ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN CUM LECTURER
What is Research Methodology?
What is Research?
Why is Research?
Definitions of Research
Objectives of Research
Characteristics of Research
Criteria of Good Research
Qualities of Good Research
Types of Research
Formulation and Identification of research Problem
A science of studying how research is done
A way to systematically solve the research problem
by logically adopting various steps
Methodology helps to understand not only the
products of scientific inquiry but the process itself
Aims to describe and analyze methods, throw light
on their limitations and resources, clarify their
presuppositions and consequences.
Research in general refers to a search for
knowledge. One can also define research
as a Scientific and Systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific
topical Impact, research is an art of
1. To get a degree
2. To get respectability
3. To face a challenge
4. To solve a problem
5. To get intellectual joy
6. To serve society
by increasing standard of living in case of
by showing right path to society in case of Social
and Behavioural Sciences
ADVANCE LEARNER’S DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH:
A careful investigation or inquiry specially through
search for new facts in any branch to gain new
REDMAN & NORY:
A systematized effort, some consider research is a
voyage of discovery.
CLIFFORD & NOODY:
Research comprises defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested
solutions, collecting organising & evaluating data making
deductions and reaching conclusion & at last carefully
testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the
D.SLESINGER & M STEPHENSON:
In encyclopedia of Social Science defines research
as manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for
the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or
verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids to
construction of theory or in the practice of an art.
Research is an hones, exhaustive, intelligent
searching for facts and their meaning or
implications with reference to given problem. It is
the process of arriving at dependable solutions to
problems through the planned and systematic
collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
Thus Research is an original contribution to the
existing stock of knowledge making for its
advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with
the help of study, observations comparison
and experiment. In short the search for
knowledge through objective & systematic
method of findings solution to a problem is
Systematic Method consisting of :
Enunciating the problem
Formulating the hypothesis
Collecting the facts or data
Analysing the facts
Reacting certain conclusions.
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon
To achieve new insight in it
To portray the characteristic of particular
individual or groups.
To determine the frequency with which
To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship
Research gathered new Knowledge or data from
primary or first hand sources.
Research in expert, systematic & accurate
Research is logical & objective
Research endeavors to organize data in
quantitative terms as far as possible.
Research is patient & unhurried process.
Research requires courage
Research is highly purposive.
Research places emphasis upon the discovery of
general principles and scientific generalisations.
Research maintains rigorous standards, It is a job of
Research usually involves, as a step, a hypothesis or
a set of hypothesis concerning the tentative
explanation of a phenomenon or the solution of a
Research is carefully recorded and reported.
Research should be clearly defined and common
concept be used.
Research procedure used should be described in
Procedural design of the research should be
Analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to
reveal its significance
Conclusions should be confined to those justified
by the data of the research
Greater confidence in research is warranted if the
researcher is experienced.
Good research is systematic
Good research is logical
Good research is empirical
Good research is replicable
Research Problem refers to some difficulty which a
researcher experiences in the context of either a
theoretical or practical situation and wants to
obtain a solution for the same.
COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH PROBLEM:
R.L Ackoff’s :-
1. Research consumer
2. Research consumers objectives
3. Alternative means to meet the objectives
4. Doubt regarding selection of alternatives
5. Presence of one or more environments to which
the difficulty of problem pertains
Theory of one’s own interest
Un explored areas
Discussion with experts and authorities
The selection of a research problem / topic is a very
important job for a research worker. Though it may
appear to be simple, in practice, it requires various
considerations. There is no foolproof rule or
methodology by which a researcher can select his
The selection of a topic for research is only half a step
forward. The problem defines the goal of the
researcher in clear terms. Thus, without a
problem, research cannot proceed because there is
nothing to proceed from and proceed towards.
Is the problem relevant and important?
Does the subject area suit to his interest?
Does it contain originality and creativeness?
Does the problem require extension of knowledge?
Is the problem feasible with respect to time and
date required in its solution?
Is the study reveal some new idea?
Is the study practically fulfill the objectives?
Is the problem of investigation is too narrow, or too
According to Good and Hatt :-
1. The researchers interest, intellectual, curiosity
3. The urgency of the problem
4. Anticipating or expected outcomes.
5. Resource, training and personal qualifications .
The statement of a research problem usually
requires the following analytical approach.
1. Relevance of the study
2. Title of the study
3. Definition of the term
4. Objectives of the study
5. Other dimensions of the study
6. Scope and limitations
The question id feasible
The question is clear
The question is significant
The question is ethical
According to YOUNG:-
A research design in the logical and systematic
planning and directing a piece of research.
It results from the translating a general
scientific model into varied research
Research Design is a blue print for an architect
What the study is about and what are the types of
Why the study is being made?
Where the data needed can be found?
Where or in what area the study will be carried
What periods of time the study will include?
How much materials or how many cases will be
What bases of selection will be used?
What techniques of gathering data will be
How will the data be analyzed?
How best it can be achieved with a limited time
Title of the study
Statement of the problem
Review of literature
Area and scope of the study
Objective of the study
Formulation of hypothesis
Definition of concepts
Construction of schedule of questionnaire
Collection of data
Analysis of data
Interpretation of results
Reporting the finding
ResearchDesign in case of Exploratory
ResearchDesign in case of Descriptive
ResearchDesign in case of Diagnostic
ResearchDesign in case of experimental
Save lot of time
Enable resource planning in right time
Better documentation of the activities
To ensure project time schedule.
Information use and user studies
Application and implication of IT
Content analysis studies