SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Metal Ion Neurotoxicity-role of pro-inflammatory mediators

a good pharmaceutical target for neurodegenerative disease treatment. It has been demonstrated that the neurological system is impacted by aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nitric oxide, cobalt, copper, calcium, lithium, iron, nickel, bismuth, selenium, and zinc. The degree of the immune response in the brain required to successfully manage infections without leading to neuropathology is still unknown—heavy-metal-produced neurotoxic activity, indicating the important participation of mitochondrial dysfunction triggered cell death.As a result, performs a key anti-inflammatory role by reducing microglial activation and supporting a well-regulated immune response, which is lacking during the pathophysiology of Neurotoxicity.

1 of 11
Metal Ion Neurotoxicity – Role of
Pro-Inflammatory Mediators
Priya Malik*
Priya Malik
M.Pharm (pharmacology)
Department of pharmacology
School of Medical and Allied Sciences
G.D Goenka University
Gurugram, Haryana, India
Background
• Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metal ions and metalloids is a global health
concern affecting millions of people worldwide (Carmona, A., et al., 2021).
• Depending on the period of exposure over a lifetime, environmental metals affect
neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, cognition, or are involved in the etiology of
neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases.
• lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd), and the metalloid arsenic (As), have been
listed among the ten chemicals of major public health concern by the World Health
Organization (WHO, 2020).
• Currently 18 metals and one metalloid (As) appear on the top 150 of National Priorities
List from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The majority
of the metals are highly toxic, and exposure to them can result in severe consequences in
the occupational setting (Andrade, V. M., et al., 2018).
• They having particular concern due to the long-lasting and possibly irreversible nature of
their effects. The metal ions exposure can result in cognitive and behavioral deficits in
children.
• Neurotoxicological disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental
retardation, and cerebral palsy are common but dangerous as it can cause lifelong
disability. Metal ions generate toxic effects on different organs of body and by this
differently affect Humans ( Sankhla, M. S., et al., 2017).
Sources of Neurotoxicity
• The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the human body, and its
proper functioning is vital to overall health and well-being.
• However, exposure to certain substances can lead to neurotoxicity, a condition that
affects the nervous system and can lead to a wide range of symptoms and health issues.
• There are many sources of neurotoxicity, and identifying these sources is an important
step in reducing the risk of exposure and preventing the negative effects of neurotoxicity.
Through air/ and food intake
Mechanism of Neurotoxicity
Metal ions that causes neurotoxicity
• Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules with important roles in inflammatory responses.
Pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroinflammation are important not only in
inflammatory responses but also in neurogenesis and neuroprotection.
• Neuroinflammation is closely associated with excessive oxidative stress (Zhang et al.,
2009). Recently, chronic microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including
interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has
received considerable attention for its role in neurodegenerative disorders.
• SNS sympathetic nervous system releases the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and
epinephrine (Epi) which are thought to act directly on both microglia and peripheral
immune cells to regulate their activity.
• Although microglia have been implicated as the major producers of TNF-α in
neurodegenerative disorders and CNS insult, numerous studies have demonstrated that
astrocytes and neurons may also be a source of this pro-inflammatory cytokine.
• ROS can also operate as second messengers to control a number of downstream
signalling molecules, such as NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein
kinase C
Role of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators
in Neurotoxicity

Recommended

Reactive oxygen species (ros), nanoparticles, and endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...
Reactive oxygen species (ros), nanoparticles, and endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...Reactive oxygen species (ros), nanoparticles, and endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...
Reactive oxygen species (ros), nanoparticles, and endoplasmic reticulum (er) ...Al Baha University
 
Acst endogenous toxicology luisetto m almukthar n b nili a gamal a hamid 2019...
Acst endogenous toxicology luisetto m almukthar n b nili a gamal a hamid 2019...Acst endogenous toxicology luisetto m almukthar n b nili a gamal a hamid 2019...
Acst endogenous toxicology luisetto m almukthar n b nili a gamal a hamid 2019...M. Luisetto Pharm.D.Spec. Pharmacology
 
Jnnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...
Jnnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...Jnnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...
Jnnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...M. Luisetto Pharm.D.Spec. Pharmacology
 
Neurodegeneration: Factors Involved and Therapeutic Strategies
Neurodegeneration: Factors Involved and Therapeutic StrategiesNeurodegeneration: Factors Involved and Therapeutic Strategies
Neurodegeneration: Factors Involved and Therapeutic Strategiesinventionjournals
 
Assessment for Toxic Elements in the Human Body by Stephen J. Genuis, MD
Assessment for Toxic Elements in the Human Body by Stephen J. Genuis, MDAssessment for Toxic Elements in the Human Body by Stephen J. Genuis, MD
Assessment for Toxic Elements in the Human Body by Stephen J. Genuis, MDAlexander Borsuk
 
Toxicology of Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome.
Toxicology of Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome.Toxicology of Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome.
Toxicology of Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome.Dmitri Popov
 
Jbnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...
Jbnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...Jbnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...
Jbnd role of plants environmental toxins and physical neurotoxicological fact...M. Luisetto Pharm.D.Spec. Pharmacology
 

More Related Content

Similar to Metal Ion Neurotoxicity-role of pro-inflammatory mediators

Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activity
Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial ActivityAdvances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activity
Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activityendale Kebede
 
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.Shaperodocx
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.ShaperodocxUndergraduateThesis.Hannah.Shaperodocx
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.ShaperodocxHannah Shapero
 
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity v2zq
 
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...banafsheh61
 
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...Pooja Shimpi
 
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Sticker
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions StickerEMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Sticker
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Stickerdigitalvortexgenius
 
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...Saira Fatima
 
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum L
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum LA review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum L
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum LIRJET Journal
 
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...Nanomedicine Journal (NMJ)
 
Assignment on Toxicology
Assignment on ToxicologyAssignment on Toxicology
Assignment on ToxicologyDeepak Kumar
 
Free radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidantsFree radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidantsTri Nguyen
 
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked?
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked? Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked?
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked? LifeVantage
 
reactive oxygen species in periodontal disease
reactive oxygen species in periodontal diseasereactive oxygen species in periodontal disease
reactive oxygen species in periodontal diseaseSuhani Goel
 
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage.
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage. Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage.
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage. Dmitri Popov
 
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease:  The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease:  The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...LifeVantage
 

Similar to Metal Ion Neurotoxicity-role of pro-inflammatory mediators (20)

Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activity
Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial ActivityAdvances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activity
Advances in Nanomaterial with Antimicrobial Activity
 
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.Shaperodocx
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.ShaperodocxUndergraduateThesis.Hannah.Shaperodocx
UndergraduateThesis.Hannah.Shaperodocx
 
Methylmercury
MethylmercuryMethylmercury
Methylmercury
 
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity
Nanomaterials & Nanoparticles - Sources & Toxicity
 
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...
Reactive oxygen species along with reactive nitrogen species (rosrns) as the ...
 
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...
Role of Free Radicals in Etiopathology of Neurodegenerative Disorders and Rec...
 
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Sticker
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions StickerEMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Sticker
EMFDEFENSE™ Negative Ions Sticker
 
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...
Cellular Targets and Mechanisms in the Cytotoxic Action of Nonbiodegradable E...
 
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum L
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum LA review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum L
A review on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of Polygonum glabrum L
 
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...
Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles a...
 
Assignment on Toxicology
Assignment on ToxicologyAssignment on Toxicology
Assignment on Toxicology
 
Wp seidman 06
Wp seidman 06Wp seidman 06
Wp seidman 06
 
Presentation2 (1) edited (2)
Presentation2 (1) edited (2)Presentation2 (1) edited (2)
Presentation2 (1) edited (2)
 
Free radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidantsFree radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidants
 
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked?
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked? Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked?
Oxidative Stress, Inflammation & Cancer - How are they linked?
 
Strategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondriaStrategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondria
 
Review Paper
Review PaperReview Paper
Review Paper
 
reactive oxygen species in periodontal disease
reactive oxygen species in periodontal diseasereactive oxygen species in periodontal disease
reactive oxygen species in periodontal disease
 
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage.
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage. Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage.
Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Damage.
 
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease:  The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease:  The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...
Oxidative Stress in Health & Disease: The therapeutic potential of Nrf2 acti...
 

Recently uploaded

Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfEng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxArtificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxSiddharthDash13
 
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxdhbketan
 
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...RukamaneeYadav
 
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrence
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of RecurrencePart II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrence
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrencebkling
 
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfDr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfد حاتم البيطار
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfDr Prashant Bodhe
 
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - ICHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - IBeena Vaza
 
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptx
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptxZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptx
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptxasadsoomro1960
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxdhbketan
 
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Dr. David Greene Arizona
 
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...AnkurAnkit3
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...akashdashjsr99
 
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxRespiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxdhivbhar91
 
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptx
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptxquangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptx
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptxTyraRideaux
 
organization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingorganization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingDishaThakur53
 
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)ZaheerJamal1
 
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingSchool Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingVeereshDemashetti
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdfEng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
Eng . Asmaa Hassanد حاتم البيطار زويل اكاديمي.pdf
 
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptxArtificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
Artificial intelligence in Dermatology.pptx
 
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptxARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
ARTIFICIAL_TEARS presentation dhir .pptx
 
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...
NCCT OR CECT HEAD,INDICATIONS OF HEAD, PATIENT PREPARATION OF CECT HEAD, TECH...
 
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrence
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of RecurrencePart II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrence
Part II: DCIS Research: De-escalating the Fear of Recurrence
 
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdfDr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
Dr. Ahmed Samhanد حاتم البيطاررر اكاديمية زويل .pdf
 
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdfCRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
CRO Audit & Monitoring Quality Perspectives.pdf
 
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - ICHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
CHOLECYSTITIS.pptx...easy contains...MSN - I
 
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptx
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptxZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptx
ZA Bhutto HF program & network Part II.pptx
 
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptxorbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
orbital_pseudotumor presentation dhir hospital bhiwani.pptx
 
Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptxBlindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
Blindness Medical & Surgical Nursing.pptx
 
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, and Stem Cell Therapy Insights from Dr. David ...
 
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...
Challenges Faced by Community Health Officers (CHO) in Delivering Healthcare ...
 
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptxStrategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
Strategies and Options For Making India Zero Waste Water-26-2-24.pptx
 
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
Embark on a delicious journey to a healthier you with 'A Healthy Guide to Eat...
 
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptxRespiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
Respiratory Emergencies and CPR -FON.pptx
 
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptx
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptxquangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptx
quangnguyen22624444444444444444444 .pptx
 
organization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursingorganization of OT. adult health nursing
organization of OT. adult health nursing
 
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)
The Doctor's Book Of Survival Home Remedies Book (printed)
 
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health NursingSchool Health Services in Community Health Nursing
School Health Services in Community Health Nursing
 

Metal Ion Neurotoxicity-role of pro-inflammatory mediators

  • 1. Metal Ion Neurotoxicity – Role of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators Priya Malik* Priya Malik M.Pharm (pharmacology) Department of pharmacology School of Medical and Allied Sciences G.D Goenka University Gurugram, Haryana, India
  • 2. Background • Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metal ions and metalloids is a global health concern affecting millions of people worldwide (Carmona, A., et al., 2021). • Depending on the period of exposure over a lifetime, environmental metals affect neurodevelopment, neurobehavior, cognition, or are involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s (PD) diseases. • lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd), and the metalloid arsenic (As), have been listed among the ten chemicals of major public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2020). • Currently 18 metals and one metalloid (As) appear on the top 150 of National Priorities List from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The majority of the metals are highly toxic, and exposure to them can result in severe consequences in the occupational setting (Andrade, V. M., et al., 2018). • They having particular concern due to the long-lasting and possibly irreversible nature of their effects. The metal ions exposure can result in cognitive and behavioral deficits in children. • Neurotoxicological disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common but dangerous as it can cause lifelong disability. Metal ions generate toxic effects on different organs of body and by this differently affect Humans ( Sankhla, M. S., et al., 2017).
  • 3. Sources of Neurotoxicity • The nervous system is one of the most important systems in the human body, and its proper functioning is vital to overall health and well-being. • However, exposure to certain substances can lead to neurotoxicity, a condition that affects the nervous system and can lead to a wide range of symptoms and health issues. • There are many sources of neurotoxicity, and identifying these sources is an important step in reducing the risk of exposure and preventing the negative effects of neurotoxicity.
  • 4. Through air/ and food intake Mechanism of Neurotoxicity
  • 5. Metal ions that causes neurotoxicity
  • 6. • Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules with important roles in inflammatory responses. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and neuroinflammation are important not only in inflammatory responses but also in neurogenesis and neuroprotection. • Neuroinflammation is closely associated with excessive oxidative stress (Zhang et al., 2009). Recently, chronic microglial production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1 and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has received considerable attention for its role in neurodegenerative disorders. • SNS sympathetic nervous system releases the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi) which are thought to act directly on both microglia and peripheral immune cells to regulate their activity. • Although microglia have been implicated as the major producers of TNF-α in neurodegenerative disorders and CNS insult, numerous studies have demonstrated that astrocytes and neurons may also be a source of this pro-inflammatory cytokine. • ROS can also operate as second messengers to control a number of downstream signalling molecules, such as NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C Role of Pro-Inflammatory Mediators in Neurotoxicity
  • 7. • Activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway in phagocytic cells, such as macrophages, starts an intracellular ROS signalling pathway that can increase the production of proinflammatory cytokines, like TNFα. • NADPH oxidase is a significant producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils, contributing to both oxidative burst and cell signalling pathways. According to recent research, β-amyloid peptide-induced microglial activation is mediated by intracellular ROS, while β-amyloid-induced NF-κB activation and interleukin-1β production are reduced when intracellular ROS is inhibited
  • 8. CONCLUSION Metal ions are important because they promote the formation of plaque or redox cycling, which are two ways that they operate as mediators of neurotoxicity. They thus offer a good pharmaceutical target for neurodegenerative disease treatment. It has been demonstrated that the neurological system is impacted by aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nitric oxide, cobalt, copper, calcium, lithium, iron, nickel, bismuth, selenium, and zinc. The degree of the immune response in the brain required to successfully manage infections without leading to neuropathology is still unknown. heavy- metal-produced neurotoxic activity, indicating the important participation of mitochondrial dysfunction triggered cell death. As a result, performs a key anti-inflammatory role by reducing microglial activation and supporting a well-regulated immune response, which is lacking during the pathophysiology of Neurotoxicity.
  • 10. • Carmona, Asuncion, Stéphane Roudeau, and Richard Ortega. "Molecular mechanisms of environmental metal neurotoxicity: a focus on the interactions of metals with synapse structure and function." Toxics 9.9 (2021): 198. • World Health Organization (WHO). Ten Chemicals of Public Health Concern. 2020. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/photo-story/photo-story-detail/10- chemicals-of-public-health-concern (accessed on 21 July 2021). • Andrade, V. M., Aschner, M., & Marreilha Dos Santos, A. P. (2017). Neurotoxicity of metal mixtures. Neurotoxicity of metals, 227-265. • Sankhla, M. S., Sharma, K., & Kumar, R. (2017). Heavy metal causing neurotoxicity in human health. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, 6(5). • Garza-Lombó, C., Posadas, Y., Quintanar, L., Gonsebatt, M. E., & Franco, R. (2018). Neurotoxicity linked to dysfunctional metal ion homeostasis and xenobiotic metal exposure: redox signaling and oxidative stress. Antioxidants & redox signaling, 28(18), 1669-1703. • Sankhla, M. S., Sharma, K., & Kumar, R. (2017). Heavy metal causing neurotoxicity in human health. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science. Engineering and Technology, 6(5). • Lansdown, A. B. G. (2007). Critical observations on the neurotoxicity of silver. Critical reviews in toxicology, 37(3), 237-250. References