More Related Content


An overview of research methodology

  2.  What is Research Methodology?  What is Research?  Why is Research?  Definitions of Research  Objectives of Research  Characteristics of Research  Criteria of Good Research  Qualities of Good Research  Types of Research  Formulation and Identification of research Problem  Research Design
  3. A science of studying how research is done scientifically A way to systematically solve the research problem by logically adopting various steps  Methodology helps to understand not only the products of scientific inquiry but the process itself  Aims to describe and analyze methods, throw light on their limitations and resources, clarify their presuppositions and consequences.
  4. Research in general refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a Scientific and Systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topical Impact, research is an art of Scientific Investigation.
  5. 1. To get a degree 2. To get respectability 3. To face a challenge 4. To solve a problem 5. To get intellectual joy 6. To serve society  by increasing standard of living in case of S&T, and  by showing right path to society in case of Social and Behavioural Sciences
  6. ADVANCE LEARNER’S DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH: A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch to gain new knowledge. REDMAN & NORY: A systematized effort, some consider research is a voyage of discovery. CLIFFORD & NOODY: Research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting organising & evaluating data making deductions and reaching conclusion & at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  7. D.SLESINGER & M STEPHENSON: In encyclopedia of Social Science defines research as manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids to construction of theory or in the practice of an art. P.M COOK: Research is an hones, exhaustive, intelligent searching for facts and their meaning or implications with reference to given problem. It is the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data.
  8. Thus Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observations comparison and experiment. In short the search for knowledge through objective & systematic method of findings solution to a problem is research. Systematic Method consisting of :  Enunciating the problem  Formulating the hypothesis  Collecting the facts or data  Analysing the facts  Reacting certain conclusions.
  9.  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon  To achieve new insight in it  To portray the characteristic of particular individual or groups.  To determine the frequency with which something occurs.  To test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.
  10.  Research gathered new Knowledge or data from primary or first hand sources.  Research in expert, systematic & accurate investigation.  Research is logical & objective  Research endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms as far as possible.  Research is patient & unhurried process.  Research requires courage
  11. Research is highly purposive.  Research places emphasis upon the discovery of general principles and scientific generalisations.  Research maintains rigorous standards, It is a job of great responsibility  Research usually involves, as a step, a hypothesis or a set of hypothesis concerning the tentative explanation of a phenomenon or the solution of a problem.  Research is carefully recorded and reported.
  12.  Research should be clearly defined and common concept be used.  Research procedure used should be described in details  Procedural design of the research should be carefully followed.  Analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance  Conclusions should be confined to those justified by the data of the research  Greater confidence in research is warranted if the researcher is experienced.
  13.  Good research is systematic  Good research is logical  Good research is empirical  Good research is replicable
  14. Research Problem refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH PROBLEM: R.L Ackoff’s :- 1. Research consumer 2. Research consumers objectives 3. Alternative means to meet the objectives 4. Doubt regarding selection of alternatives 5. Presence of one or more environments to which the difficulty of problem pertains
  15.  Theory of one’s own interest  Daily Problems  Technological Changes  Un explored areas  Discussion with experts and authorities
  16. The selection of a research problem / topic is a very important job for a research worker. Though it may appear to be simple, in practice, it requires various considerations. There is no foolproof rule or methodology by which a researcher can select his topic. The selection of a topic for research is only half a step forward. The problem defines the goal of the researcher in clear terms. Thus, without a problem, research cannot proceed because there is nothing to proceed from and proceed towards.
  17.  Is the problem relevant and important?  Does the subject area suit to his interest?  Does it contain originality and creativeness?  Does the problem require extension of knowledge?  Is the problem feasible with respect to time and date required in its solution?  Is the study reveal some new idea?  Is the study practically fulfill the objectives?  Is the problem of investigation is too narrow, or too broad?
  18. According to Good and Hatt :- 1. The researchers interest, intellectual, curiosity and drive 2. Practicability 3. The urgency of the problem 4. Anticipating or expected outcomes. 5. Resource, training and personal qualifications .
  19. The statement of a research problem usually requires the following analytical approach. 1. Relevance of the study 2. Title of the study 3. Definition of the term 4. Objectives of the study 5. Other dimensions of the study 6. Scope and limitations
  20.  The question id feasible  The question is clear  The question is significant  The question is ethical
  21. According to YOUNG:- A research design in the logical and systematic planning and directing a piece of research. It results from the translating a general scientific model into varied research procedure. Research Design is a blue print for an architect
  22.  What the study is about and what are the types of data needed?  Why the study is being made?  Where the data needed can be found?  Where or in what area the study will be carried out?  What periods of time the study will include?  How much materials or how many cases will be needed?  What bases of selection will be used?  What techniques of gathering data will be adopted?  How will the data be analyzed?  How best it can be achieved with a limited time and money?
  23.  Title of the study  Statement of the problem  Review of literature  Area and scope of the study  Objective of the study  Formulation of hypothesis  Definition of concepts  Methodology  Sampling design  Construction of schedule of questionnaire  Collection of data  Analysis of data  Interpretation of results  Reporting the finding
  24.  ResearchDesign in case of Exploratory research studies  ResearchDesign in case of Descriptive research studies  ResearchDesign in case of Diagnostic research studies  ResearchDesign in case of experimental research studies
  25.  Save lot of time  Enable resource planning in right time  Better documentation of the activities  To ensure project time schedule.
  26. Information Management  Information use and user studies  Application and implication of IT  Information Literacy  Bibliometric studies  Behavioral studies  Content analysis studies