMUNITY WATER CHILDREN AWARENESS Child Adults CHILDREN Pressure Could lead to Facilitator Decison makers Child . Bring about behavioural BEHAVIOURAL chance by indirect nudges . Making problem (water) more fun. CHANGE and not by directly putting the . Introducing practical FLUORIDE problems to them. learning-enabling behavioural change . It is just a possibility and part . Doing this by emotional connect. of a larger goal. It will be great Solution . Making, Doing and Personalizing . Making uoride ‘visible’ to them if it happens in the fun process . Connecting to the object/ . Making them aware of its bad e ects of learning and doing. feeling a sense of ownership RAIN WATER and tell them what to do about it . We need to see changes in . Getting something to be part of their . Awareness on RWH tanks children as well as adults in lives or routine . How does the tank work? their WATSAN practices. . How does one maintain it? . Being part of the building/painting A book/booklet for facilitators and This could be done by process so that they feel like they NGOs on practical learning and . Painting water tanks contributed- hence a sense of ownership . Being part of building the tanks how to make awareness like this . Testing water from di erent . Them feeling rain water is ‘safe’ and . Water in-let or out-let acting as more fun for the students and sources for uoride ‘clean’ so that they will drink it a nudge community. Workshops- what will . Treasure hunt/walking around . Making maintainance of the tank work and what doesn’t and what and leaving marks of awareness a personal or a communal a air can improve. or messages of awareness . Coming together and painting . Using ‘touch points’ to create the tanks Art installations or nuges set interest/nuges- water pumps, . Experiments on e ects up near all the water bodies tanks, bottles, pots etc. of uoride that can be shown in the village to attract the larger . Testing samples of water for community. uoride and leaving a mark
  16. 16. It All Adds Up | The Project The Brief: To help children explore basic mathematics and play with numbers using interactive storytelling. Using new media technologies to enhance communication, to reach good cognitive goals, to increase the students’ attention, and to make the learning process more interactive. Target Audience: 9-12 year olds. Goal: • Creating a platform for an unconventional engagement with mathematics- An interactive experience. • The approach is not through the immediate school curricula, but in exploring the concepts and applications of the subject. • Teaching through storytelling and scenarios. • Children are naturally curious about everyday problems; therefore using this aspect to introduce mathematics with a “problem-solving” approach.
  17. 17. It All Adds Up | Need “Any poet, even the most allergic to mathematics, has to count up to twelve in order to compose an alexandrine.” — Raymond Queneau Mathematics is more than the rules and operations we learnt at school. It is about connections and seeing relationships in everything we do. Efforts to reform mathematics education are under way, but they have not reached many classrooms in the country. While some math teachers are emphasizing thinking and problem solving, many students still experience mathematics that is dominated by memorization and drill, without any meaningful context. Surveys conducted in different schools in If most schools continue to do more of what they’ve always done, they’ll Bangalore continue to produce too many students uninterested and unmotivated to study mathematics beyond high school.
  18. 18. It All Adds Up | Educational Uses of Technology • Children nowadays have grown up digitally. To them , technology is a part of their natural world • Teachers think technology can be used everywhere, except the classroom. They have no understanding of the way technology can be used in the classroom, and transforming education from last century into 21st century education. • Media allows children to be creators and producers. Allows them to The Re.Math Project: Using new media to think and analyze. Allow them to talk to people everywhere. create interactive games • Allow teachers to play with technology, to create a learning landscape- The way in which they use technology to help children learn, understand, explore. • Change learning into seeing information, and changing it into knowledge that becomes personalized • Children can begin to make decisions, ask questions and begin to explore, hence becoming an active participant in his/her own learning. Siftables- A tangible user interface: Electronic tiles that can be used to add, subtract, com- pose and create
  19. 19. It All Adds Up | Brainstorming TARGET AUDIENCE Children: 9-12 yrs High interest material needs Who think Math is no fun CONTENT Who think Math is fun, but are What? How? not effective problem solvers Numbers Storytelling Who don’t see the purpose for Sets Puzzles/Riddles the Math skills they learn Measurement Abstract Money Time Probability IT ALL ADDS UP Patterns Fractions Decimals RESEARCH Percentages What? How? Ratio Proportion Traditional out-of- Study Children’s books Data Handling textbook methods Study course curriculum Basic Geometry Mathematical Games Interview questions, survey Teaching and Talk to teachers and students Learning tools Talk to people working on The psychology of similar projects FORM numbers, number Spend a day in a Math Class sense Books, Internet How? What? New Media in TED talks Tactile Interactive book enhancing learning Digital Game-Digital+Tactile Dynamic Game in a space (New media) Interactive Objects (Mats, tables, cube) Engaging New Media Play
  20. 20. My Toy Factory | The Project The project involves working with children, encouraging them to build simple toys themselves and teaching mathematical/scientific etc. concepts through the toys. • “Make your own toys” ideology – Arvind Gupta • Materials : Reuse your everyday junk. • DIY • Problem solving • Applications • Storytelling and Play
  21. 21. My Toy Factory | Do It Yourself • An “out of textbook” system which can be taken anywhere and initiated by anyone. • The element of interactivity where the child is able to relate to something better because of building it from scratch. A more hands- on, learning through doing approach. • The availability of science through toys to children at no cost. • Introducing children to a more DIY culture possibly making them more independent while learning. Adding the element of play. • less of an extra curricular / co-curricular activity and more a part of their everyday lives. • Encouragement for the “young inventor” in children to create from scratch something they have thought up completely themselves. • Reinforcing the fun and satisfaction in working with tactile materials.
  22. 22. My Toy Factory | Play Of all animal species, humans are the biggest players of all. We are built to play and built through play. When we play, we are engaged in the purest expression of our humanity, the truest expression of our individuality. Is it any wonder that often the times we feel most alive, those that make up our best memories, are moments of play? —Stuart Brown
  23. 23. “Reform is no use anymore, because that’s simply improving a broken model. What we need - and the word’s been used many times during the course of the past few days - is not evolution, but a revolution in education. This has to be transformed into something else.” — Sir Ken Robinson